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Full text of "Philadelphia and its manufactures: a hand-book exhibiting the development, variety, and statistics of the manufacturing industry of Philadelphia in 1857"

|)!jiiaklj)l)ia anb its jllanufacturfs : 

A HAND-BOOK 



EXHIBITING THB 



DEVELOPMENT, VARIETY, AND STATISTICS 

OF THE 

MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY OF PHILADELPHIA 

IN 1857. 



TOGETHER WITH 



LIST OF ARTICLES NOW MADE IN PHILADELPHIA. 



BY 

EDWIN T. FKEEDLEY, 

AUTHOR op A "PRACTICAL TREATISE ON BUSINESS," "THE LEGAL ADVISER," Era 



PHILADELPHIA: 

EDWARD YOUNG, 333 WALNUT STREET. 
1859. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1858, by 
EDWIN T. FREEDLEY, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, in and 
for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 



pnn.ADEi.pHi A: 

PED BT OEOROR CHART.Kfl. 
I'rtlNTKIi BY KI.XO & T1AIRD. 






THE MERCHANTS' EDITION. PUBLISHER'S CARD. 

THE PUBLISHER desires to take advantage of this opportunity, 
to acknowledge his obligations to the patrons of this volume, 
on the manufactures of Philadelphia. It has passed through two 
editions, and a third is called for. He would thank especially 
the Press, which, as stated by the author, is ever foremost in 
promoting whatever concerns the interests of this city. He 
would return thanks also, to the manufacturers generally, and 
especially to the following firms who were original subscribers 
and very liberal patrons of this volume, 

ALFBED JENKS & SON. MAGARGE, CHARLES & Co. 

ARCHER, WARNER, MISKEY & Co. MASSEY, COLLINS & Co. 

BAILEY & Co. MEAD, Jonx 0. & Soxs. 

BALDWIN, M. W. & Co. MERRICK & Sous. 

CORNELIUS & BAKER. MORRIS, I. P. & Co. 

DREER & SEARS, MORRIS, TASKER & Co. 

FELL, C. J. & BROTHER. POWERS & WEIGHTMAN. 

HORSTMANN, W. H. & SOXS. REANEY, NEAFIE & Co. 

JONES, WHITE & McCuRDY. ROGERS, WM. D. 

LAXDRETH, D. & SON. SELLERS, WILLIAM & Co. 

LEWIS, JOHN T. & BROTHERS. WILSON, GUILDS & Co. 

LOVERING, J. S. & Co. WRIGHT BROTHERS & Co. 
And others. 

The CORN EXCHANGE ASSOCIATION distributed a number of 
copies, and the BOARD OF TRADE a larger number, principally to 
editors. But, in order to secure a more extensive circulation of 
the work in the South and West, it was proposed to raise a fund 
by subscription, to be applied to this purpose, and the edition 
so subscribed for is the present, designated the " Merchants' 
Edition." 

Among the first to respond to this proposition, were two of the 
great manufacturing firms already mentioned MESSRS. MERRICK 
<fe SONS and WM. SELLERS & Co. and the well-known firm of 
MORRIS & JONES & Co., commission merchants in iron, steel, etc. 



22 PUBLISHEtt's CARD. 

This firm is not elsewhere mentioned in this volume, and justice 
and truth alike demand that it should be stated, no house in 
Philadelphia is more zealous in devotion to the interests of the 
manufacturers of iron, or evidently solicitous to aid whatever 
commends itself to their judgment as likely to benefit their fellow 
citizens. The extensive silk house of MORRIS L. HALLO WELL 
& Co., was the next to contribute to this fund. This firm, it is 
hardly necessary to say, is distinguished no less for their efforts 
and expenditures to benefit the city, than for the vastness and 
richness of their stock in trade, and the excellence of their business 
appointments, which exalt the commercial reputation of Philadel- 
phia. The old and well-known house of SITER, PRICE & Co., is 
entitled to like praise. ABBOTT, JOHNES & Co., extensive impor- 
ters of silks, JAMES, KENT, SANTEE & Co., a first class dry goods 
jobbing house, MYERS, CLAGHORN & Co., well-known auctioneers, 
TRUITT, BROTHER & Co., leading jobbers in hardware, were con- 
tributors, and are houses that would do honor to any city. JOHN 
GRIGG, ESQ., ever foremost among the wealthy men of the city in 
yielding to the dictates of public spirit, was a liberal contributor 
to the fund. S. J. BESTOR, ESQ., an extensive dealer in Watches 
and Jewelry and a most enterprising merchant, is also entitled to 
the thanks of his fellow-citizens for his very liberal contribution 
in their behalf. He is the more entitled to be thus specially 
mentioned because his excellent establishment is not elsewhere 
alluded to in this volume. 



PUBLISHER'S CARD. 23 



SUBSCRIBERS TO THE MERCHANTS' EDITION. 

Abbott, Johnes ft Co Ira's and Jobbers nf Silks and Fancy Goods, 339 Market Street. 

Agard & Co Dealers in lints, Caps, Furs and Straw Goods 323 Market Street. 

Anspacb, Heed ft Co Importers and Jobbers of Drygoods 8. W.Sd A Cherry. 

Arnold, Nusb.uim ft Nird- 

linjrer i Exclusively Wholesale Clothing _ 55 North Third. 

Arthur, Burnham ft Gilroy Manufacturers of Patent Articles N.E.lOth & George 

Atwood, White ft Co Importers and Jobbers of Drygoods 436 Market Street. 

Baeder, Dclanry ft Adam- 
son Glue, Sand Pnpcr 14 South Fourth. 

Bailey. Joshua L Imp. and Jobber of Am. and Foreign Drygocds...213 Market Street. 

Baird, John Marble Works Ridge Avenue ab. 

Spring Garden. 

Barcroft ft Co Importers and Jobbers of Drygoods 405 Market Street. 

Bennett A Co Tower Hall Clothing Store 518 Market Street. 

Bestor. S. J Imp. nd Dealer in Watches and Jewelry 3t South Third. 

Biildle, E. C. 4 J Publishers and Bookseller? 508 Minor St. 

Brown, David S. ft C' Domestic Drygoods Com. Merchants 44 South Front. 

Billings. Koop ft Washing- 
ton Com. Merch'ts ft Importers of Fancy Drygoods, 24 Bank St. 

Bnnn, Raiguel ft Co Jobbers of Fai cy Drygoods 137 North Third. 

Brown, John II. ft Co Importers ft Jobbers of Drygoods 307 Market St. 

Browning ft Brothers Dye Stuffs and Paints 30 North Front. 

Burnett, Sexton ft Swear- 

ingen Imp's 4 Jobbers of Hosiery A Fancy Drygoods..409 Market St. 

Buzby 4 Co Commis-ion Merchants in Flour, etc 931 Market St. 

Campbell, Jas. R. 4 Co Jobbers of Drygoods 304 Market St. 

Canby, Neville 4 Hughes..Importeri of Hosiery and Fancy Drygoods, Mrs 

of Ven. Blind and Up. Trimmings 245 Market St. 

Campbell, A. 4 Co Manufacturers of Cotton Goods Manaynnk. 

Carr, G. W. ft Co Whalebone and Rattan 124 Willow. 

Cbilds 4 Peterson Publishers 602 Arch St. 

Cope, Brother*. Shipping Merchants 1 Walnut. 

CressoD, Walter Manufacturer of Saws 503 Commerce. 

Crowson 4 Brother Manufs of Scarf*, Comforter*, Hoods ft IIo8iery..Ge r mantown. 

Crew, Benjamin J. 4 Co.. ..Manufacturing Chemists 6th ft Cumberland. 

Ch'ttick, W. G. & Co Importers and Jobbers of Drygood* 438 Market St. 

Carpenter, Henzey 4 Co.. ..Drugs and Chemicals 737 MarketSt. 

Conover ft Brothers Manufs and Dealers in Bo -its and Shoes 521 Market St. 

Divine 4 Tomlinson Manufs of Scarfs, Comforters, Hoods A Hosiery ..Branch town Mill, 

near Gcrmant'n. 

Drown, W. A. & Co Manufacturers of Umbrellas and Parasols 246 Market St. 

Engel & Wolf Brewers 352 Dillwyn St. 

Evans A Watson Manufacturers of Safes 26 South Fourth. 

Farnham, Kirkbam & Co. Domestic Drygoods Com. Merchants 220 Chestnut St. 

Field, Longstreth & Co Imp's anil Jobbers of Hardware, Guns, etc 440 Market St. 

Fithian, Jones & Co Imp's and Jobbers of British and Am. Goods 215 Market St. 

Freeman & Simpson Distillors and Rectifiers 109 South Front 

Fulforth4 Lovelidge Manufacturers of Fancy Woolen Hosiery Germantown. 

Garsed, R. & Bro Manufacturers of Dcniuis, Bucks, &c Frankford. 

Gerker, H., Son A Co Glue, Sand Paper, Gelatine, etc 20 North Fifth. 

Ghriskey, Charles M Hardware Commission Merchant 16 4 18 N. Fifth. 



24 PUBLISHER'S CARD. 

(fill, ThomaH R Foreign and Domestic Dry-roods Com. Mar's 212 Chestnut St. 

(linir.l Fire Insurnncc Co. lion. Joel Jones, President.. 415 Walnut, St. 

Grant, Saml. J.& Co Chemicals, Dye Stuffs, etc 139 t South Water. 

John Banker 226 Walnut St. 

Guillou, Kuiory & Co Importers and Jobbers of House Furnishing 

Drvgoods, Curtain Materials, &c 327 Market St. 

Grantees, Norris & Huey... Manufacturers of Drygoods 20 South Fourth. 

tirundy, Wardin & Co Importers of Hosiery, Gloves, etc 229 Chestnut St. 

Iladdock, Reed & Co Manufacturers and Dealers in Boots, Shoes and 

Straw Goods 440 Market St. 

Hullowe'l, M. L. 4 Co Importers & Jobbers of Silks & Fancy Goods 333 Market St. 

Harper, T. Esmonde Manufacturer of Watch Cases Walnut & Dock. 

Harrison, A. W Perfumery, Soaps, Ink, Ac 26 S Seventh. 

Harrison, Brothers & Co... Manufacturers of Chemicals, White Lead, etc.. ..47 South Front. 

Hnndry & I Urns Manufs A Wholesale Dealers in Boots & Shoes. .N. W. 3d & Arch. 

lleiter, Simon Manufacturer of Umbrellas and 1'arasols Market & Third. 

Henscl, H. W Manufacturer of Ladies', Dress Trimmings, 

Fringes, &c 20 N. Fourth. 

lloopen & Townsend Bolts, Rivets, Nuts, etc 1330 Buttonwood. 

James, Kent, Sontee & Co.. Wholesale Dealers and Importers of Foreign 

and Domestic Dry Goods 239 N. Third. 

Jenks & Ogden Importers of Drugs and Medicines, Wholesale 

Dealers in Faints, Oils and Spices, Manu- 
facturers of White Lead, Zinc Paints, etc ...160 N. Third. 

Johnson, L. & Co. Stereotypers and Type Founders 606 Sansom. 

Johnson, T.& J. W. & Co... Publishers and Booksellers 535 Chestnut. 

.Inn, s & Cummings Jobbers of Fancy Drygoods 39 N. Third. 

Kelley, Edwin A Manufacturer of Shirts, Collars, Ac 16 Bank St. 

Kemper, J. & A Manufrs. of Ladies' Dress Trimmings, Ac 33 S. Fourth. 

Lane, A. T Wholesale Clothing 419 Market St. 

I/ennig, N. A Co Manufacturers of Chemicals 112 S. Front. 

Levy, L. J. & Co Drygoods 811 Chestnut St. 

Lincoln, Wood & Nichols. ..Bon nets and Straw Goods, etc 725 Chestnut St. 

Llppincott, J. B. & Co Publishers, Booksellers and Stationers 22 A 24 N. Fourth. 

Little, A. W. & Co Importers and Wholesale Dealers in Foreign 

and Domestic Drygoods 311 Market St. 

Liltle & Stokes Com. Merchants and Importers of Foreign Dry- 
goods, Agents for Pacific Mills Goods, and 
Portsmouth and Uadley Lawns 235 Chestnut St. 

Locke, Z. tt Co Alcohol Burning Fluid, etc 1010 Market St. 

Long, James Manufacturer of Cotton and Woolen Goods, 

Quaker City Mills, 2d and Oxford Office 408 Mcrch't. 

Lucas, John k Co Manufacturers of Paints 130 Arch St. 

l.udwig, Kneedler & Co-.. .Imp's and Jobbers in For. A Domestic Goods. ...36 N. Third. 

M-Callum & Co Carpet Manufs "Glen Echo" Mills, Oerm'n 509 Chestnut St. 

M'Cullongh & Co Manufacturers of Galvanized Iron Prime and llth. 

Msgargc, Charles & Co Manufacturers and Dealers in Paper 30 South Sixth. 

Martin 4 Wolff Wholesale Dealers in For. A Domestic Drygoods..233 Market St. 

Mason it Co Importers and Jobbers of Drygoods 434 Market St. 

Mason, James S. & Co Manufrs. of Mason's Challenge Blacking and 

Writing Inks, Deal's in fine Havana Scgars.,140 North Front. 

Mead, John 0. 4 Sons Manufacturers of Plated Ware Chestnut A 9th. 

Mell-.r. Thos. & Co Ini|H.i 1. 1> f Hosiery 8 North Third. 

MtMii'k >v .-..u- Maehiuii-U, K.ngine Builders, etc South'k Foundry. 

oth & Washiogn. 



PUBLISHER'S CARD. 25 

Miles. J. & Son Manufacturers of Boots and Shoes- 49 ?outh Fourth. 

Morris & Jones & Co Irn and Steel Merchants 16th & Market 

Murphy & Allison Car Builders, etc 1908 Market. 

Myers, Claghorn & Co Auctioneers 232 Market St. 

Newhall, T. A. & Co Sugar Refiners 409 Rare St. 

Peabody, Geo. F. A Co Domestic Drygoods Coin. Merchants 24 South Front. 

Pearce, George & Co Manufacturers and Impellers of Embroideries 

and Laces 241 Chestnut St. 

Perot, T. Morris & Co Importers of and Dealers in Drills, Chemicals, 

Paints. Oils, Glass, Dye Stuffs, &c 621 Market St. 

Penna. Central R.R. Co....J. Ed^ar Thomson, President 240 S Third St. 

Phil., Wil & Bal. R. R.Co..S. M. Felton, President Broad & Prime St8. 

Phil. Fire A Life Ins. Co....U. P. King. President 433 Chestnut. 

Plate, J. T^& Schottler Importers of Cloth, Hosiery, etc 237 Chestnut 

Price, Ferris & Co Importers and Dealers in White Goods, Linens, 

and Embroideries, etc 525 Market St. 

Riegel. Baird & Co Importers and Jobbers of Drygoods 47 North Third. 

Rosenparten & Sons ...Manufacturing Chemists.- 17th & Fitzwater. 

Rosenheim, Brooks & Co. ..Importers and Jobbers of Ribbons, Millinery 

and Straw Goods 431 Market St. 

Ross, Schott * Co Wholesale Dealers in For. & Dom. Drygoods 251 Market. 

Saundcrs, J. & M Manufacturers andJJobbers of Boots, Shoes and 

Straw Goods 34 North Fourth. 

Scbaffcr & Roberts Importers and Jobbers of Hosiery and Fancy 

Goods. 429 Market St. 

Sellers. Win. & Co Founders and Machinists.^ 16th & Penna. BT. 

Selsor, Cook & Co Manufacturers of Cast Stee! Coffee Mills, Straw 

Cutters, Wrought Iron Shutter Bolts, and 

Cast Steel Shovels Gennantown. 

Senat Brothers &Co Importers of White Goods 238 Chestnut. 

Shapleigh, Rue & Co Importers of Linens, White Goods, Embroideries 

and Laces. 329 Market St. 

Sheble. Lawron & Fisher. ..Manufacturers of Forks 3 N. 5th. 

Shoemaker, Kobt. & Co ....Wholesale Druggist', Manufacturers of White 
Lead, Zinc Paints, Putties and Varnishes, 
Importers and Dealers in For. and Domestic 
Window Glass N. E. 4th & Race. 

Sibley, Molten & Woodrnff.Tmp's and Jobbers of Silk and Fancy Goods 326 Market St. 

Simons, Oeo. W. A Bro Manufacturers of Jewelry 610 Sansom. 

Sharpless, Brothers Importers, Jobbers and Retailers of Staple Dry- 
goods i N. W. 8th A Chest. 

Siter, Price*, Co Importers and Jobbers of Drygoods 315 Market St. 

Simons, Coleman & Co Wagon Makers, etc 1109 N. Front. 

Blade, Alfred 4 Co Domestic Drygoods Com. Merchants 40 South Front 

Sleeper A Fenner Manufacturers of Umbrellas and Parasols 330 Market 

Simpson, Hood Manufacturer of Cotton Goods etc Fairmount. 

Souder. K. A.&Co Shipping and Com. Merchants 3 Deck St. 

Steel, William Manufacturer of Leather Belting, Dealer in Cot- 
ton and Woolen Machinery, Dye Wares. Oils, 
and Manufrs Findings, of all descriptions. ..24 North Frunt. 

Stockton, J H. A Co Leather Belting, Card Clothing, Reeds, Ileddlos, 

Cotton and Woolen Machinery, Dye Stuffs, 
Oils, and Manufacturers Findings, of all 
descriptions 108. Front. 



26 PUBLISHER'S CARD. 

Stoddart, J. A Depot of American Watch Co.'s Watches and 

Movements, also Manufacturer and Dealer 

in Jewelry, Ac 34 S. Third. 

Stuart A Brother Importers of Drygoods 13 Bank. 

Stuart A I'eterson Manufacturers of Stoves. Hollow Ware, Ac Willow :il> 13t'i. 

Struthers, William Marble Dealer 1022 Market St. 

Thomas, Joel Manufacturer of Kuches. Ac 26 S. Fifth. 

Thomas A Martin Domesti Uryg.iods Com. Merchants 217 Chestnut. 

Thompson, Lewis A Co Marble and Mahogany llth A Ridge Av. 

Tredick, Stokes A Co Domestic Drygoods Com. Merchants 18 S. Front St. 

Trremner, Henry Manufacturer of Scales, Ac 710 Market St. 

Thompson, J. H. & Co Manufacturers antl Jobbers of Boots and Shoes. .314 Market St. 

Truitt, Brother & Co Importers and Jobbers of Hardware 529 Market St. 

Vezin. Charles Co Importers of German and French Drygoods, 

Agents for Qeruiantown Hosiery 9 Bank St. 

Wain, Morris S. & Co Shipping an I Com. Merchants 130 S. Del. Aven. 

Way, J.T. & Co Importers and Jobbers of Drygoods 28 North Third. 

Weaver, Filler & Co Manufacturers of Cordage 23 North Water. 

Welling, Coffin & Co Domestic Drypoods Com. Merchants 116 Chestnut. 

Wetherill A Brother Chemicals. White Lead 47 N. 2d St. 

Whitakcr, Wm Manufacturer of Tickings an-1 Stripes Store 408 Merch't. 

Whitney, Asa & Song Manufacturers of Car Wheels 16th A Callowhill. 

Wiler A MOBS Manufacturers Stair Hods 225 S. Fifth. 

Wilcox, Brothers A Co Com. Merchants in Fancy Drygoods, Hosiery, Ac.ll Bank St. 

Wilson & Merritt Importers and Whole.-ale Druggists, Dealers in 

Drug*. Dyes, Chemicals, Ac , Manufacturers 
of White Lead, Zinc, Colors, Ac , Agents and 
Operators in For. & Dom. Patent Medicines, 208 Market St. 

Wilson, Childs A Co Wagon M .kers, etc St. John A Butt'd. 

WiUtacb, Win. P. A Co Importers, Manufacturers and Dealers in Sad- 
dlery Il.irdware. Carriage Trimmings and 
Harness Mountings, embracing the most 

extensive stock in the city 38 North Third. 

Wood & Krringer Domeslic Drygoods Coin. Merchants 117 Chestnut. 

Wood A Perot Manufacturers of Ornamental Iron Work 1136Bidge AT. 

Wray, Alex'rACo Importers of English and German Good* 239 Chestnut. 

Wright, Smith & Co Imp's A Job's of China, Glass and Queensware, &05 Market St. 

Wurt*, A us tie A M-Veigh... Importers and Wholesale Dealers in Foreign 

and Domestic Drygoods 311 Market St. 

Yale, Linus Jr. A Co Locks, fafes, &c 248 N. Front. 

YarJ, Gilmore A Co Silk and Fancy Drygoods 40 A 42 N. 3d. 



PREFACE. 



THE Title of this Volume defines its subject ; and the subject, 
it is presumed, explains its object. The Author, however, desires 
to advert briefly to the circumstances that impelled him to undergo 
the vast amount of hard, thankless, profitless labor which the 
preparation of a volume like this, however imperfectly executed, 
necessarily involves, and to assume the responsibility of an un- 
dertaking, which, as an individual enterprise, unaided by munici- 
pal or corporate favor, is, it is believed, wholly unprecedented. 

For many years it has been a source of mortification to the ac- 
tive friends of Philadelphia, that mainly through the misrepresen- 
tations of rivals, and the misapprehension of her resources, she 
has gradually receded from her former glorious position in the 
commercial firmament, until now she is regarded by many in Eu- 
rope, and in some portions of our own country, as a mere speck 
on the horizon. Her enemies have industriously circulated, far and 
wide, reports which, if unexplained, must prove detrimental to her 
interests ; and the declension of her foreign commerce has been to 
them a harp of a thousand strings. The friends of Philadelphia, 
on the other hand, either at home or abroad, have not been fur- 
nished with facts to counteract these prejudicial statements ; and 
are themselves scarcely aware what a beautiful fabric she has 
erected, more important in every truly national point of view than 
Foreign Trade, dedicated to Home Industry and American 
Manufactures. The leading organs of the enlightened sentiment 

(17) 



18 PREFACE. 

of the city have earnestly and repeatedly called upon the corporate 
authorities to collect and publish statistics of its Productive In- 
dustry ; and various attempts have been made by individuals, and 
by Committees of Commercial Associations, to effect this object, 
but the difficulties in the way of its accomplishment seemed insur- 
mountable. More than a year ago, Mr. EDWARD YOUNG, the 
publisher of this volume, solicited the writer to undertake the 
preparation of a work on the Manufactures of Philadelphia, 
promising his assistance in the collection of materials. The 
Author will be pardoned a digression from the narrative to bear 
testimony how nobly his associate has redeemed his promise 
how faithfully he has persevered. Without his co-operation, it is 
probable this volume would be far less complete than it now is. 
Foreseeing, perhaps, only a portion of the difficulties to be en- 
countered and surmounted, and presuming that with certainty 
he could readily supply his own deficiencies by obtaining able as- 
sistance a hope in which he has been grievously disappointed 
the Author acceded to the request, and originated a plan of treat- 
ing the subject, an outline of which was submitted to the Board 
of Trade, who honored it with an approbatory resolution, and 
to the Press who generally commended it, and invited the co- 
operation of Manufacturers. Other encouraging inducements 
were offered. BARTON H. JENKS, Esq., one of the "alive" men 
oT this city, volunteered a liberal subscription ; JOHN GRIGO, 
Esq., tendered his name and assurances of future influence in 
behalf of the enterprise ; JOHN BIDDLE, of the firm of E. C. & J. 
Biddle, and WILLIAM L. REHN, of the firm of Brooke, Tyson & 
Rehn men of well-known public spirit contributed suggestions 
and valuable information from their stores of accumulated knowl- 
edge ; and under these circumstances, and with this encourage- 
ment, the labor was commenced. Here, however, the historical 
record mast close. Beyond this point there lies a dreary, panic 



PREFACE. 19 

winter ; and a recital of facts attending the collection of ma 
terials and statistics would involve a revelation of too many dif 
ficulties, interposed in part by the widely extended field over 
which we were compelled to travel in search of desired informa- 
tion, and in part by the indifference manifested by many of the 
very persons whose interests would be promoted by the publica- 
tion, to be pleasant in retrospection, though perhaps profitable 
for instruction to other adventurous persons. 

Passing over the circumstances which rendered the task more 
arduous than it ought to have been, the Author desires to state, 
that in the prosecution of the undertaking he claims to have acted 
with strict impartiality, both as respects persons and facts. If 
injustice has been done in any instance to individuals a fact 
of which he is at present not conscious he would deeply regret 
it; but the omission to notice or mention a manufacturing es- 
tablishment he cannot consent to consider an act of injustice. 
It was not deemed essential to the completeness of the nar- 
rative to notice individual establishments at all ; and where 
such are introduced it has been done parenthetically, or for 
the purpose of illustration, or because they creditably represent 
the other establishments in the same branch. The insertion of 
names has been avoided as much as possible, for they are perpe- 
tually changing though the establishment or business which 
they represent survive unchanged. A Philadelphia Business 
Directory, for a full list of names, and Ure>8 Dictionary of 
Manufactures, for a description of processes, are a natural com- 
plement of this volume. In the selection of matter for inser- 
tion as facts, the Author has regarded first, accuracy ; sec- 
ondly, novelty or interest. It would have been easy by less 
exactness as to the accuracy of matters of fact to multiply de- 
tails, and to increase the interest or "spiciness" of the volume; 
but even in a dearth of real facts "doubtful facts" have not been 



20 PREFACE. 

resorted to. But the circumstance which more than any other 
caused the rejection of much interesting matter was the want of 
space. It was the opinion of those who are conversant with the 
secret springs of publishing success, that a volume on this subject, 
to be useful, must not exceed in size or price certain prescribed 
limits. This principle which, like the laws of the Medes and 
Persians, was unalterable was ever present to the Author's eye, 
rendering him apprehensive lest by treating one subject at too 
much length, he would be prevented from giving due consider- 
ation to another equally important. The theme is so compre- 
hensive, that what may be deemed essential preoccupied the 
entire space to the exclusion of novelties, patented improvements, 
undeveloped manufactures, and thus matters of great interest 
have unavoidably and of necessity been omitted. 

The Author desires to render acknowledgments of indebtedness 
to all who in any way aided him, and special acknowledgments 
to WILLIAM C. KENT of James, Kent, Santee & Co., to Dr. J. 
L. BISHOP, O. W. KIBBIE, THOMAS SHRIVER, WM. Y. CARVER, 
JOHN D. STOCKTON, and Dr. JAMES MOORE. For the mechan- 
ical execution of the volume he is indebted to the follow- 
ing persons : GEORGE CHARLES, Stereotyper ; Jos. W. RAYNER, 
Proof Reader ; CHARLES MAGARGE & Co. , Paper-makers ; KING 
& BAIRD, Printers ; MILLER & BURLOCK, Binders. 

Philadelphia, July, 1858. E. T. F. 



PHILADELPHIA MD ITS MANUFACTURES. 



MANUFACTURES CAUSES OF EMINENCE IN. 



THE term Manufacture, in its derivative sense, signifiep 
making by hand. Its modern acceptation, however, ia 
directly the reverse of its original meaning; and it is now 
applied particularly to those products which are made 
extensively by machinery, without much aid from manual 
labor. The word therefore is an extremely flexible one ; 
and as Political Economists do not agree in opinion, 
whether millers and bakers are properly manufacturers 
or not, we shall, if need be, take advantage of the uncer- 
tainty, and consider as Manufactures what strictly may 
belong to other classifications of productive industry. 

The end of every Manufacture is to increase the utility 
of objects by modifying their external form or changing 
their internal constitution. In some instances, substances 
that would otherwise be utterly worthless, are converted 
into the most valuable products as the hoofs of certain 
animals into Prussiate of Potash ; the offal into Gold- 
beater's Skin ; and especially rags into Paper. Thus benef- 
icent in their general object, it is scarcely remarkable 
that modern Manufactures are principally distinguished 
for their ameliorating influence upon man's social condi- 
tion. Bv cheapening manufactured products they put 
1 ' (21) 



22 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

within the reach of the poorest classes what in forruer 
times was accessible only to the wealthy and noble. 
The servant, the artisan, and the husbandman of England, 
at the present time have more palatable food, better 
clothing and better furniture, than were possessed by 
" the gentilitie" in the " golden days" of Queen Bess. la 
no other equally extensive districts of the world are the 
people generally so well off as to physical comforts, or so 
intellectually progressive, as in England and Massachu- 
setts, and in none have Manufactures as yet attained equal 
prominence as branches of industry. In 1850 there were 
employed in Textile Manufactures alone, the following : 

MILLS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. 

England and Wales. Scotland. Ireland. Total. 

Mills 3,699 550 91 4,340 

Spindles, 22,859,010 2,256,408 532,303 25,647,721 

Pv,wer Looms, 272,586 28,811 2,517 303,914 

Moving Power, Steam, (horses) 91,610 13,857 2,646 108,113 

" " Water, " 18,214 6,004 1,886 26,104 

The persons employed in these mills numbered 506,082, 
of whom 40,775 were children under thirteen years of 
age, and 329,577 were females above thirteen. In the 
United States, the most important of the Textile Manu- 
factures are those of Cotton and Wool. In 1850 there 
was employed in the Cotton Manufacture a capital of 
374,500,931 ; consuming 641,240 bales of cotton annually, 
and producing about 763,000,000 yards of sheetings, 
shirtings, calicoes, &c., and 27,000,000 Ibs. of yarn, 
valued for the entire product at $61,869,184. The num- 
ber of persons employed was 92,286, of whom 33,150 
were males, and 59,136 were females. Massachusetts 
contained about one-third of the whole number of spin- 
dles in the United States, and about one-hulf the capital 
invested in the Cotton Manufacture was owned in Massa- 
chusetts. The Woolen Manufacture of the United States 



ENGLAND AND MASSACHUSETTS. 23 

employed a capital, of about 28,000,000; consuming 
71,000,000 Ibs. of Wool, worth 25,000,000; and the pro- 
duct was valued at 43,207,545. It is more generally dis- 
tributed throughout the United States than the Cotton 
Manufacture, yet Massachusetts employs in it one third 
of the whole capital and consumes one third of the Wool. 
But the future of manufacturing enterprise in the 
United States, except in its effects upon society, must not 
be judged from its present development in Massachusetts. 
In 1810, according to the census, Virginia, the two Caro 
Hnas and Georgia manufactured greatly more in quantity 
and value of Cotton and Woolen fabrics than the whole 
of NQV? England ; and North Carolina produced double as 
many yards as Massachusetts. We doubt not the supe- 
rior intellectual energy of the people of Massachusetts 
has attracted much that, with equality in this particular, 
combined with superior physical advantages, will again 
be attracted elsewhere. Manufacturing enterprise in the 
United States is yet in its experimental stage. The peo- 
ple have but recently recovered from the delusion that 
Manufactures are injurious to national prosperity. They 
have not had time to study the conditions upon which 
success in Manufactures depends, or to comprehend the 
lines that naturally and properly separate human pursuits. 
In future times, a manufacturer will no more think of 
consulting merely his personal inclinations, or one favora- 
ble circumstance, in the location of his manufactory, than 
the agriculturist, for a similar reason, would choose for the 
field of his operations the Pilot Knob of Missouri, or the 
gold-seeker the sands of New Jersey. As yet manufac- 
turers are working independently not only of each other, 
but of the general laws that underlie economical produc- 
tion. Being in doubt as to the proper locality, they have 
not concentrated or combined their efforts : and the buyers 
of manufactured goods being in doubt as to the Home 



24 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Market, give their confidence to European manufacturers. 
It is the object of the present volume to submit, with due 
deference, to the consideration of both these classes, some 
suggestions based on the experience of the past and of 
other countries ; and to endeavor to aid them First : by 
considering what are the requisites to prosperity or the causes 
of economical production in Manufactures ; Secondly : by in- 
dicating a locality possessing the advantages for manufactur- 
ing in the highest degree of perfection ; Thirdly : by showing 
the progress already made in Manufactures in that locality. 

I. Political Economists divide the essential requisites 
of production into two Labor, and appropriate natural 
objects. To these, in Manufactures, we must certainly add 
Capital. But the productive efficacy of all productive 
agents, as every one has observed, varies greatly at various 
times and places, and depends upon a variety and due com- 
bination of circumstances, partly moral and partly physical. 
Foremost among the moral circumstances conducive and 
essential to prosperity, especially in Manufactures, are 
freedom of industry and security of property. We need 
but glance at the history of any European nation, France 
in particular, to discover that governmental interference 
with industry is baneful in its effects, and that monopo- 
lies and corporation privileges retard progress. "I have 
frequently seen," says Roland de la Platiere, a minister 
of state during the French Revolution, "manufacturers 
visited by a band of satellites, who put all in confusion in 
their establishments, spread terror in their families, cut 
the stuff from the frames, tore off the warp from the 
looms, and carried them away as proofs of infringement ; 
the manufacturers were summoned, tried and condemned; 
their goods confiscated; copies of their, judgment of con- 
fiscation posted up in every public place ; future reputa- 
tion, credit, all was lost and destroyed. And for what 



MORAL CAUSES OF EMINENCE IN MANUFACTURES. 25 

offense ? Because they had made of worsted a kind of 
cloth called shay, such as the English used to manufacture, 
and even sell in France, while the French regulations 
stated that that kind of cloth should be made with 
mohair. I have seen other manufacturers treated in the 
same way, because they had made camlets of a particular 
width, used in England and Germany, for which there 
was a great demand from Spain, Portugal, and other 
countries, and from several parts of France, while the 
French regulations prescribed other widths for camlets. 
There was no free town where mechanical invention 
could find a refuge from the tyranny of the monopolists 
no trade but what was clearly and explicitly described 
by the statutes could be exercised none but what was 
included in the privileges of some corporation." 

In England freedom of industry dates from the aboli- 
tion of monopolies in 1624 ; and there can be no question, 
as McCulloch observes, that " Freedom and security free- 
dom to engage in every employment, and to pursue our 
own interest in our own way, coupled with an intimate 
conviction that acquisitions, when made, might be securely 
enjoyed or disposed of have been the most copious 
sources of our wealth and power. There have been only 
two countries, Holland and the United States, which 
have, in these respects, been placed under nearly similar 
circumstances as England ; and notwithstanding the dis- 
advantages of their situation, the Dutch have long been, 
and still continue to be, the most industrious and opulent 
people of the Continent while the Americans, whose 
situation is more favorable, are rapidly advancing in the 
career of improvement with a rapidity hitherto un- 
known." 

In the United States, industry, it is true, is generally 
free, and property in most places adequately protected by 
public opinion against both legislative and mob violence ; 
1* 



26 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

but our advantages in these respects for the development 
of enterprise in Manufactures have been modified and 
limited by fluctuating legislation on the subject of 
foreign competition. Very early in our constitutional 
history the question was agitated Shall Government, in 
adjusting its taxes for revenue, so discriminate as to pro- 
tect and encourage Home Manufacturers, or in other 
words, to diminish, if not exclude, foreign competition 
in our markets? This question was submitted to the 
people, but proved too vast for popular solution. Their 
opinions changed with the current of argument, like the 
judgment of the Dutch Justice ; and the decision which 
they had made promptly in accordance with the wish of 
the attorneys on the one side, was as promptly reversed 
upon the suggestion of the attorneys on the other side. 
Finally, not knowing what to do, the majority seem to 
have concluded that, as posterity had done nothing for 
them they were under no obligations to do any thing for 
posterity. In the mean time legislation upon the ques- 
tion fluctuated with the vacillation in public sentiment ; 
and capitalists being unable to calculate with certainty 
the risks involved, were timid in embarking in manu- 
facturing enterprises. It would seem therefore that, in 
addition to security of property and freedom of industry, 
success in Manufactures implies a certain and stable, if 
not wise policy in governmental action upon questions 
affecting manufacturing interests. 

2. Another moral cause contributing, and in fact essen- 
tial to eminence in manufacturing industry, is the general 
diffusion of intelligence among the people. By intelligence, 
in this connection, we do not mean merely the under- 
standing necessary to enable an individual to become 
the creator or the lord of a machine. The capacity to 
contrive and invent seems so much a part of the original 



MORAL CAUSES OF EMINENCE IX MANUFACTURES. 27 

constitution of man, that we believe there is in every 
civilized community sufficient ingenuity and mental 
power to have originated all in physical science that has 
yet been devised by any. The mind is God's machine, 
with powers seemingly unlimited, and capable of produc- 
ing any thing from a bad pun to the lever of Archimedes, 
the flying pigeon of Archytas or the calculating machine 
of Babbage. But the exercise of this faculty, the appli- 
cation of the best intellect in a community in the direc- 
tion of practical improvements, depends largely upon the 
approbation and rewards bestowed upon successful enter- 
prise in invention or mechanical labor. It is in vain to 
hope that ambition will spur intellect to achieve mechani- 
cal triumphs, where an inventor is respected less than a 
tinseled soldier or a ragged lawyer. It is in vain to ex- 
pect that mechanics will strive to acquire any extraordi- 
nary skill where mechanical labor is degraded to serfdom, 
or even is not appreciated. In the histories of nations, 
whose rise and fall are classical studies, we learn that 
the application of mind to invention as well as handicraft 
operations, was regarded as unworthy of freemen. "In 
my time," says Seneca, " there have been inventions of 
this sort transparent windows, tubes for diffusing 
warmth equally through all parts of a building ; short- 
hand, which has been carried to such perfection that a 
writer can keep pace with the most rapid speaker. But 
the inventing of such things is drudgery for the lowest slaves. 
Philosophy lies deeper. It is not her office to teach men 
how to use their hands." Another ancient and eminent 
teacher, who can boast of a disciple here and there in 
our country, considered the true object of all education 
and philosophy to be to fit men for war. Need we 
wonder there have been dark ages in the world's history. 
Need we say that in an atmosphere tainted with such a 
sterile philosophy, the aits which improve man's material 



28 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

condition cannot flourish. The proud position of New 
England a position so enviable that her light reflects 
lustre on States with which she is allied is due rather to 
her sound, intelligent, practical philosophy, than to any 
physical advantages or original intellectual superiority. 
A Yankee lad inhales from the surrounding atmosphere, 
if he do not hear from his father's lips, that it is an 
important part of his duty to aid in extending man's em- 
pire over the material world, and every available addition 
to human force for accomplishing that end, that he may 
originate, will be a sure passport to the respect of his 
neighbors, if not to fortune. The women and children 
are educated to regard ignorance and idleness as vices ; 
and all, deeming it honorable to add something to the 
aggregate product of their country's wealth, co-operate and 
lighten the original curse, for 

" All are needed by each one, * 

Nothing is fair or good alone." 

3. A third cause of eminence in Manufacturing, and es- 
sential to economical production, is an abundant supply of 
the most effective laborers, and of those qualified to direct labor. 
In view of the improvements already made, it would be 
rash to assert that a time will never come when automatic 
machines will dispense entirely with manual labor in 
manufacturing. So far, the introduction of machinery 
has stimulated the pressing demand for educated labor; 
and if we can at all judge of the future, success will 
depend more and more upon the quality of the labor 
employed. Labor is effective according as it is dexterous 
or as it is skillful. In purely routine processes, dexterity 
may be the quality of chief value, but laborers differ in 
dexterity almost as much as in mechanical skill. English- 
men say that a laborer in Essex is cheaper at 2. 6d. per 



MORAL CAUSES OF EMINENCE IX MANUFACTURES. 29 

day than a laborer in Tipperary at 5d. ; and as operatives 
in cotton factories, our manufacturers assert that one Ame- 
rican girl can accomplish as much in a given time as two 
English girls. " In England," said Mr. Kempton, before the 
Committee upon Manufactures of the House of Commors, 
" the girls tend two power-looms. In America our girls 
tend generally four power-looms ; some for years tended 
five power-looms, and some tended six for some time, 
and each of those power-looms turned off more cloth 
than I have found any power-looms turn off in this 
country." Mr. Cowell, in illustrating the comparative 
efficiency of operatives, remarks " At Mulhausen, which 
is styled the Manchester of France, one adult and two 
children are requisite for the management of 200 coarse 
threads, and they gain among them about 2s. (48 cents) at 
coarse work. At Manchester or Bolton one adult and 
two children can manage 758 threads, and gain among 
them 5*. Qd. per day. Thus, although wages are so much 
lower in France, the difference of product is so great that 
the cost, in money, of the commodity produced, is greater 
than in England. In the former, four men and two 
children are required to manage 800 threads, for which 
they receive 8., while in the latter one man and two 
children are capable, with the best machinery, of doing 
the same, and their wages are 5s. Qd." 

If then there be such difference in the productive effi- 
cacy of laborers, in operations calling for mere manual 
dexterity, it is obvious that the higher we ascend in those 
departments of mechanics and manufactures, in which 
the mind has a considerable part, the greater must be 
the advantage in favor of intelligence and skill. And 
such is the fact. The only standard by which to estimate 
the cost of labor, is the amount of work done for the money 
paid the per diem earnings of the workmen being in 
itself no criterion by which to judge of the cost of labor. 



80 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

That workman is the cheapest who can produce the most 
of a given quality for a given sum of money; whether he 
earn one dollar or five dollars per day, and that manu- 
facturer can produce with the most efficiency, and the 
least expense, other things being equal, who can at all 
times command the requisite supply of such workmen. 

As ingenious mechanics and rapid workmen, the Anglo- 
Americans have no superiors. As skillful workmen in 
departments for which they have been specially educated, 
the English are celebrated. Regular and habitual energy 
in labor, however, is a characteristic of both. They have 
no life but in their work no enjoyment but in the shop. 
What other races consider amusement, is no amusement 
to them. But in England and America there is a marked 
difference between the quality of the labor that can be ob- 
tained in the country and in the towns. In fact, in or near 
large cities only can labor of the first quality be obtained. 
"As iron sharpeneth iron, so a man sharpeneth the coun- 
tenance of his friend ;" and away from the centres of popu- 
lation and competition, the face loseth its sharpness, and the 
hand its cunning. Cities are in nothing more remarkable 
than in their attractive, magnetic influence upon talent of 
every description. "The man who desires to employ his 
pen," observes Carey, " and who possesses only the ability 
to conduct a country newspaper, removes to the interior, 
while the man of talent leaves his country paper to take 
charge of one in the city. The dauber of portraits leaves 
the city to travel the country in search of employment, 
while the painter removes to Philadelphia, New York or 
London. The inferior lawyer, physician, surgeon, den- 
tist or merchant removes to the West, while the superior 
one leaves the West and settles in those places in which 
population is dense ; where the means of production are 
great; where talent is appreciated and best paid; and 
where reputation, when acquired, is worth possessing." 



.MORAL CAUSES OF EMINENCE IN MANUFACTURES. 31 

Superior mechanics and dexterous workmen manifest a 
similar preference for cities and an abhorrence of isola- 
tion ; hence, if for no other reason, extensive mechanical 
or manufacturing operations must be conducted at a 
great disadvantage in isolated localities. In a limited ex- 
perience, I have known of several establishments that have 
failed apparently from no other cause than the impossi- 
bility of tilling orders promptly, in consequence of diffi- 
culty in procuring and retaining an adequate supply of 
good mechanics in an unattractive locality; and to the 
disposition to select such situations because of water 
power or some other circumstance, we ascribe much of 
the past embarrassments of our manufacturers. In some 
of thfe secluded manufacturing villages of New England, 
it is the custom of the proprietors to fasten such superior 
workmen as they may have seduced thither, by aiding 
them to invest their earnings in a house and lot, which 
they cannot afterward dispose of except at a great sacrifice ; 
but the practice, it would seem, is rather to be commended 
for its shrewdness than its wisdom. A dependent or 
dissatisfied workman can hardly be an efficient one. 

As respects those who are well qualified to direct labor, the 
supply is, in all places, especially in isolated localities, far 
short of the demand. Foremost in this class it can be no 
disparagement to place scientific men. As agents of eco- 
nomical production, none are more effective. The prog- 
ress of Manufactures, in many of its departments, is 
intimately connected with and dependent upon the 
progress made in the exact sciences ; and to the experi- 
ments and investigations of scientific men the men who 
peer into the secrets of Nature, whether concealed in 
plants, in animals or minerals, and who 

" Find tongues in trees, books in running brooks, 
Sermons in stones, and good in every thing," 



32 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

that onr Manufactures are largely indebted for their pres- 
ent development, and upon such men, we must rely prin- 
cipally, as we may do with confidence, for the discovery 
of new sources of wealth, that at a future day will give 
employment and wealth to millions of human beings. 
But scientific men are not abundant even in the centres 
where Libraries, Galleries and Academies are numerous; 
those best qualified to direct labor prefer the theatres 
offering the widest scope for the exhibition of their abili- 
ties ; and even inventors have discovered, that in isolated 
localities, they may exhaust their efforts in attempting 
what has been better executed before. 

II. Passing to the physical causes of eminence in manu- 
facturing industry, we remark they are more obvious 
than the moral causes, but not more important. To pro- 
duce manufactured goods of a given quality with the least 
expense being the great desideratum, it follows that what- 
ever contributes to economy in production, whatever 
saves labor, or transportation, or raw materials, cannot 
safely be overlooked or despised. But to investigate 
carefully all the circumstances that have an influence 
upon economical production, would require a considera- 
ble volume, and be foreign to our main inquiry. Do- 
wiring merely to discover a locality within our extended 
country, that, by the use of the proper means, will certainly 
become the centre and chief seat of American manufac- 
tures, it is necessary to know what circumstances have more 
influence than any others in facilitating manufacturing 
enterprise, and thus sooner or later lead to superiority; 
but it is not necessary to exhaust the subject. 

England, it is acknowledged, is pre-eminent in Manu- 
factures over all other countries but why ? Her colonial 
system, her shrewd legislation, the simplicity of other 
nations and other accidental circumstances, have no doubt 



PHYSICAL CAUSES OF EMINENCE IN MANUFACTURES. 33 

widened the market for her manufactured goods to an 
extraordinary extent, but her superiority nevertheless is 
the result of solid, substantial, not accidental circum- 
stances. The physical advantages which have contributed 
more than any others to her eminence, as we think all 
must agree, are epitomized by the Edinburgh Review, in 
the following summary : 1st. Possession of supplies of 
the raw materials used in Manufactures; 2d. The command 
of the natural means and agents best fitted to produce 
power ; 3d. The position of the country as respects others ; 
and 4th. The nature of the soil and climate. 

" 1. As respects the first of these circumstances," the writer says, 
" every one who reflects on the nature, value, and importance of our 
manufactures of Wool, of the useful Metals, such as Iron, Lead, Tin, 
Copper. and of Leather, Flax, and so forth, must at once admit, that 
our success in them has been materially promoted by our having abundant 
supplies of the raw material. It is of less consequence whence the 
material of a manufacture possessing great value in small bulk is de- 
rived, whether it be furnished from native sources, or imported from 
abroad, though even in that case the advantage of possessing an internal 
supply, of which it is impossible to be deprived by the jealousy or hos- 
tility of foreigners, must not be overlooked. But no nation can make 
any considerable progress in the manufacture of bulky and heavy 
articles, the conveyance of which to a distance unavoidably occasions 
a large expense, unless she have supplies of the raw material within 
herself. Our superiority in manufactures depends more at this moment 
on our superior machines than on any thing else ; and had we been 
obliged to import the iron, brass, and steel, of which they are principally 
made, it is exceedingly doubtful whether we should have succeeded iu 
bringing them to any thing like their present pitch of improvement. 

" 2. But of all the physical circumstances that have contributed to 
our wonderful progress in manufacturing industry, none has had nearly 
so much influence as our possession of the most valuable coal mines. 
These have conferred advantages on us not enjoyed in an equal degree 
by any other people. Even though we had possessed the most abundant 
supply of the ores of iron and other useful metals, they would have oeen 
of little or no use, but for our almost inexhaustible coal mines. Our 
country is of too limited extent to produce wood sufficient to smelt and 
prepare any considerable quantity of iron, or other metal ; and though 
2 



34 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

no duty were laid on timber when imported, its cost abroad, and the 
heavy expense attending the conveyance of so bulky an article, woula 
have been insuperable obstacles to our making any considerable progress 
in the working of metals, had we been forced to depend on home or 
foreign timber. We, therefore, are disposed to regard Lord Dudley's 
discovery of the mode of smelting and manufacturing iron by means of 
coal only, without the aid of wood, as one of the most important ever 
made in the arts. We do not know that it is surpassed even by the 
steam engine or spinning-frame. At all events, we are quite sure that we 
owe as much to it as to either of these great inventions. But for it, we 
should have always been importers of iron ; in other words, of the 
materials of machinery. The elements, if we may so speak, out of 
which steam-engines and spinning-mills are made, would have been 
dearer here than in most other other countries. The fair presumption 
consequently is, that the machines themselves would have been dearer ; 
and such a circumstance would have counteracted, to a certain ex- 
tent, even if it did not neutralize or overbalance, the other circum- 
stances favorable to our ascendancy. But now we have the ores and 
the means of working them in greater abundance than any other 
people ; so that our superiority in the most important of all departments 
that of machine-making seems to rest on a pretty sure foundation. 

" It is further clear, that without a cheap and abundant supply of 
fuel, the steam-engine, as now constructed, would be of comparatively 
little use. It is, as it were, the hands ; but coal is the muscles by which 
they are set in motion, and .without which their dexterity cannot be 
called into action, and they would be idle and powerless. Our coal 
mines may be regarded as vast magazines of hoarded or warehoused 
power; and unless some such radical change be made on the steam- 
engine as should very decidedly lessen the quantity of fuel required to 
keep it in motion, or some equally powerful machine, but moved by 
different means, be introduced, it is not at all likely that any nation 
should come into successful competition with us, in those departments 
in which steam-engines, or machinery moved by steam, may be most 
advantageously employed. 

"Since the introduction of steam-engines, Water-falls, unless under 
very peculiar circumstances, have lost almost all their value. Steam 
may be supplied with greater regularity, and being more under command 
than water, is therefore a more desirable agent. This, however, is but 
a small part of its superiority. Any number of steam-engines may be 
constructed in the immediate vicinity of each other, so that all the 
departments of manufacturing industry may be brought together and 
parried on in the same town, and almost in the same factory. A com. 



PHYSICAL CAUSES OF EMINENCE IN MANUFACTURES. 35 

bination and adaptation of employments to each other, and a con^e- 
quent saving of labor, is thus effected, that would have been quite im- 
practicable, had it been necessary to construct factories in different 
parts of the country, and often in inconvenient situations, merely for 
the sake of waterfalls. 

" It may be supposed, perhaps, that a difficulty of this sort might 
have been obviated by the employment of horse-power instead of steam ; 
but the following statement, which we extract from Dr. lire's work, 
shows conclusively that this would not have been the case : 

" ' The value of steam-impelled labor may be inferred from the follow- 
ing facts, communicated to me by an eminent engineer, educated in the 
school of Boulton and Watt : A manufacturer in Manchester works a 
sixty-horse Boulton and "Watt's steam-engine, at a power of one hun- 
dred and twenty horses during the day, and sixty horses during the 
night ; thus extorting from it an impelling force three times greater 
than he contracted or paid for. One steam horse-power is equivalent 
to 33,000 pounds avoirdupois, raised one foot high per minute ; but an 
animal horse-power is equivalent to only 22,000 pounds raised one 
foot high per minute, or, in other terms, to drag a canal boat two 
hundred and twenty feet per minute, with a force of one hundred 
pounds acting on a spring ; therefore, a steam-horse power is equiva- 
lent in working efficiency to one living horse, and one-half the labor 
of another. But a horse can work at its full efficiency only eight 
hours out of the twenty-four, whereas a steam-engine needs no period 
of repose ; and, therefore, to make the animal power equal to the 
physical power, a relay of one and a half fresh horses must be found 
three times in the twenty-four hours, which amounts to four and a half 
horses daily. Hence, a common sixty-horse steam-engine does the 
work of four and a half times sixty horses, or of two hundred and 
seventy horses. But the above sixty-horse steam-engine does one-half 
more work in twenty-four hours, or that of four hundred and five living 
horses I The keep of a horse cannot be estimated at less than 1.?. 2d. 
per day ; and, therefore, that of four hundred and five horses would be 
24Z. daily, or 7,500Z. sterling, in a year of three hundred and thirteen 
days. As eighty pounds of coals, or one bushel, will produce steam 
equivalent to the power of one horse in a steam-engine during eight 
hours' work, sixty bushels, worth about 30s. at Manchester, will main- 
tain a sixty-horse engine in fuel during eight effective hours, and two 
hundred bushels, worth 100s., the above hard-worked engine during 
twenty-four hours. Hence, the expense per annum is 1,5651. sterling, 
being little more than one-fifth of that of living horses. As to prime 
cost and superintendence, the animal power would be greatly more ex- 



36 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

pensive than the steam power. There are many engines made by 
Boulton and Watt, forty years ago, which have continued in constant 
work all that time with very slight repairs. What a multitude of 
valuable horses would have been worn out in doing the service of these 
machines ! and what a vast quantity of grain would they have con- 
sumed I Had British industry not been aided by Watt's invention, it 
must have gone on with a retarding pace, in consequence of the in- 
creasing cost of locomotive power, and would, long ere now, have ex- 
perienced, in the price of horses and scarcity of water-falls, an insur- 
mountable barrier to further advancement : could horses, even at the 
low prices to which their rival, steam, has kept them, be employed to 
drive a cotton-mill at the present day, they would devour all the profits 
of the manufacturer.' " 

"Water power has heretofore been considered cheaper, 
especially for small manufacturing establishments, than 
steam power ; but eminent engineers have carefully 
investigated the subject, and are of opinion that in any 
position where coal can be had "at ten cents per bushel," 
steam is as cheap as water power at its minimum cost. Even 
for cotton factories, the manufacturers of New England, 
according to Montgomery, consider the advantages of a 
good location as fully equal to the extra expense of steam 
power, even when coal must be transported from Pennsylvania 
to Massachusetts, and the largest mills now being erected 
are to have steam as a motive power^ Steam, therefore, 
until superceded by some more effective agent, will be 
the power principally relied upon to propel Machinery ; 
and as wood for the generation of steam upon an exten- 
sive scale is out of the question, we may safely conclude 
that at no very distant day, the centre of our Manufactures 
will certainly be in or near a district possessing inex- 
haustible supplies of cheap coal. 

The importance of coal as a useful agent in the Arts, 
is not, however, limited to its capacity to produce power. 
It lies at the base of all manufacturing and mining opera- 
tions, and surpasses all other natural products in the 



PHYSICAL CAUSES OF EMINENCE IN MANUFACTURES. 37 

power of attracting to the vicinity where it can be ob- 
tained abundantly and cheaply industry and population. 
In England, the Woolen Manufacturers were once scat- 
tered over Sussex, Kent, and other southern counties, but 
they have been attracted, principally by the wonderful 
magnetism of coal, to the North. In the coal districts of 
England we find all her great manufacturing cities and 
towns ; Birmingham, with its population of perhaps 
300,000 ; Leeds, with a population of 200,000 ; Sheffield, 
whose hardware manufactures are known all over the 
world, are located in districts abounding with coal, and 
its usual accompaniment Iron. Manchester, the great 
seat of the Cotton Manufactures of Great Britain, whose 
population now exceeds 600,000, is situated on the 
edge of an immense and seemingly inexhaustible coal- 
bed. A like proximity may be noticed in the location 
of Bolton, Bradford, Carlisle, Huddersfield, Oldham and 
Wolverhamptou in England ; Merthyr Tydvil in "Wales ; 
Glasgow in Scotland ; and Charleroy in Belgium. 

The principal manufacturing cities of Europe, in this 
respect, present a striking contrast to those of the United 
States. In New England, the sites of the chief manufac- 
turing towns seem to have been chosen solely with refer- 
ence to abundant water power; and herein we have one 
reason for believing that their present pre-eminence is 
destined soon to be overshadowed, and finally obscured 
by that of other cities possessing all their other advantages, 
and having, in addition, a convenient proximity to our 
immense coal-beds. In spite of our warm regard for New 
England, and sincere wishes for her continued prosperity 
in Manufactures, we think the sceptre will eventually, 
and ere long, depart from Judah. But New England will 
be New England still. The virtues which make a great 
people are indigenous to her soil, and will continue to 
animate and ennoble the population when her capitalists 
2* 



38 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

and ingenious men have sought other localities, possess- 
ing greater physical advantages for the fulfillment of their 
" manifest destiny." 

3. With regard to the third point, viz. favorable situa- 
tion as respects commerce with other countries, its importance 
is second only to that which we have just considered. It 
is in the nature of Manufactures to be regardful of distant 
and foreign markets. The accelerated production which 
results from the application of machinery, enables one 
manufacturer to supply the wants of many hundreds of 
consumers, and a county or part of a country possessing 
superior facilities for Manufactures, can supply other 
countries with manufactured goods cheaper than they 
can produce them. Great Britain, it is well known, 
exports the bulk of her manufactured commodities. The 
writer whom we previously quoted, remarks : 

" Owing to the facilities afforded by our insular situation for main- 
taining an intercourse with all parts of the world, our manufacturers 
have been able to obtain supplies of the raw materials on the easiest 
terms, and to forward their own products wherever there was a demand 
for them. Had we occupied a central situation, in any quarter of the 
world, our facilities for dealing with foreigners being so much the less, 
our progress, though our condition had been otherwise in all respects 
the same, would have been comparatively slow. But being surrounded 
on all sides by the sea, that is, by the great highway of nations, we have 
been able to deal with the most distant as well as with the nearest 
people, and to profit by all the peculiar capacities of production enjoyed 
by each." 

In the United States, the consumption of manufactured 
goods is so vast, that we are apt to regard any foreign 
demand as unimportant. But for the year ending June 
30, 1855, we exported manufactured commodities to the 
amount of $30,609,518. The list of articles exported 
embraced nearly all our prominent Manufactures Cotton 
piece Goods being the most valuable item, amounting to 



PHYSICAL CAUSES OF EMINENCE IN MANUFACTURES. 39 

$5,857,181 ; Manufactures of Iron the next, $3,753,472 ; 
and Artificial Flowers and Billiard Tables the smallest, 
of which, however, the exports amounted to about $8000. 
The Canadas, the West Indies, the South American 
Republics, Spain and her dependencies, Russia, China, 
are all ready and willing to exchange their natural pro- 
ducts for our manufactured goods, if we can compete with 
other manufacturing countries in their markets. Even 
English consumers have no objection to take our Manu- 
factures, not excepting Cotton goods, if the price can be 
arranged satisfactorily. As early as 1826 we exported 
$664 cotton goods to England ; in 1837, $11,889 ; and 
ever since, we believe, there have been small shipments 
annually. Hence, though it be true that, in the United 
States, the Home market is the one at present of chief 
importance, and though the consumption of manufactured 
goods is so immense that there is undoubtedly room for 
the establishment of many important local manufactories, 
if such can exist, at a variety of points ; yet to supply a 
foreign demand, as well as to obtain the raw materials on 
the easiest terms, a situation on or near the sea-coast is 
desirable ; and as large establishments can produce more 
cheaply than small ones, as we shall subsequently show, 
it is highly important for such to choose a locality 
possessing, in addition to the other moral and physical 
advantages, a complete communication, by railroads and 
canals, with all parts of our own country, and an estab- 
lished commerce or facilities for commerce with foreign 
countries. 

4. A suitable Climate is also a consideration of very 
great importance. The influence of climate upon the 
productiveness of industry, especially in Manufactures, is 
very marked. A warm climate not only enervates the 
body, but enfeebles the mind. It diminishes the utility 
of money; and by rendering houses and clothing less 



40 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

necessary to existence, relieves the inhabitants of one 
great spur to industry and invention. In very cold cli- 
mates, on the other hand, the powers of Nature are be- 
numbed, and the difficulty of preserving life overrides all 
considerations for making existence comfortable. The 
climate which seems most favorable to the development 
of manufacturing industry, is that which is also most 
conducive to health and longevity, imparting vigor to the 
frame and force to the intellect, and if we may judge from 
the past, it is found especially, if not exclusively, in that 
part of the Eastern Hemisphere which lies between the 
parallels of 45 and 55, and in the Western between 39 
and 45 North Latitude. Climate has also a direct influ- 
ence upon the durability of buildings, the working of 
machinery, and the dyeing of fabrics points that we may 
subsequently consider and thus becomes an element of 
important consideration in many kind of Manufactures. 

The Soil of a country or district well adapted for Manu- 
factures, need not be naturally very fertile. In fact a 
soil naturally so rich that Agriculture is an easy art, will 
not afford sustenance to many kinds of Manufactures. In 
Southern Europe, for instance, where, according to one 
authority, the only art which the farmers know is to leave 
their ground fallow for a year, so soon as it is exhausted, 
and the warmth of the sun alone and temperature of the 
climate enrich it and restore its fertility, we look in vain 
for those enterprises which are the product of qualities 
and virtues that are nourished by difficulties, not facilities. 
In England, the soil is naturally coarse and stubborn, but 
capable of being made highly productive by labor, ex- 
pense, and good husbandry ; and such a soil, with the 
habits of careful cultivation induced thereby, is the safest 
reliance for supplying the markets of a manufacturing 
district with the necessaries of life, at moderate prices. 



COMBINATION OF LABOR. 41 

III. But the one thing essential for the cheap produc- 
tion of manufactured commodities, and without which all 
the other moral and physical advantages are ineffectual, 
remains to be noticed. It is ASSOCIATION or COMBINATION 
OF LABOR. It is unnecessary to show that man, unaided 
by his fellow men, is a helpless being. If it were, we 
might refer to the savages of ^N"ew Holland, who, they say, 
never help each other even in the most simple operations ; 
and their condition, as may be supposed, is hardly supe- 
rior, in some respects it is inferior, to that of the wild 
animals which they now and then catch. The first step 
in social improvement, is association for mutual security 
and mutual assistance ; and every advance in civilization is 
directly the result of some new combination of efforts. 
All the marvels of past times, produced by human agency 
the Temples, Pyramids and Catacombs and all the 
wonders of the present its Railroads, Telegraphs, Mines 
and Manufactures have a common origin in association 
of numbers for a common purpose. All industrial pur- 
suits depend more or less upon this principle for develop- 
ment, but in none are its advantages more strikingly 
manifest than in manufacturing operations. 

To combine Labor effectually, it is necessary first to 
separate employments into parts that is, to assign to each co- 
worker a special occupation. The Division of Labor, as 
"Wakefield, it is said, was the first to point out, is only a 
single department of a more comprehensive Law, which 
he denominated Co-operation, or combined action of num- 
bers. Its efficiency, however, as an aid to production, is 
none the less important, and has been abundantly illus- 
trated by all who have written on Political Economy. 
Adam Smith illustrated it from pin-making ; and men- 
tioned that ten men, in a small manufactory, but indiffer- 
ently accommodated with the necessary machinery, could 
make, by confining themselves as much as possible to 



42 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

* 

distinct operations, upward of 48,000 pins in a day, or 
4,800 for each individual, whereas if they all wrought 
separately and independently, they certainly could not, 
each of them, make twenty, perhaps not one pin in a day. 
M. Say illustrates the principle by reference to the man- 
ufacture of playing-cards, and says that each card, before 
being ready for sale, undergoes no fewer 

"Than seventy operations, and if there are not seventy clasess of work- 
people in each card manufactory, it is because the division of labor is not 
carried so far as it might be ; because the same workman is charged with 
two, three, or four distinct operations. The influence of this distribution 
is immense. I have seen a card manufactory where thirty workmen pro- 
duced daily 15,500 cards, being above 500 cards for each laborer ; and 
it may be presumed that if each of these workmen were obliged to per- 
form all the operations himself, even supposing him a practiced hand, 
Le would not perhaps complete two cards in a day, and the thirty work- 
men, instead of 15,500 cards, would make only sixty." 

Henry C. Carey refers to weaving in India, and says : 

* In India each weaver works by himself. He purchases at a high 
price, ou credit, the materials with which he is to work, and the pro- 
visions required for his support, and he sells the product at a price not 
exceeding one-third of its market value. Here is no combination of 
action no division of labor. The whole work is to be performed by 
the single individual ; and the time that might be employed in finishing 
the finest muslins, is wasted upon various processes requiring inferior 
ability, from the purchase of the cotton to its final sale." 

Further illustrations are therefore superfluous. The 
principle is settled: quantity and economy of production 
are immeasurably aided by the division of employments 
into parts for the sake of combination of Labor. 

Secondly, to combine Labor to the best advantage, it is 
essential to conduct operations on a sufficiently large scale 
to have a separate workman, or a separate machine, for each 
process into which it is convenient to subdivide the manufac- 
ture, and to afford each workman or machine full employ- 



COMBINATION OF LABOR. 43 

ment in that special occupation. This we regard to be the 
natural limit of a manufacturing establishment. Any 
extension beyond this may be said to comprise two estab- 
lishments in one ; and any establishment of less size cannot 
realize the full benefits of a Division of Labor, and con- 
sequently cannot produce with the utmost efficiency and 
economy. The application of the principle, however, 
would, in most kinds of Manufactures, lead to moderately 
large establishments ; and that such establishments can 
produce more economically, or in other words aft'ord to 
work for a less percentage of profit, is simply a well- 
established fact. A Philadelphia miller is content with 
the bran alone as his toll for grinding his customer's corn ; 
but a country miller, in a sparsedly populated district, must 
take a considerable portion of the grain for converting 
the balance into flour. The expenses of a business do 
not by any means increase proportionally to the quantity 
of business. A merchant, for instance, who, by advertis- 
ing, has attracted trade to the amount of $1,000,000 per 
annum, is not required to pay ten times as much rent, nor 
does he need ten times more clerks, fuel, lights, &c., than 
the man who "never advertises," and perchance, does a 
business of $100,000 a year. In a large manufacturing 
establishment, the expenses of superintendence, repairs, 
etc., form but a trifling percentage on the aggregato 
product, while the time consumed in making a large pur- 
chase is very little more than in making a small one. 
Producers on a large scale can also aftbrd to procure the 
best and most expensive machinery ; and in some kinds 
of Manufactures, those who produce largely are content 
with " savings" as their profit, and are enabled to save 
what would be "waste" in a small establishment. Mr. 
Whitney, at his car-wheel establishment in Philadelphia, 
can save from the cinders, we are informed, enough iron 
to content a gentleman of his moderate views as to profit, 



44 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

but a manufacturer of car-wheels on a small scale, would 
not find it profitable to provide the machinery requisite 
for that purpose. From these and other considerations, 
which want of space forbids us to allude to, we infer that 
in future the manufacture of leading articles of consump- 
tion will be more and more conducted by large establish- 
ments, in a locality possessing in the highest degree of 
perfection, the moral and physical advantages that are 
essential to manufacturing prosperity. But it does not 
follow that large establishments will swallow up all 
smaller ones, unless it be those of a precisely similar 
kind, situated outside of the centres of combination. The 
economy which results from producing on a large scale, 
induces an increased demand for the manufactured goods; 
and an increased demand leads to a more minute sub- 
division of a manufacture into parts. "When thousands 
of machines composed of Iron and Wood are required, 
we find establishments springing up, devoted exclusively 
to making parts one, the nuts and washers ; another the 
screws ; another the bolts ; another the nails ; and others 
tools and machines to facilitate making parts, and so on, 
each extensive in its way, and thus large establishments 
in the leading branches of Manufactures are the parents of 
other extensive concerns in minor branches. A man who 
has not the requisite capital to conduct a leading Manufac- 
ture where large establishments abound, permit us to 
suggest, will not benefit himself by moving away from 
them. His policy is, we submit to remain at all events, 
in their immediate vicinity, and then to accommodate his 
business to their operations and to his capital that is, he 
will find it more profitable to be an extensive manu- 
facturer of eyes for children's dolls in the centre of 
Manufactures, than a small manufacturer of machinery 
anywhere. 

Lastly, to produce with the utmost efficiency and eco- 



AGGREGATION OF MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS. 45 

nomy, manufacturing establishments must be together. The 
area of England and Wales is only about one-fourth more 
than that of Pennsylvania. In England all the large 
manufacturing establishments are situated, as we have 
stated, in close proximity to the coal beds. Manufactur- 
ers one after another have abandoned their factories iu 
the Agricultural counties and moved their machinery to 
the district of which Manchester may be called the central 
point. Babbage has referred to one of the advantages 
resulting from this aggregation: 

" The accumulation of many large manufacturing establishments in 
one district," he says, " has a tendency to bring together purchasers or 
their agents from great distances, and thus to cause the institution of a 
public mart or exchange. This contributes to increase the information 
relative to the supply of raw material and the state of demand for their 
produce, with which it is necessary manufacturers should be well ac- 
quainted. The very circumstance of collecting periodically, at one 
place, as large a number as possible, both of those who supply the 
market and those who require its produce, tends strongly to check 
those accidental fluctuations to which a small market is ever subject, 
as well as to render the average of the prices paid much more uniform 
in its course." 

The accumulation of many large and excellent manu- 
facturing establishments in one district, also gives a 
character and stamp to the Manufactures, which others 
who centre there receive the benefit of. There is also 
a mutuality of interest between manufacturers of 
even essentially different products, that renders aggre- 
gation highly desirable. The finished products of one 
class of manufacturers are often the raw materials of 
another. The power-looms of Mr. Jenks are but the 
instruments of production for the Manufacturer of Cotton 
and "Woolen goods ; and the finished commodities of the 
latter, are the raw materials of those who manufacture 
ready-made Clothing. Pig iron the finished commodity 



46 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

of the smelter, is the raw material of him who rolls the 
bar ; and the bar is again the raw material of sheet iron ; 
which, in its turn, is the raw material of the nail and the 
spike. A sugar-refiner consumes the hogsheads, boxes 
and barrels of the cooper, paper of the paper-maker, and 
the finished products of coppersmiths, nail-manufacturers, 
twine-spinners, printers and various others. In fact, the 
largest and in many instances the sole consumers of cer- 
tain manufactured articles, are the Manufacturers of other 
products; and finished commodities being, as a general 
rule, cheapest at the place of their production, without 
commissions or charges for transportation, it is certainly 
for the interest of those who buy to produce, and those 
who produce to sell, to be together. Aggregation, in 
fact, is the only effectual means of accumulating and com- 
bining all economies. 

In Combination there is mystery like that of the Oak in 
the Acorn. Like the philosopher's stone, it turns all to 
gold like the lever or the screw, in adds to man's power 
many hundred fold. Protective tariffs are useful as 
swaddling clothes to the infant ; banks facilitate exchanges ; 
but the perfection of combination cannot be attained 
except by aggregation in a suitable locality. If the 
Manufacturers of the United States ever hope to attain 
an independent position independent of Foreign compe- 
tition and of Home legislation, independent of commission 
merchants and of each other they must centralize, so 
far as centralization is at all practicable. They must 
come out from sylvan retreats, deny themselves the ad- 
vantages of mill-races and the harmonies of frog-ponds. 
They must tear down the miserable shingles " No admit- 
tance on any pretext whatever" abandon their petty 
jealousies, enlarge their views, and co-operate like men 
and brethren. Blacksmiths, Cobblers and Wheelwrights 
may eke out an existence " in the neighborhood of the 



MANUFACTURING CENTRES. 47 

plow and the harrow," hut in a Democratic country, 
whose people believe in buying where they can buy the 
cheapest, whether wisely or not we do not say, Manu- 
facturers, in the true sense of the term, who attempt 
isolation, will inevitably find themselves, sooner or later, 
undersold, first, by those who operate in the centres of 
Combination, and finally, undersold by the Sheriff, 

From all these considerations, which in substance we 
believe to be thoroughly sound, and to which we invite 
the closest scrutiny, we are led irresistibly to the convic- 
tion that but few countries in the world, and but few 
places in any country, are well adapted for general Manu- 
factures. Secondly : That the best possible locality in the 
United States for general manufacturing is an attractive and 
suitable centre of Wealth, Population and Intelligence, situ* 
ated in a populous district, abounding in well developed 
mines of Coal and Iron, and possessing established and su- 
perior facilities of intercommunication with all parts of our 
own country, and for commerce with foreign countries. And 
Thirdly : If there be two or more such localities, the one pos- 
sessing desirable, in addition to the essential advantages in 
the highest degree of perfection, and the one already having 
the greatest number of large and well-managed manufacturing 
establishments, must be the best market in which to buy the 
commodities manufactured there, and eventually will be the 
chief seat of Manufactures in the United States. 

Now, have we such a locality ? The centres of "Wealth, 
Population and Intelligence in the United States are not 
numerous. Suitable centres for manufacturing, situated 
in close proximity to well-developed mines of Coal and 
Iron, and possessing established facilities for procuring 
raw materials on the easiest terms, and sending away 
manufactured produce, are very few ; and of centres of 
Wealth, Population and Intelligence, we know of but one 
that possesses all the essential and most of the desirable 



48 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

advantages for manufacturing every variety of products, 
and which already contains many large and well-managed 
manufacturing establishments. To that one we invite 
the attention of all who produce, and deal in or consume 
manufactured commodities. The subject is one in which 
all these have a deep interest. If it be true that the 
highest degree of economy in production depends upon a 
combination of certain circumstances, rarely found, but 
which exist in the highest degree of perfection in a cer- 
tain place, all who desire to produce cheaply, and all 
who desire to buy cheaply, have a direct pecuniary 
interest in knowing the facts, and in aiding to develop 
its capabilities. The place to which we invite earnest 
and sagacious attention, as the best manufacturing centre 
at present in the United States, is PHILADELPHIA, in the 
State of Pennsylvania. 









Od 



PHILADELPHIA AS A MANUFACTURING CENTRK 



PHILADELPHIA is a scriptural name, composed of twc 
Greek words, which signify, as usually interpreted, 
brotherly love. St. John, as we are informed in the Reve- 
lations, was instructed to indite a consolatory epistle to 
"the church in Philadelphia," a city of Asia Minor, about 
seventy-two miles from Smyrna. The Philadelphia of 
which we write is a namesake of the biblical city ; and 
though not very ancient, is yet a cotemporary with most of 
the important events in American history. It was founded 
in 1682-3, by "William Penn, who with a colony of En- 
glish Friends or Quakers, had come to America to settle 
a province or tract of land granted to him by Charles II., 
in payment of a debt due by the government to his 
father. Before attempting any overt acts of sovereignty, 
however, Penn was wisely " moved" to acknowledge and 
purchase the rights of the aborigines, and thus, as Ray- 
nal has remarked, signalized his arrival by an act of 
equity, which made his person and his principles equally 
beloved. He also promulgated a series of laws, in which 
Liberty of Conscience was the first in order and importance. 
"A plantation reared on such a seed-plot," says Chalmers, 
"could not fail to grow with rapidity, to advance to 
maturity, to attract notice of the world." 

The site chosen for the proposed city was a nearly level 
3* (49) 



50 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

plain between the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers, about 
six miles above their junction, and sixty miles from the 
ocean, by a direct line, though nearly a hundred miles by 
the course of the river. The influences that determined 
Penn in his choice of the spot are said to have been "the 
approach of the two rivers; the short distance above the 
mouth of the Schuylkill ; the depth of the Delaware ; the 
land heavily timbered ; the existence of a stratum of 
brick clay on the spot, and immense quarries of building 
stone in the vicinity." In drafting the plan of his Ame- 
rican city, Penn is supposed to have had in view the 
celebrated city of Babylon, which he certainly imitated 
in the regularity of the streets, and which he seemed 
desirous to emulate in size, for he gave orders to his 
commissioners to lay out a town that would have covered 
an area of 8000 acres. It was found, however, that 
" hundred-acre lots," which some of the squatter-sover- 
eigns secured, would never answer the end of a city in a 
new country, and the plan was subsequently reduced. In 
1701 it was again contracted, when the city was declared 
to be bounded by the " two rivers Delaware and Schuyl- 
kill, and Vine and Cedar streets as north and south 
boundaries." These continued to be the corporate limits of 
the city until 1854 the suburbs, as population extended, 
being divided into districts, as Spring Garden, Northern 
Liberties, Kensington, Southwark, Moyamensing and 
West Philadelphia, which in 1850 contained nearly twice 
as many inhabitants as the city proper. 

The events in the early history of the town, prior to 
the Revolution, are not very striking. We subjoin a 
summary of the most important, as far as possible, in 
their chronological order. In 1687 a printing-press, the 
second in America, was set up ; in 1689 Penn established 
a public High School with a charter. In 1742 Franklin 
projected an Academy and Free School, which became 



IMPORTANT EVENTS. 51 

presently a College, and finally the "University of Penn- 
sylvania." In 1765, the merchants of Philadelphia, 
in consequence of various restrictive and ill-advised 
Acts, particularly the Stamp Act, passed by the Parlia- 
ment of Great Britain, pledged their word of honor not 
to order nor sell on commission any goods from Great 
Britain, except certain articles, more particularly those 
necessary for carrying on Manufactures, "unless the 
Stamp Act be repealed." In 1774 the first Congress in 
America assembled in Carpenters' Hall, (a building still 
standing in a court back of Chestnut street, between Third 
and Fourth streets,) to take into consideration the state 
of our relations with the mother country. In this city was 
adopted the Declaration of Independence, which was read 
from a stand in the State House yard, by Captain John 
Hopkins, July 4, 1776. From September, 1777 to June, 
1778, in consequence of the disastrous battles of Brandy- 
wine and Germantown, the British army had possession 
of the city. The Convention that framed the present 
Constitution of the United States, met in Philadelphia, 
May, 1787. Here George Washington, when President 
of the United States, resided, in a building on the south 
side of Market street, between Fifth and Sixth, the lot 
being now occupied by a palatial business edifice, widely 
known as " Bennett's Tower Hall Clothing Store." 

The first bank established in the United States was 
the Bank of Pennsylvania, opened at Philadelphia on the 
17th of July, 1780, with a capital of 300,000, its special 
object being to supply the American army with provi- 
sions. In 1782 the Bank of North America went into 
operation ; and in 1791 the United States Bank. In 1792 
Congress passed an act establishing "a Mint for the pur- 
pose of a National coinage," to be situate and carried on 
at the Seat of Government of the United States for the 
time being, which was then at Philadelphia. In 1793, 



52 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

coinage was commenced in a building on Seventh street, 
opposite Zane, still known as the " Old Mint," and con- 
tinued there until 1833, when the present noble edifice at 
the north-west corner of Chestnut and Juniper streets 
was completed.* 

In the autumn of 1793 the yellow fever visited Phila- 
delphia, and carried off more than 4000 persons, out of a 
population of a little over 40,000, of whom half, it was 
thought, had fled the city. The pestilence visited the 
city again in 1798, but was not so fatal as in 1793. The 
wars commenced by France in 1792 with other European 
powers, and which were continued until the abdication of 
Napoleon in 1814, had an immense influence in develop- 
ing American Commerce, and Pennsylvania shared largely 
in this prosperity. Large importations were made from 
China and India into Philadelphia, for re-exportation to 
European markets. Our ships then enjoyed the carrying 
trade of the world, and numbers of our citizens accumu- 
lated large fortunes. 

In January, 1801, Philadelphia was supplied for the 
first time with water from Water Works erected 
according to a plan proposed by Mr. Latrobe, viz. " to 
make a reservoir upon the banks of the Schuylkill, to 
throw up a sufficient quantity of water into a tunnel, and 
to carry it thence to a reservoir in Centre Square ; and 
after being raised there, to distribute it throughout the 
city by pipes." These works were superceded by the 

Since its establishment in 1793, to the close of the year 1856, the Mint at 
Philadelphia coined 525,636,141 pieces, of the value of $391,730,57186; 
the gold coinage being $306,445,97078, the silver coinage $83,685,297 99, 
and copper coinage $1,599,30309. The entire coinage of the United 
States to the same period was $563,433,70812. 

The present officers of the Mint at Philadelphia, are: Director, James 
Ross Snowden ; Treasurer, Daniel Sturgeon ; Chief Coiner, George K. 
Childs ; Melter and Refiner, James C. Booth : Engraver, James B. Long- 
acre; Atsnyer, Jacob R. Eckfeldt; Assistant Assayer, William E. DuBoia. 



MANUFACTURES IN 1811. 53 

present works erected at Fairraount, which we will sub- 
sequently notice. 

In 1811, Dr. James Mease published a book which he 
entitled "A Picture of Philadelphia." At that time 
Philadelphia was the most populous city in the Union. 
From an enumeration made the previous year, it appears 
that the number of dwelling-houses in the city and dis- 
tricts, was 15,814, and the population of the city and 
county amounted to 111,210. The population of the 
whole of Manhattan Island, at the same period, embracing 
the city of New York, was 96,372. Philadelphia then, as 
now, was the most healthy city in the Union. The 
average of deaths per day, in Philadelphia, was 5, 
whereas in New York, with a smaller population, it was 
6|. "We subjoin Dr. Mease's remarks on the Manufac- 
tures, from which it will be perceived that Philadelphia 
was already celebrated in various departments of Manu- 
facturing industry. 

"The various coarser metallic articles, which enter so largely into 
the wants and business of mankind, are manufactured to a great extent, 
in a variety of forms, and in a substantial manner. All the various 
edged tools for mechanics are extensively made : and it may be men- 
tioned as a fact calculated to excite surprise, that our common screw 
auger, an old and extensively used instrument, has been recently an- 
nounced in the British publications, as a capital improvement in 
mechanics, as it certainly is, and that all attempts by foreign artists to 
make this instrument durable, have failed. 

" The finer kinds of metals are wrought with neatness and taste. The 
numerous varieties of tin ware in particular, may be mentioned as wor- 
thy of attention. But above all, the working of the precious metals 
has reached a degree of perfection highly creditable to the artists. 
Silver plate fully equal to sterling, as to quality and execution, is now 
made, and the plated wares are superior to those commonly imported in 
the way of trade. Floor-cloths of great variety of patterns, without 
seams, and the colors bright, hard and durable ; various printed cotton 
stuffs, warranted fast colors ; earthenware, yellow and red, and stone 
ware are extensively made ; experiments show that ware equal to that 



54 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

of Staffordshire might be manufactured, if workmen could be pro- 
cured. 

" The supply of excellent patent shot is greater than the demand. All 
the chemical drugs, and mineral acids of superior quality, are made by 
several persons : also cards, carding and spinning-machines for Cotton, 
Flax, and Wool. Woolen, worsted, and thread hosiery have long 
given employment to our German citizens : and recently, cotton 
stockings have been extensively made. 

" Paints of twenty-two different colors, brilliant and durable, are in 
common use, from native materials ; the supply of which is inexhausti- 
ble. The chromate of lead, that superb yellow color, is scarcely equaled 
by any foreign paint. There are fifteen rope-walks in our vicinity. 
We no longer depend upon Europe for excellent and handsome paper 
hangings, or pasteboard, or paper of any kind. The innumerable arti- 
cles into which leather enters are neatly and substantially made : the 
article saddlery forms an immense item in the list. The leather has 
greatly improved in quality; the exportation of boots and shoes to the 
Southern States is great ; and to the West Indies, before the interrup- 
tiou to trade, was immense. Morocco leather is extensively manufac- 
tured. The superiority of the carriages, either as respects excellence 
of workmanship, fashion, or finish, has long been acknowledged. The 
type-foundry of Binney & Ronaldson supplies nearly all the numerous 
printing-offices in the United States. There are one hundred and two 
hatters in the City and Liberties. Tobacco, in every form, gives employ 
to an immense capital. The refined sugar of Philadelphia has long 
been celebrated : ten refineries are constantly at work. Excellent 
japanned and pewter ware: muskets, rifles, fowling-pieces and pistols 
are made with great neatness. The cabinet-ware is elegant, and with 
the manufacture of wood generally, is very extensive. The houses are 
ornamented with marbles of various hues and qualities, from the quar- 
ries near Philadelphia. 

" Mars Works, at the corner of Ninth and Vine streets, and on the 
Ridge road, the property of Oliver Evans, consists of an iron foundry, 
mould-maker's shop, steam-engine manufactory, blacksmith's shop, 
and mill-stone manufactory, and a steam-engine used for grinding sun- 
dry materials for the use of the works, and for turning and boring 
heavy cast and wrought iron work. The buildings occupy one hundred 
and eighty-eight feet front, and about thirty-five workmen are daily em- 
ployed. They manufacture all cast or wrought-iron work for machinery 
for mills, for grinding grain or sawing timber ; for forges, rolling and 
slitting-mills, sugar-mills, apple-mills, bark-mills, &c. Pans of all 
dimensions used by sugar-boilers, soap-boilers, &c. Screws of all sizes 



FAIRMOUNT WATER WORKS. 55 

or cotton-presses, tobacco-presses, paper-presses, cast iron gudgeons, 
and boxes for mills and wagons, carriage-boxes, &c., and all kinds of 
small wheels and machinery for Cotton and Wool spinning, &c. Mr. 
Evans also makes steam-engines on improved principles, IL rented and 
patented by the proprietor, which are more powerful and less compli- 
cated, and cheaper than others ; requiring less fuel, and not more than 
one-fiftieth part of the coals commonly used. The small one in use at 
the works is on this improved principle, and is of great use in facilitat- 
ing the manufacture of others. The proprietor has erected one of his 
improved steam-engines in the town of Pittsburg, and employed to 
drive three pair of large millstones with all the machinery for cleaning 
the grain, elevating, spreading, and stirring and cooling the meal, 
gathering and bolting, <fcc., <fcc. The power is equal to twenty-four 
horses, and will do as much work as seventy-two horses in twenty-four 
hours : it would drive five pair of six-feet millstones, and grind five 
hundred bushels of wheat in twenty-four hours. 

" All kinds of castings are also made at the Eagle "Works, on Schuyl- 
kill, belonging to S. & W. Bichards." 

In 1812, Steam works for supplying the city with water 
were commenced at Fairmount, and in 1815 the use of 
the Centre Square Works was discontinued. In 1819, 
Councils resolved to erect the present Water-power Works, 
which for a long time were the only works of the kind 
in the United States, and which are yet unsurpassed by 
any in the whole country. The water from the Schuylkill 
is turned into a forebay 419 feet long and 90 feet wide ; 
whence it falls upon and turns eight wheels, from sixteen 
to eighteen feet in diameter, and one turbine wheel, each 
having its separate pump, and which elevate the water nine- 
ty-two feet to the top of a partly natural elevation, imme- 
diately at the works, and which give them their name. 
The reservoirs of these works, including the new one ou 
Corinthian Avenue, furnish storage to the amount of 
57,642,787 gallons. This is about equal to five days' supply 
in July and August. The total cost, including laying 
pipes, &c., to the present time, is about 3,500,000.* 

* In addition to the Works at Fairmount, Philadelphia has, at tho present 



56 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

In 1829 the Pennsylvania Canal was completed, which, 
with the Schuylkill and Union Canals, previously con- 
structed^ formed a connection with the Ohio River, via 
Heading and Middletown. 

In December, 1831, Stephen Girard, "Mariner and 
Merchant," died worth nearly $10,000,000, and bequeath- 
ed by his Will large sums to public uses, among others 
the sum of $2,000,000 for the erection of a College, now 
known as the Girard College. In 1835 Philadelphia was 
first supplied with gas from Works erected on Market 
street, near the Schuylkill.* In the same year a part of 
the Reading Railroad, to connect Philadelphia with the 
Schuylkill coal region, was put under contract, and in 
1842 the first train passed over the whole line between 
Pottsville and Philadelphia. In 1837 the Philadelphia, 
Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad was completed. In 
1838 the city was disgraced for the first time by a mob 

time, three other Water Works, viz. Schuylkill Works, Delaware Works, and 
Twenty-fourth Ward Works. The total amount of water supplied by all 
these Works, in 1856, was 5,735,938,966 wine gallons. The Duplicates of 
the Water rents for the same year amounted to $359,906 08. 

Since that period the Northern Districts and Gennantown erected Gas 
Works ; and in 1854 the city completed new and additional works near Gray's 
Ferry Bridge, having the largest gasholder, it is believed, in the United 
States, being 160 feet in diameter and 90 feet high, and capable of hold- 
ing 1,800,000 cubic feet of gas. The cost of the whole now belonging to 
the City Gas Trust, is about $2,600,000. We are furnished by John 0. 
Cresson, Esq., who has been Engineer of the City Gas Works since 1836, 
with the following statistics : 

Street mains laid to January 1, 1858, ... 214J miles. 

Service pipes, " " ''_] . ^ "i ' - 74 " 
No. of Services and Meters in use, - : ' ''' - - 25,180 

" Lights in use, (private,) <!><: .*. - - 332,487 

" " " (public,) 3,810 

Gas made in 1857, ..... 409,067,000 cubic feet. 
Total, made in 21 years, .... 3,198,088,000 " " 
Present manufacturing capacity, 1857, 2J million feet per diem. 



CENSUS or 1850. 57 

that burned the Pennsylvania Hall, fired the Shelter for 
Colored Orphans, and attacked the negro quarters. In 
1844 the city was again disquieted by riots incited by the 
presumed interference of Catholics with the elective 
franchise, and several Catholic churches were burned. 
In 1847, the Pennsylvania Railroad, to connect Philadel- 
phia with the Ohio River, was commenced, and finally 
completed in 1854. In 1850 a census was taken, which 
showed that Philadelphia contained 23,601 more dwell- 
ings than the city of New York, and a population of 
408,762, being an increase of 58J per cent, in the ten 
years preceding the census of 1850, and 953J per cent, in 
the sixty years since the first National census. Of the 
population of 1850, 17,500 were born in England; 
72,312 in Ireland ; 22,750 in Germany ; 3,291 in Scot- 
land ; and 1,981 in France. Total foreign, 121,699. 

In 1854 the corporate limits of the city were made co- 
extensive with those of the county of Philadelphia, cover- 
ing an area of 120 square miles, and placing the villages 
and towns of Bridesburg, Frankford, Holmesburg, By- 
berry, Nicetown, Andalusia, Bustleton, Rising Sun, 
Milestown, Germantown, Chestnut Hill, Falls, Mana- 
yunk, Roxborough, West Philadelphia, Mantua, Had- 
dington, and Hamilton, under the wise guardianship of 
a Metropolitan Mayor and City Councils, sans peur et 
sans reproche. 

These, we believe, may be called the most important 
events in the Annals of Philadelphia. In the history of a 
place whose "birth and spring-time" carry us back nearly 
a century anterior to the American Revolution, there are 
necessarily many events of greater or less importance 
that deserve to be commemorated. No city of equal age 
can present a fairer or more interesting record of the 
past than Philadelphia ; none has been more prolific in 
4 



58 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

men who have been eminent in their day and generation; 
and not one has been so fortunate in inspiring that speciea 
of affection which manifests itself in culling and preserv- 
ing, as a labor of love, the features and memorials of a 
time gone by. John F. Watson, in his " Annals," has done 
all that can be desired to preserve the lineaments and 
characteristics of what maybe called the "olden time" 
of Philadelphia ; and our Historical and Philosophical 
Societies have accumulated papers and disquisitions upon 
every conceivable subject pertaining thereto. Truly, if 
the prosperity of a city be promoted in proportion to the 
affectionate attachment of its inhabitants a feeling, as 
Everett has observed, entitled to respect, and productive 
of good, even if it may sometimes seem to strangers 
over-partial in its manifestations the citizens of Phila- 
delphia may repeat, with confidence, the poetical predic- 
tion of Taylor, the astrological Hague of the eighteenth 

century : 

" A city built 'neath such propitious rays 
Will stand to see old walls and happy days." 

The Past of this city, therefore, has been well cared for ; 
its historical incidents are preserved in its own and in the 
records of our country; the fame of its great men will 
survive "fresh in eternal youth"; and neophytes in 
Archaeology may well despair unless they devote atten- 
tion to its Present, which, with its material progress, its 
advance, especially in Manufactures, its Railroads and 
its Fire and Police Telegraphs, would at any time form 
a, theme sufficiently comprehensive in itself to exclude 
any minute reference to the events of the past. 

I. Philadelphia as it is. 

PHILADELPHIA is usually described as the second city 
in the United States ; and, if we except Paris, nearly 
equals the largest capitals on the continent of Europe 



PHILADELPHIA AS IT IS. 59 

in population. No census has been taken since 1850 ; 
but assuming that the increase has been in the same 
ratio as that which distinguished the ten years preceding 
the last national census, its present population cannot be 
far short of 600,000. Its entire length, as per Ellet's 
Survey, is twenty -three miles, and average breadth five and 
a half miles ; area, one hundred and twenty-nine and one 
eighth square miles, or 82,700 acres. The densely in- 
habited portion of Philadelphia extends about four miles 
on the Delaware, from Southwark north to Bichmoml, 
formerly Port Richmond, and two and a half miles on the 
Schuylkill, having a breadth between the two rivers, 
assuming South street formerly the Southern boundary 
of the city to be the standard, of 12,098 feet 3 inches. 
The plan of regularity in the streets, originally adopted 
by Penn, and which, though condemned by some trav- 
elers accustomed to the crooked and narrow streets of 
European capitals, has been unqualifiedly approved by 
mathematical and scientific minds, is adhered to ; and in 
the northern as well as the central parts of the city, there 
are avenues and streets which, for spaciousness and ele- 
gance, are unsurpassed by any. The elegance of the 
public buildings has long been a subject of remark, even 
in primary geographies ; but, within the last few years, the 
architectural beauties of the city have been vastly en- 
hanced by the erection of numerous costly private build- 
ings: banks, stores, churches, dwellings of granite, iron, 
sandstone, and marble ; and its upward growth, by the 
addition of stories upon stories, is not lees remarkable. 
Beyond the compact or densely built-up portions, in 
the northerly direction, there is a wide expanding district 
between the two rivers, occupied in part by beautiful 
suburban residences, and by numerous Manufactories, 
surrounded by the habitations of industrious and con- 
tented artisans. The vicinity of Germantown is espe- 



60 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

cially noted for the number of elegant cottages and 
villas, surrounded by handsomely laid out grounds, de- 
lightfully shaded ; while the beauties of the Wissahickon, 
have they not inspired poets? But the citizens of Philadel- 
phia, though appreciating her elegance in architecture, and 
scenes of natural beauty, cherish them less fondly, and 
point to them with less pride, than to the number and supe- 
riority of her charitable institutions, the excellence of her 
schools, the refinements of her society, her eminence in 
the Fine and the Mechanical Arts, the multiplied conve- 
niences of life, promoting domestic comfort, and the ce- 
lebrity of her Forum and Medical Schools, which, like 
the works of the Athenian orators, are regarded with 
veneration and respect by every polished nation. 

Upon the minds of strangers and tourists, however, 
the external aspect of a city seems to leave the most per- 
manent impressions ; and if we may judge from their 
written opinions, that of Philadelphia has charmed those 
who charm the world. The learned and philosophical au- 
thor of Mademoiselle Rachel's tour in America, was saga- 
cious enough to remark and in one so courteous, a trifling 
geographical inaccuracy can readily be pardoned that 
" the capital of Pennsylvania, the Quaker city as it is called, 
is one of the richest, handsomest, and most flourishing 
cities in the United States of America." This is much 
from a gentleman who thanked God that he had visited 
North America, " because it is a duty disposed of," and 
he would never have to return there ; but he proceeds 
to add : " Fortunately, it is superb weather here, and we 
can see this elegant capital at our ease. All the houses 
have a flaunting, coquettish air, which is pleasant to see. 
The streets are broad and clean. The shops are gene 
rally very large and very rich. There are superb goods 
in them. In fact, this city has a happy physiognomy, 
which is very agreeable." The ladies, especially the 



PHILADELPHIA AS IT IS. 61 

Fannies, it is consoling to reflect, have also found much 
to delight them. Fanny Kemble was enraptured, we be- 
lieve enchanted by the appearance of Fairmount, by 
moonlight; and Fanny Fern went off like an alarum 
clock at the beauties, and particularly the butter of Phil- 
adelphia. None, however, have expressed their admira- 
tion more gravely, deliberately, and ornately, than the 
writer of the following: 

"Few great cities present such attractions for the stranger, as the 
city of ' Brotherly Love.' The American is proud that here the 
Declaration of Independence was signed ; and his patriotic heart swells 
with a nobler emotion, while he looks upon the bell that pealed forth 
the joy of a nation's deliverance ; and his heroic spirit will be stirred 
within him as he sits on the chair on which once sat the Father of his 
Country, yet, with many a relic of the past, preserved in Independence 
Hall. The philanthropist feels his heart throb with pleasure as he 
views the many noble institutions that a munificent charity has 
erected to ameliorate the condition of suffering humanity, supply 
the wants of the poor, minister to miuds diseased, and alleviate 
the sufferings of the sick and wounded. The lover of science 
rejoices to see the city of Franklin abounding in Institutes whose 
object is the cultivation of all the arts that adorn, and all the 
sciences that tend to the progress of mankind. The philosopher will 
find kindred spirits in the great centre from which the rays of intellect 
emanate, whose brightness appears as a star of glory to the nation and 
the world. Medical students resort to Philadelphia for their profes- 
sional training; the young aspirant to forensic honors seeks her classic 
shades ; and while the admirer of the beautiful in architecture, and the 
architect, may exult in the stately proportions of her solemn temples, 
her gorgeous palaces, and the genius that adorned her with edifices 
whose beauty might vie with the Grecian models, the true Christian 
will find that the piety that erected the ancient church of Gloria Dei in 
the city's infancy, has diffused itself, and kept pace with its rapid in- 
crease. The merchant from other cities may look with wonder upon 
the commercial facilities of Philadelphia, her double port, the rich 
mineral treasures poured into her lap from the exhaustless resources 
of the Commonwealth, and the resources that put the numerous 
wheels of manufacturing industry in motion, and send the products of 
her skill, the results of her commerce, ami the proceeds of her inland 
trade, to the furthest regions oi' the West, and almost all points of the 
4* 



62 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

compass. Her great Railway system, the most complete in the coun- 
try, makes her pre-eminent for all the facilities of business, giving her a 
great advantage over all other cities in the Union. The exceeding 
beauty of her location, and the lovely scenery of the surrounding 
country, make her the resort of many who delight in beholding the fair 
face of Nature, seldom so full of beauty as in some portions of her 
enchanting rural scenery." 

Such is Philadelphia as it appears to the optics of 
intelligent strangers. Such may it ever appear. If, how- 
ever, a statistical description were wanted to convey a 
clearer idea of the magnitude of the city, we might 
say that Philadelphia is a collection of nearly 100,000 
dwellings, Shops, and Manufactories, 7,404 Stores, 299 
Churches,* 304 School-houses, 18 Banks, 11 Market-houses, 
8 Medical Schools, 1 High School, 1 Girard College, 1 

The Directory assigns these churches to the different denominations, as 
follows: to Protestant Episcopal, 53; Methodist Episcopal, 42 ; Methodist 
Protestant, 4; Baptist, 30; Presbyterian, 44 ; Associate Presbyterian, f> ; As- 
sociate Reformed Presbyterian, 3 ; Reformed Presbyterian, 9 : Catholic, 28 ; 
Lutheran, 15; Friends, 13; Dutch Reformed, 4 ; German Reformed, 6 ; Jews' 
Synagogues, 6; Mariners', 2; Evangelical Association, 2; Universalist, 3; 
Independent, 2 ; New Jerusalem, 3 ; Unitnrian, Second Advent, Moravian, Dis- 
ciples of Christ, Christian, and Bible Christian, each 1. The colored churches 
are ns follows: Methodist, 11 ; Presbyterian, 3 ; Baptist, 4 ; and Protestant 
Episcopal, 1. Several of the church buildings are beautiful specimens of ar- 
chitecture. The ST. MARK'S, (Episcopal), on Locust, above Sixteenth, cost, 
we believe, $120,000. The CALVARY CHUKCH, (Presbyterian), Locust, 
above Fifteenth, and another at Seventeenth and Spruce streets, are also 
elegant structures. The Baptist Church, at Broad and Arch streets, has a 
steeple that cost about $16,000. The Catholics are now erecting, on 
I'.ighteenth street, opposite Logan Square, the CATHEDRAL of St. Peter and 
St. Paul, which, when completed, will cost more than half a million of dol- 
lars, and will be one of the most magnificent church-edifices in the coun- 
try. The St. John's Church, (Catholic), Thirteenth near Market, is a fine 
Gothic structure, with a square tower on each of its front corners. The 
interior has some handsome paintings, and the windows are ornamented. 
St. Stephen's Church, (Episcopal), Tenth, between Market and Chestnut sts., 
is a "fine Gothic edifice, 102 feet long, 50 wide, having two towers at the 
front corners, octagonal, and 86 feet in height." This church contains the 
celebrated Monument to theBusD family, an object of considerable interest. 
Christ Church, in Second street, below Arch, is one of the oldest in the city, 
having been built in 1691, and enlarged in 1710. The spire was begun in 



PHILADELPHIA AS IT IS. 63 

Polytechnic College, 1 State House, 1 Custom House, 1 
Exchange, 1 Mint, 1 Navy Yard, 1 Naval Asylum, 3 
Arsenals, 1 Blockley Almshouse,* 2 Insane Asylums, 1 
Pennsylvania Institute for Deaf and Dumb,f 1 Blind 
Asylum, 1 Pennsylvania Hospital, J 1 Academy of Music, 
1 Academy of Fine Arts, 1 Academy of Natural Sciences, 
1 Athenaeum, 1 Club House, numerous Libraries, 3 
Theatres, 1 Masonic Hall, 15 Public Halls, 7 Gas Works, 
5 "Water "Works, 1 County Prison, to which 15,809 per- 
sons were committed during 1857 ; 2 Houses of Refuge, 
containing 451 hopefuls ; 1 Penitentiary, where 376 per- 
sons now chew the cud of reflection in silence ; about 350 
miles of cobble Pavements, 500 miles of Foot Pavements, 
5631 Gas and Fluid Lamps, 9 Public Squares, 14 Cemete- 
ries, 9 Railroad Depots, 90 Fire Engine-houses, 17 Station- 
houses, 3 Race Courses, besides Hotels, Restaurants, Sav- 
ings Institutions, Insurance Companies, Charitable Institu- 
tions, Bridges, Vessels at wharves, Truck and other Farms, 
inclusive, " too numerous to mention." A statist, prosecu- 

1753; its height is 196 feet. The money toward its completion was raised 
by lottery. This church has a chime of bells brought from England. The 
oldest church in the city, however, is the Gloria Dei, commonly called 
" Swedes Church," on Swanson street, near the Navy Yard. 

* The Altmhouse is an immense structure, situated on the west side of 
the Schuylkill, opposite South street. It consists of four main buildings, 
fronting on the Schuylkill, covering and enclosing ten acres of ground. The 
accommodations are excellent ; and besides an almshouse capable of con- 
taining 3,000 persons, there is an Insane Asylum, in which there are 
over 300 patients of both sexes. Visitors admitted. Well worth seeing. 

f The Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb occupies a building 
having a front of 200 feet on Broad street, and running back on Pine street 
'235 feet. Number in the institution, of both sexes, about 100. The Blind 
Asylum, situated at Race and Twentieth streets, is also a very useful and in- 
teresting institution. 

J The Pennsylvania Hospital, in Pine street, from Eighth to Ninth streets, 
admits patients of all ages and sexes, who have received injury within 
twenty-four hours, provided they belong to the county. It possesses an 
Anatomical Museum, a valuable Medical Library of 10,000 volumes, and a 
Painting, by West, of Christ Healing the Sick, presented by the author. 



64 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

ting his researches with due diligence, might ascertain that 
this wilderness of brick and mortar is inhabited by about 
600,000 persons, white, black, mixed, and millionaires, 
including, as per the Directory for 1858, 1160 Smiths, 540 
Browns, 480 Johnsons, 440 Joneses, 330 Thompsons, their 
heirs and assigns, and 1 George Munday. Further, if he be 
curious in such matters, he may probably discover that 
this people, collectively, " are well to do," owning real and 
personal property of a value of about $450,000,000, 
though assessed for much less ; that, in 1857, they paid 
into the City Treasury $4,072,267, besides supporting 
about 600 lawyers, 1,000 physicians, over 900 teachers, 
and half as many preachers : that their city officials com- 
prise, 1 Mayor, 1 City Solicitor, 1 City Controler, 1 Re- 
ceiver of Taxes, 3 City Commissioners, 1 City Treasurer, 
1 Chief Engineer of Water Department, 1 Chief Engi- 
neer of Fire Department, 1 Chief Engineer of Gas Works, 
1 Chief Commissioner of Highways, 1 Commissioner of 
City Property, 1 Commissioner of Market-houses, 1 Chief 
Surveyor, and 12 Regulators; 24 Select Couucilmen, with 
3 Officers, and 89 Common Councilmen, with 5 Officers ; 
24 Members of a Board of Health, with 7 Officers, and 
10 Executive Officers ; 24 Guardians of the Poor, with 
7 Officers, and 13 Out-door Visitors ; numerous Assist- 
ants and Clerks in each Department ; that their Police 
force, consists of 

1 Mayor, whose salary is - $3,500 per annum. 

1 Mayor's Clerk, - * . ' . . 1,000 " 
1 Chief of Police, - -'* ' - . - --^ 1,500 " " 
8 High Constables, each J ' f *' : ^ i M 700 " " 
4 Special Officers, " 600 " " 

1 Supt. of Fire and Police Alarm Telegraph, 1,200 " " 
1 Assistant, " " " - 600 " " 

16 Lieutenants, each .... 650 " " 

32 Sergeants, " 600 " " 

650 Policemen, " - . . . 500 " " 

Who made, in 1857, 21,537 arrests, and restored 3,430 lost children. 



PHILADELPHIA AS IT IS. 65 

And notwithstanding the vast expenditure required for 
public purposes, the people had money enough left to 
contribute vast sums in charity, build 75 four-story dwell- 
ings, 991 three-story dwellings, 9 churches, 12 factories, 
and 4 school-houses ; support 493 omnibuses, pay $500 
per day to one Passenger Railway, spend about $5,000 per 
night in public amusements, lager-beer concerts, &c. ; 
smoke about a million dollars worth of cigars, and purchase 
$2,000,000 worth of oysters ; and they consumed, among 
other things, 60,425 beeves, 11,930 cows, 100,479 swine, 
303,900 sheep, exclusive of meat brought in market wagons; 
and drank and wasted 6,318,880,116 gallons of water. 

It is thus evident that Philadelphia, regarded from 
every point of view, is a centre of Wealth and Popula- 
tion ; and, if the social characteristics of its inhabitants 
correspond with its external allurements, it must be an 
attractive centre. What, then, are their characteristics, par- 
ticularly with reference to the social position of the Mechanic 
and the Artisan f What facilities are provided for their 
physical comfort and intellectual advancement ? In the 
first place, the citizens of Philadelphia, who now give 
tone and direction to its popular sentiment, it may be 
relied upon, are far too clear-headed and practical in 
their views to do any thing tending to degrade labor and 
check useful enterprise. Even among the numerous sets 
of exclusives into which the descendants of great people 
sometimes divide themselves, there are none that I have 
heard of in this city who make idleness the "open sesame" 
to the enjoyments of their society. Nearly every citi- 
zen has some regular occupation ; and prides himself 
upon diligence in the transaction of business and punc- 
tuality in fulfilling his engagements. The circle of those, 
at least among the male population, who aspire to dis- 
tinction because of their uselessuess, is like a wart on a 



66 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

man's nose, more looked at than important. The mass 
of the inhabitants believe in the Baconian philosophy, 
and illustrate its wisdom and beneficence by multiplying 
human enjoyments and mitigating human sufferings. 
The Press is emphatically a People's Press. The Qua- 
kers, whose influence, though diluted of late, continues 
to be felt in modifying the characteristics of our society, 
are true Benthamites in their views on individual and 
general happiness. They hold that the greatest happi- 
ness of the individual is, in the long run, to be obtained 
by pursuing the greatest happiness of the aggregate. 
They excel especially in the substantiate of character, are 
fruitful in good works, zealous in education, and liberal 
in encouraging and rewarding decided mechanical and 
artistic triumphs. Constitutionally deliberate and prudent, 
the want of cordiality in their manners, which some 
strangers complain of, may be, and probably is, an un- 
fortunate manifestation of these excellent qualities : or, 
in other words, of thinking twice before speaking once. 
Their city has been so prolific in great men, that the ar- 
rival of another does not create a sensation ; and being 
quite inexperienced in the art of giving entertainments 
at the subsequent expense of their guests,\}iey prefer to con- 
ciliate mercantile visitors by giving them mercantile advan- 
tages. With respect to the want of enterprise a stand- 
ing accusation, which our fellow-citizens are accustomed 
to make against each other in tempestuous weather we 
acknowledge the charge is seemingly reasonable and well 
founded, especially if it mean a total inability to compre- 
hend the morality, or realize the pecuniary value of clap- 
trappery, slap-dashery, or eclat. Adverse to puffing, they 
even refrain from scattering broadcast, as they ought to 
do, information relative to the mercantile and manufactur- 
ing advantages of their city ; practical in their views, 
they sometimes forget that man does not live by bread 



PHILADELPHIA AS IT IS. 67 

alune ; and straightforward in their own dealings, and 
governed exclusively in their own transactions by eco- 
nomical or commercial reasons, they do not suppose it 
possible that such trifles as " ancient and fish-like smells" 
in market-houses, can keep one customer away from 
where he ought to go ; or that such vanities as popular 
preachers, big hotels, capacious theatres, palaces of 
mirrors, can possibly attract one customer where it is 
not his interest to go. The late panic, however, has dis- 
pelled many illusions ; and if, moreover, disabusing every 
mind of the feeling of entire security, and of the convic- 
tion that perfection is already attained, it awaken a more 
active spirit, the anniversary of its advent may here- 
after be celebrated as a civic holiday; and this beautiful 
city, having taken a new lease of Prosperity, will perpetu- 
ate the glory, as well as the memory of its Founders. 

Secondly, the social and practical characteristics of the 
citizens of Philadelphia are in nothing more clearly and 
favorably manifested than in their zealous support of free 
education. According to the Controlers' Report of 1856, 
there were 304 Public Schools in the city, viz. : 1 High 
School, 1 Normal School, 55 Grammar Schools, 48 Sec- 
ondaries, 156 Primaries, and 43 unclassified schools. 
The whole number of teachers was 940, of whom 78 
were males, and 862 females ; the expense $456,089 14, 
and the number of scholars who enjoyed the benefits of 
gratuitous tuition was 55,099. But Public Schools are 
only a moiety of the educational establishments of Phil- 
adelphia. The city abounds in private schools and in- 
stitutions of a semi-public character. Yet the quantity 
of the instruction given in the schools is perhaps less 
noteworthy than its quality. Public teachers must com- 
pete with private teachers ; while the latter are incited to 
emulation by the example of numerous eminent profes- 
sors. From a mechanical point of view, however, the 



68 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

crowning distinction in this respect is the abundance of 
facilities provided for those who desire to increase their 
stock of practical and scientific knowledge. Books are 
at the command of such, rare in character and unlimited 
in quantity. The Philadelphia Library, one of the largest 
and best in the country, containing some seventy thou- 
sand volumes, is open to all, and access is thus given to 
works that probably are inaccessible to mechanics else- 
where. The work on British Patents, recently donated 
to the library, is valued at $3,000; the binding of the 
volumes alone having cost, we are informed, seven hun- 
dred dollars. For three dollars a year, any respectable 
person may enjoy the advantages of the Mercantile Li- 
brary, whose members now number, we believe, 1,500. 
In various parts of the city there are Institutes with 
Reading-rooms and Libraries attached, w 7 here gratuitous 
lectures are given, especially adapted to the wants of 
mechanics. At the Wagner Free Institute of Science, 
twelve lectures are delivered weekly, during the Winter 
season, on Geology, Mineralogy, Mining, Astronomy, 
Botany, Anatomy, Physiology, Natural Philosophy, 
Chemistry, Chemical Agriculture, Ethnology, Compara- 
tive Anatomy, Zoology, Meteorology, and Civil Engi- 
neering. The apparatus is superior, and the lectures are 
well attended. The Spring Garden Institute gives in- 
struction in the Mechanic Arts and Architecture, and 
has lectures on Literary and Scientific subjects. The Me- 
chanics' Institute of Southwark, the Moyamensing Lite- 
rary Institute, the Philadelphia City Institute, have 
reading-rooms and lectures, and the last has a School 
of Design. The Kensington Literary Institute, and the 
West Philadelphia Institute, are of the same character 
as the others ; the latter having a School of Design. The 
Board of Trustees, in their report to contributors for 
1856, state that the results of these Institutes show "that 



PHILADELPHIA AS IT IS. 69 

ihere is an aggregate of more than 11,000 volumes in 
the libraries ; that during the past year more than 32,000 
rolumes have been loaned for home-reading ; that more 
than 48,000 visits were paid to the reading-rooms by par- 
ties who partook of the intellectual food there dispensed ; 
that one hundred pupils availed themselves of the valu- 
able privileges afforded, for the culture of the eye and 
the hand in designing and drawing, by the schools of the 
Institutes; that sixty-seven lectures on literary, scien- 
tific, and artistic subjects, many of them replete with 
useful information, were listened to by thousands ; and 
that, stimulated by your own generous contribution of 
more than $30,000, more than $50,000 additional have 
been contributed by our fellow-citizens to help onward the 
noble work commenced by you." 

The Franklin Institute provides lectures at cheap rates 
every Winter, on Mechanical, Literary, and Scientific sub- 
jects, publishes a Scientific Journal, the oldest of its 
kind in the country, possesses a valuable Cabinet of Mod- 
els and Minerals, and gives an Annual Exhibition that 
does much to promote progress in the Useful Arts. The 
Academy of Natural Sciences has a fine collection of 
objects in Natural History, embracing 25,000 specimens 
in Ornithology, and 30,000 in Botany ; a library of over 
26,000 volumes ; and Mineralogical and Geological Cabi- 
nets, noted for their completeness. Professor Agassiz 
pronounced this institution the best out of Europe for 
its collections in the department of Natural History. At 
the Polytechnic College, opposite Penn Square, an engi- 
neer may obtain instruction in Physics that, before 
its establishment, he could not have obtained on this 
side of the Atlantic. In addition to the regular course, 
which embraces instruction in Civil Engineering, Me- 
chauical Drawing, Mining, &c., the Managers have re- 
cently established a department designed to give instruc- 



70 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

tion in "certain branches of knowledge that are de- 
manded in common by every business pursuit, and are 
alike indispensable to the merchant, the farmer, the manu- 
facturer, mechanic, and the manager of mining and other 
property." At the Girard College, drawing is taught 
from models of geometrical solids, and also in the High 
School, by competent teachers. The science of Accounts 
Book-keeping, Penmanship, and Commercial Law, are 
taught at a Commercial College, recently incorporated 
by the Legislature, and presided over by competent pro- 
fessors ; and for the instruction of females in many de- 
partments of design, as applicable to manufactures, there 
is a school known as the " Philadelphia School of Design 
for "Women," established a few years ago, by Mrs. Peter, 
the lady of the late British Consul at Philadelphia. 

Among the educators of the people, too, the newspapers 
of this city are fairly entitled to rank. There are now 
twelve newspapers published daily eight in the morn- 
ing, and four in the afternoon ; forty weeklies, and 
more than fifty publications properly designated as pe- 
riodicals. The aggregate of those distinguished as news- 
papers, does not embrace any of a strictly scientific de- 
scription ; but the deficiency is in great part compensated 
for by many of the dailies, which never fail to advise 
their readers of whatever is important in the progress of 
the Mechanic Arts. The complement, also, lacks one or 
more of a metropolitan character, or those which can be 
said to possess universal interest ; but as a faithful local 
Press, the newspapers of this city are models for those 
of the Union. The working-man here, for one cent, may 
enjoy a better morning newspaper than he can, for the 
same trifling sum, in any other place on the globe ; while, 
for a larger expenditure, he may suit his taste from 
" grave to gay from lively to severe." The sources then, 
it will be perceived, for acquiring that sort of knowledge 



PHILADELPHIA AS IT IS. 



71 



which makes superior, efficient, intelligent mechanics, 
are very abundant in Philadelphia. It would be well, 
indeed, for affluent munificence to endow more com- 
pletely one or two colleges, and establish an institution 
resembling, for instance, the British Museum ; but in 
view of her present advantages, this city deserves now 
to be the resort of students in Art-education from all sec- 
tions of the Union, as she long has been of students in 
Medical science. Here, there is an amount of scientific 
intelligence and professional skill concentrated, in part 
by the demands of the various institutions, seemingly 
sufficient to solve any thing in Mechanics but impossibil- 
ities; and which, conjoined with favorable physical 
circumstances, must enable manufacturers located near 
this city, to triumph over difficulties under which, in less 
favored localities, they would be compelled to succumb. 
Here, an educated hand-craftsman, or an inventor, may be 
said to stand at one of the great centres of intellectual life, 
with the world of mechanism in its practical forms on 
exhibition and in operation before him ; Mentors on 
every side to enlighten him as to the recorded failures 
and triumphs of the ingenious men of all countries ; and 
with the resources of the most scientific men of the 
present age, possessing the most perfect apparatus, at 
his command, to aid him in his experiments, or sustain 
him in his discoveries. 

As a place of residence, Philadelphia enjoys the rare 
distinction of being desirable alike to the capitalist and 
to the artisan. In this respect, it is generally acknowl- 
edged, no other American city can compare with it. 
To the former, it offers all the attractions that can delight 
a cultivated mind, and all the luxuries that can please a 
fastidious palate ; while an artisan, if industrious and 
intelligent, may command probably every thing essential 
to his present comfort, prospective independence, with 



72 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

constant participation in many of the chief pleasures of 
the capitalist. In the important particulars of general 
cleanliness, healthful ness, wholesomeness of water, and the 
excellence of its markets, Philadelphia is unapproached by 
any of the other great cities ; and, as respects domestic 
accommodations, its superiority, at least over New York, 
is strikingly revealed by the census of 1850, which showed 
that, with a smaller population, this city contained about 
23,601 more dwelling-houses : there being an average of 
13 persons to a house in the former city, and only 6 
in Philadelphia. The custom, too, that prevails of sell- 
ing lots on ground-rent, gives to the man of small means 
facilities that he cannot ordinarily obtain in other cities. 
For instance, if he have but money enough to erect a 
house, he can procure a lot on an indefinite credit ; and 
so long as he pays the interest of the purchase-money, he 
will not be disturbed, nor can the principal be called for. 
By this means, it is quite common for mechanics, small 
tradesmen, and even laborers, to become owners of 
homesteads in the suburbs, which, by Passenger Railways 
that are being introduced, will be brought nearer to the 
centre than ever before. 

A city, then, so attractive as Philadelphia, and possess- 
ing such superior educational advantages, can hardly fail, 
it would seem probable, to command, at all times, one 
of the first and most important requisites for success in 
Manufactures, viz. : an abundant supply of skilled labor, and 
of those qualified to direct it. Experience demonstrates, 
that not only is the supply of labor generally abundant, 
but the surplus sometimes troublesome. Here is con- 
gregated, at all times, an army of artisans from every 
civilized nationality the majority employed, others seek- 
ing employment ; and should the supply at any time fall 
short, an advertisement would bring a regiment from 
every place where it had been seen. Men who would not go 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS OP PHILADELPHIA. 73 

to "Raw Cheney," in Georgia, for $1,000 a year, nor to 
Pittsburg for $900, nor to Lowell for $850, eagerly come 
to Philadelphia for $800. Philadelphia has thus the pick 
and choice, at less wages, of the mechanics of the Union. 
Hence, too, the name, PHILADELPHIA MECHANIC, has be- 
come synonymous with skill and superiority in work- 
manship. ~We simply state a well tested fact, when we 
assert that a mechanic, traveling with favorable creden- 
tials from reputable workshops in this city, will be pre- 
ferred to fill the first vacancy in any similar establish- 
ment, not merely in most places throughout the United 
States, but in portions of Europe. 

So much for Philadelphia as it is. Its status establishes 
the fact, that it possesses the moral circumstances that 
are essential to success in manufacturing operations, and 
we might proceed immediately to consider those that are 
properly denominated physical. Before doing so, how- 
ever, it may h proper to glance at the present, 

II. Commercial Relations of Philadelphia. 

i iu-ti'-iit"'] ifio'J 'Ji [ids <iV;i- 

A Review of Commercial Transactions, for a year 
financially so disastrous as 1857, can hardly be expected 
to be very imposing, or even favorable. We notice, 
however, that the statistics of the commerce of the Port 
of Philadelphia, for 1857, show in several particulars an 
increase over the previous few years ; indicating that 
.the city is just beginning to realize fully the benefits long 
expected from an immense expenditure incurred to de- 
velop the trade, and especially the mineral wealth of the 
interior. 

The number of vessels that arrived during the year 
was 505 foreign, and 32,241 coastwise : being an in- 
crease of 5,702 over 1856, and 2,523 over the arrivals in 



74 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

1855. The value of merchandise entered for consump- 
tion was $11,845,205 ; and the value entered for ware- 
housing was $6,706,017. Total Imports for the last three 
years, being : 

Imports. Withdrawals. 

1857, - $18,551,222 - $5,421,092 
1856, - 18,303,288 - 3,050,400 
1855, 15,104,478 

The cash duties received at the Port, for the last three 
jears, were, 

1857. 1856. 1855. 

$3,096,324 24 - $4,301,123 80 - $3,358,517 41 
The Exports for 1857, included, of breadstuff's, 198,867 
barrels Flour, 48,572 barrels Corn Meal, 8,254 barrels 
of Rye Flour, 191,400 bushels Wheat, 625,556 bushels 
Corn ; and a great variety of manufactured articles. 

The construction of vessels at all places was quite 
limited during the year, but at Philadelphia 147 new ves- 
sels, having an aggregate tonnage of 17,917 tons, were 
admeasured by the United States officers. 

Of COAL, the following statement shows the compara- 
tive shipment by the four principal lines to Philadel- 
phia, for 1857 and 1856 : 



Philadelphia and Heading R. B 


1857. 
Tons. Cwt. 
. . 1,709692 19 


1856. 
Tons. Cwt. 

2 088 903 03 




. . 1,275,988 00 


1 169 453 08 


Lehigh Navigation 


900,314 06 


1 186 294 00 




418 235 11 


165 740 00 









Total 4,304,230 16 4,610,390 11 

Decrease from Schuylkill and Lehigh regions, in 1857, 306,159 95 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS OF PHILADELPHIA. 



75 



The following Table Exhibits the Tonnage of the Pennsylvania Bail- 
road for 1857. 



ARTICLES. 


From Phil'a 
to Fittsburg. 


From Pitts'g 
to Philad'a. 


From Pl.il'a 
to Way Sta- 
tions. 


From Way 
Station* to 

Philad'a. 


Agricultural Implements and Productions.... 
Boots, Shoes, Hats, &c 
Books and Stationery .. 


1,391,797 
4,481,376 
2,360,675 


620,846 


115,962 
709,267 
173,441 






183,700 
4,428,779 




Butter and Eggs 


2,665,382 


Brown Sheetings and Bagging 


5,374,835 


322,735 


Bark and Sumac 




980,988 


Cedarware 


212,326 
2,138,853 
6,729,353 
161,100 


236,082 


245,377 
335,566 
1,591,561 
34,245 
7,655 
348,961 


Confectionery and Foreign Fruits 




Coffee 






Cotton 


733,651 
11,011 
96,974 




Coal 


255,382,087 


Copper, Tin and Lead 


2,373,751 


Camphene 




Dry Goods 


48,442,442 

7,064,227 


723,735 
626,100 
152,692 
65,163,024 
276,785 
51,970 
311,990 
1,555,943 
2,630,054 
81,971 
11,296,545 
149,426 
101,322 


3,311,476 

988,423 


136,663 


Drugs, Medicines and Dye Stuffs 


Earthenware 




Flour 


48,816 




2,842,806 
455,097 


Fresh Meats, Poultry and Fish 




Feathers, Furs and Skins 






Furniture and Oil Cloth 


2,504,485 
868,914 


444,033 
296,103 


36,667 
27,140 
298,415 
873,123 
8,377,902 
104,724 


Glass and Glassware 


Green and Dried Fruits 


Grass and other Seeds 






Grain, of all kinds 






Groceries, (except Coffee) 


18,755,092 


6,586,644 






12,250 
10,008,923 


46,913 
1,966,422 
1,222,211 
149,992 
39,796 
1,638,862 
263,900 






1,113,370 
2,724,863 
1,153,344 


492,370 


Hides and Hair 


Hemp and Cordage 


1,334,638 
217,720 
389,097 
171,450 




Iron, rolled, hammered, &c 


1,710,957 


Iron, rail-road 




Iron Ore 






Iron, Blooms and Pigs 




2,574,356 
9,95.1,769 
2,285,018 


Live Stock 


122,075 
2,428,264 


40,056,014 
844,025 


46,505 
134,708 


Leather 


Lead and Shot 


Lard, Lard Oil and Tallow 




7,155,977 
714,730 
775,171 




166,212 
25,728,000 


Lumber and Timber 


27,304 
6,796,518 
2,577,776 
43,945 


55,541 
2,518,666 
991,885 
5,245 
92,424 
722,329 
1,065 
4,205 


Machinery and Castings 


Marble and Cement 




Malt and Malt Liquors 


405,446 




Nails and Spikes 


1,680,182 


Oils 


2,454,893 
240,825 
1,702,745 












614,837 


330,062 


Plaster 


Potatoes, Turnips, 4c 










Pot, Pearl and Soda Ash 


8,332,527 
4 928 353 


107,495 


38,315 
672,934 
355,398 
2,061,291 




Queensware , 




Salt 


73,665 
3,552,423 






Salt Meats and Fish 


24,704,577 
796,674 
1,086,681 


25,829 


Soap and Candles 


Tobacco 


1,830,837 
430,656 


405,166 
79,380 




Tar, Pitch and Resin 










Do. do. Foreign 


2,974,461 


6,580 


939,007 




Wall Paper 








12,571,537 
4,978,191 
568,113 


500,730 


1,219,631 
171,486 
123,726 


Wool and Woolen Yarn 


37,669 
1,739,600 




Total First Class 


62,058,365 
53,563,860 
8,160,805 
30,553,626 


6,840,642 
17,611,766 
42,060,772 
123,295,946 


7,034,142 
11,940,214 
3,036,988 
8,452,995 


3,373,186 
4,582,337 
10,053,200 
300,635,869 


Total Second Class 


Total Third Class 


Total Fourth Class 


Total for the Year 


154.336.656 


189.809.12.5 


30. 464.339 318.644.592 



76 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

During the past year, a movement was made, in va- 
rious departments of trade, toward a union of energies 
and aims, and effected, as we are informed by the official 
report of the Corn Exchange Association, amongst the 
Dry-goods merchants, the "Workers in metals, the Dealers 
in Queensware, and others. This favorable result was 
coincident with an effort to represent all these branches 
in a Commercial Congress, by means of a reconstruction 
of the Philadelphia Board of Trade. This board, here- 
tofore exclusive in its character, was, during the year, 
completely reorganized. Its floor, and its offices, are 
now open to all who have a right, by force of character, to 
the attention and respect of their fellow-members. Since 
its reorganization, many of its meetings have been at- 
tended by unusual numbers ; and its future action is 
looked to with interest, as likely to exert a favorable and 
important influence upon our trade and commerce. 

In Foreign Commerce, the Port of Philadelphia, it is 
undeniably obvious, has not maintained its original su- 
premacy. In 1796, the exports amounted to $17,513,866 ; 
and from 1795 to 1826, the aggregate exports more than 
trebled those of the last thirty years. For a long period 
of time, nearly a century, Philadelphia was regarded 
throughout Europe as, commercially and numerically, the 
great city of the Western Continent. Vessels of the 
largest tonnage then known, and laden with the richest 
merchandise of Europe and the Indies, sailed up the Del- 
aware, and found accommodations at her wharves. Large 
fortunes, besides that of Girard, were accumulated by her 
citizens from well-planned adventures to foreign countries. 
The names of her principal merchants were known and 
respected at every Exchange in Europe. A decline, then, 
from a position so commanding in the world's markets, 
would naturally cause a pang of regret in the breasts of 
every one not indifferent to the city's future, were the 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS OF PHILADELPHIA. 77 

causes that induced it, less creditable, patriotic, and 
honorable than they are. It is especially consoling 
to know that they do not impinge in the slightest 
the commercial capabilities of the Port. No one, if 
called upon to correct the assertions of the willfully 
ignorant, need trouble himself to controvert the as- 
sertion, that the inland situation of Philadelphia is 
an effectual barrier to her commercial supremacy. 
The position of the chief commercial cities of the 
Old World, London on the Thames, Liverpool on the 
Mersey, and Paris on the Seine, proves that immediate 
proximity to the ocean is not essential to constitute a 
great shipping port. Besides, the channel of the Dela- 
ware is known to be abundantly wide and deep to float, 
as it has floated, the largest vessels in the Naval service. 
According to the official chart of the Coast Survey, it is 
seldom less than a quarter of a mile in width, and ranges 
in depth, at low water p , from 4 to 9^ fathoms, excepting at 
the bar below Fort Mifflin, where, for a few rods, it 
varies from 18 feet to 25 feet 8 inches, according to 
the state of the tide. Moreover, the fact that the " Cathe- 
dral," a vessel of too large tonnage to obtain entrance into 
the port of her destination, New York, was therefore sent 
hither, where she was amply accommodated ; the length 
of wharves on the Eastern front, extending as they do, 
for about three miles ; and especially her former eminent 
success in Foreign Commerce, all establish and fortify 
the assertion, that Philadelphia possesses all essential, 
in fact ample facilities for shipping. To ascertain the 
true and principal causes of the decline in this partic- 
ular, then, we must direct our attention to other channels 
that have absorbed capital ; and we may possibly dis- 
cover that the chief sources of the present prosperity 
of Philadelphia have their origin in a comparative neg- 
lect of Foreign Commerce. 



78 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

About thirty years ago, the citizens of Philadelphia 
may be said to have become thoroughly aware of the 
immensity of the riches concealed in the mountains and 
ravines of their native State. They then, for the first 
time, comprehended the value and the vastness of the 
deposits of Coal and Iron near their metropolis, and 
realized, as vividly perhaps as subsequent experience has 
justified, how great a boon would be conferred upon the 
whole country by their development. It is true, that for 
many years previously, it had been known that a pecu- 
liar species of coal abounded in the counties of Lehigh 
and Schuylkill, but it was regarded as worthless. Even 
as late as 1817, when Col. George Shoemaker forwarded 
ten wagon loads of a coal which he had discovered about 
one mile from Pottsville, to Philadelphia for sale, he could 
with difficulty find purchasers ; and some of those who did 
purchase it, were wholly unsuccessful in their attempts to 
use it. "Nearly every one considered it a sort of stone, and, 
saving that it was a ' peculiar stone' a stone-coal they 
would as soon have thought of making a fire with any 
other kind of stone! Among all those who examined the 
coals, but few persons could be prevailed upon to pur- 
chase, and they only a small quantity, ' to try it.' But, 
alas ! the trials were unsuccessful. The purchasers de- 
nounced Colonel Shoemaker as a vile impostor and an 
arrant cheat ! Their denunciations went forth through- 
out the city; and Colonel Shoemaker, to escape an arrest 
for swindling and imposture, with which he was threat- 
ened, drove thirty miles out of his way, in a circuitous 
route, to avoid the officers of the law ! He returned home, 
heart-sick with his adventure. But, fortunately, among 
the few purchasers of his coal, were a firm of iron fac- 
tors in Delaware County, who, having used it success- 
fully, proclaimed the astounding fact in the newspapers 
of the day. The current of prejudice thereafter began to 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS OF PHILADELPHIA. 79 

waver somewhat; and new experiments were made at 
iron- works on the Schuylkill, with like success, the result 
of which was also announced by the Press. From this 
time, Anthracite began gradually to put down its ene- 
mies ; and among the more intelligent people, its future 
value was predicted." But it was not until 1825 that the 
first successful experiment to generate steam, with An- 
thracite coal, was made at iron-works at Phcenixville. 
From that year, too, the existence of the Schuylkill trade 
may be said to date, though some coal had been shipped 
previously. The speculative mania in the coal regions, 
however, did not commence until a few years later. 

About 1829, the news of fortunes accumulated by pierc- 
ing the bowels of the earth, and bringing forth from the 
caverns of mountains " metals which shall give strength to 
our hands," became generally current, and aroused an en- 
thusiasm less wide-spread than that which fevered Europe 
upon the discovery of silver in Mexico, or recently America 
upon the discovery of gold in California, but certainly not 
less intense. " Capitalists awoke as if from a dream, and 
wondered that they had never before realized the import- 
ance of the anthracite trade. "What appeared yesterday but 
as a fly, now assumed the gigantic proportions of an ele- 
phant ! The capitalist who, but a few years previously, 
laughed at the infatuation of the daring pioneers of the coal 
trade, now coolly ransacked his papers, and ciphered out 
his available means ; and whenever met on the street, his 
hands and pockets would be filled with plans of towns, 
of surveys of coal lands, and calculations and specifica- 
tions of railways, canals, and divers other improvements 
until now unheard of. The land which yesterday would 
not have commanded the taxes levied upon it, was now 
looked upon as ' dearer than Plutus's mine, richer than 
gold.' Sales were made to a large amount ; and in an 
incredibly short space of time, it is estimated that up- 



80 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

ward of five millions of dollars had been invested in lands 
in the Schuylkill coal-field alone ! Laborers and me- 
chanics of all kinds, and from all quarters and nations, 
flocked to the coal region, and found ready and constant 
employment at the most exorbitant wages. Capitalists, 
arm-in-arm with confidential advisers, civil engineers, 
and grave scientific gentlemen, explored every recess, 
and solemnly contemplated the present and future value 
and importance of each particular spot. Houses could 
not be built fast enough ; for where nought but bushes 
and rubbish were seen one day, a smiling village would 
be discovered on the morrow. Enterprising carpenters 
in Philadelphia, and elsewhere along the line of canal, 
prepared the timber and frame-work of houses, and then 
placing the materiel on board a canal boat, would hasten 
on to the enchanted spot to dedicate it to its future pur- 
poses. Thus whole towns were arriving in the returning 
canal boats; and as * they were forced to play the owl,' a 
moonlight night was a godsend to the impatient pro- 
prietors, for with the dawning of the morning would be 
reflected the future glory of the new town, and the rest- 
less visages of scores of anxious lessees."* 

The late Joseph C. Neal, who was one of the motley mass, some years 
afterward wrote the following humorous description of the speculating 
scenes : 

In the memorable year to which we allude, rumors of fortunes made at 
a blow, and competency secured by a turn of the fingers, came whispering 
down the Schuylkill and penetrating the city. The ball gathered strength 
by rolling young and old were smitten with the desire to march upon the 
new Peru, rout the aborigines, and sate themselves with wealth. They had 
merely to go, and play the game boldly, to secure their utmost desire. 
Rumor declared that Pipkins was worth millions, made in a few months, 
although he had not a sixpence to begin with, or to keep grim want from 
dancing in his pocket. Fortune kept her court in the mountains of Schuyl- 
kill County, and all who paid their respects to her in person found her as 
kind as their wildest hopes could imagine. 

The Ridge road was well traveled. Reading stared to see the lengthened 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS OF PHILADELPHIA. 81 

A reaction attended this, as all other speculative ma- 
nias. But disastrous as it was, and involving hundreds 
in ruin, it did not prevent the continued investment 

columns of emigration; and her astonished inhabitants looked with wonder 
upon the groaning stage-coaches, the hundreds of horsemen, and the thou- 
sands of footmen, who streamed through that ancient and respectable 
borough ; and as for Ultima Thule, Orwigsburg, it has not recovered from its 
fright to this day ! 

Eight miles further brought the army to the land of milk and honey, and 
then the sport began the town was far from large enough to accommodate 
the new accessions ; but they did not come for comfort they did not come 
to stay. They were to be among the mountains, like Sinbad in the valley 
of diamonds, just long enough to transform themselves from the likeness 
of Peter the Moneyless into that of a Millionaire; and then they intended 
to wing their flight to the perfumed saloons of metropolitan wealth and 
fashion. What though they slept in layers on the sanded floors of Trout- 
man's and Shoemaker's bar-rooms, and learned to regard it as a favor that 
they were allowed the accommodation of a roof by paying roundly for it, 
a few months would pass, and then Aladdin, with the Genii of the Lamp, 
could not raise a palace or a banquet with more speed than they ! 

One branch of the adventurers betook themselves to land speculations, 
and another to the slower process of mining. With the first, mountains, 
rocks, and valleys changed hands with astonishing rapidity. That which 
was worth only hundreds in the morning, sold for thousands in the evening, 
and would command tens of thousands by suni'ise, in paper money of that 
description known among the facetious as slow notes. Days and nights 
were consumed in surveys and chaffering. There was not a man who did 
not speak like a Croesus even your ragged rascal could talk of his hundreds 
of thousands. 

The tracts of land, in passing through so many hands, became subdi- 
vided, and that brought on another act in the drama of speculation: the 
manufacture of towns, and the selling of town lots. Every speculator had 
his town laid out, and many of them had scores of towns. They were, to be 
sure, located in the pathless forests ; but the future Broadways and Pall 
Malls were marked upon the trees; and it was anticipated that the time was 
not far distant when the deers, bears, and wild-cats would be obliged to give 
place, and take the gutter side of the belles and beaux of the new cities. 
How beautifully the towns yet unborn looked upon paper! the embryo 
squares, flaunting in pink and yellow, like a tulip show at Amsterdam ; and 
the broad streets intersecting each other at right angles, in imitation of the 
common parent, Philadelphia. The skill of the artist was exerted-to render 
them attractive ; and the more German text, and the more pink and yellow, 
6 



82 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

of capital in the coal regions. Every year more mines 
were opened, more iron-works erected, more improvements 
of a stupendous character planned, more tons of coal 

the more valuable became the town ! The value of a lot, bedaubed with 
vermilion, was incalculable ; and even a sky-parlor location, one edge of 
which rested upon the side of a perpendicular mountain, the lot running 
back into the air a hundred feet or so from the level of the earth, by the 
aid of the paint-box was no despicable bargain : and the corners of Chest- 
nut and Chatham streets, in the town of Caledonia, situated in the centre 
of an almost impervious laurel swamp, brought a high price in market, for 
it was illustrated by a patch of yellow ochre ! 

The bar-rooms were hung round with these brilliant fancy sketches; 
every man had a roll of inchoate towns in the side pocket of his fustian 
jacket. The most populous country in the world is not so thickly studded 
with settlements as the coal region was to be ; but they remain, unluckily, 
in statu quo ante bellum. 

At some points a few buildings were erected to give an appearance of 
realizing promises. There was one town with a fine name, which had a 
great barn of a frame hotel. The building was let for nothing ; but after 
a trial of a few weeks, customers were so scarce at the " Red Cow," that the 
tenant swore roundly he must have it on better terms, or he would give up 
the lease. 

The other branch of our adventurers lent their attention to mining ; and 
they could show you, by the aid of a pencil and piece of paper, the manner 
in which they must make fortunes, one and all, in a given spnce of time 
expenses, so much ; transportation, so much ; will sell for so much ; leaving 
a clear profit of 000,000! There was no mistake about the matter. To it 
they went, boring the mountains, swamping their money and themselves. 
The hills swarmed with them ; they clustered like bees about a hive ; but 
not a hope was realized. Calculations, like towns, are one thing on paper, 
and quite another when brought to the test. 

At last the members of the expedition began to look htiggard and care- 
worn. The justices did a fine business ; and Natty M., Blue Breeches, 
Pewter-Legs, and other worthies of the catchpole profession, toiled at their 
vocation with ceaseless activity. When the game could not be run down 
at view, it was taken by ambuscade. Several bold navigators discovered 
that the county had accommodations at Orwigsburg (at that time the seat 
of justice, now located at Pottsville) for gentlemen in trouble. Capiases, 
securities, and bail-pieces, became as familiar as your garter. The play 
was over, and the farce of " The Devil to Pay" was the after-piece. There 
was but one step from the sublime to the ridiculous, and Pottsville saw it 
taken! 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS OF PHILADELPHIA. 83 

gent to market. Canals which had been projected but 
suffered to languish were speedily completed ; rail-roads 
were built, not only above ground but underground; and 
in a comparatively brief period of time, it has been 
estimated by competent authority, a hundred millions of 
dollars were withdrawn from commercial activity, and 
invested in productive and unproductive improvements 
and partially abortive schemes. Many of the works, 
however, constructed in Lehigh and Schuylkill counties, 
are imperishable monuments of solidity and beauty, and 
will be objects of admiration in after ages. 

At the present time there are, within the borders of 
Pennsylvania, upward of 800 miles of Canal, and 1,600 
miles of Rail-road, of which the revenues are mainly de- 
rived from freight on Anthracite and semi- Anthracite 
coal. Many of those, projected with other views, have 
become large transporters of coal ; and certainly the 
amount of capital expended in Pennsylvania for one ob- 
ject, viz., for constructing avenues to convey Anthracite coal 
to market, is now at least SEVEN TIMES GREATER than the 
whole amount invested in all the manufactories at Lowell. 
(See annexed TABLE.) 

Gay gallants, who had but a few months before rolled up the turnpike, 
swelling with hope, and flushed with expectation, now betook themselves, 
in the gray of the morn, and then the haze of the evening, with bundle on 
back the wardrobe of the Honorable Dick Bowles tied up in a little blue- 
and-white pocket-handkerchief to the tow-path, making, in court phrase, 
"mortal escapes"; and, in the end, a general rush was effected the army 
was disbanded sauve quipeul! 



84 



PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTUKES. 



The following Table, which we have prepared princi- 
pally from official information, exhibits the 

Names, Length, and Cost of the Canals and Hail-roads in and leading 
to the Anthracite Coal Begions of Pennsylvania. 



Philadelphia and Reading B. R. (including City Br.) 
Caiawissa, Williamsport and Erie R. R., including the 


Canals. 
Length. 


Railroads 
Length. 


Cost. 
Jan. 1, 1S53. 


108 
72 

60 
46 
41 
73 
94 
99 

12 


98 
79 

78 
53K 

20 
25 

68 
46 
33 

40 
64 
67 
113 
9 
33 
120 
28 
13* 

I* 

20 

l i* 

8 

J* 
5g 

5 

7 

* 

4 

6 

W 
300 


19,262,720 
4,200,000 

3,850,000 
4,000,000 
10,950,000 

4,455,000 
1,380,000 
1,400,000 
2,200,000 
1,737,236 
897,160 
1,598,379 
4,500,000 
5,000,000 
6,773,925 
3,276,523 
1,348,812 

3,693,492 
4,000,000 
1,660,000 
8,701,888 
300,000 
1,402,651 
2,750,000 
668,000 
311,000 
282,000 
200,000 
1,000,000 
400,000 
200,000 
430,000 
35,000 
700,000 
1,093,263 
438,000 
150,000 
150,000 
60,000 
443,000 
150,000 
100,000 
381,836 
25,000 

6,000,000 


Williiuiisport and Elmira, with real estate and basins at 
Williainsport and Elmira, and equipments complete... 
Lebanon Valley R. R., (consolidated with Reading) 
Schuylkill Navigation Co 


Lehigh Coal and Navigation Co., viz. : 


Lehigh and Susquehanna R. R 


Summit and Branch Rail-roads 


Delaware Division of Pennsylvania (State) Canal 


Eastern Division of Pennsylvania (State) Canal 




Lower North Branch Canal 




Union Canal 




Lehigh Valley R. R 


Philadelphia and Sunbury R. R., i unfinished) 


Sunbury and Erie R. R., whole amount expended on fin- 


Dauphin and Susquehanna R. R 






Lackawana R. R., (unfinished) 
Little Schuylkill Railroad, exclusive of land 




Schuylkill Valley Rail-road and Branches 


Mill Creek Rail-road and Branches 


Mount Carbon and Port Carbon R. R., Including land.... 
Mount Carbon R. R 


Beaver Meadow Kail-road and Branches 


Hazleton Coal Co.'sR. R 




Buck Mountain CoalCo.'s R. R., (exclusive of land) 
Big Mountain Coal Co.'s R. R 




Tioga R. R 


Barclay R. R. and Coal Co.'s R. K 


New York and Middle Coal Field Co.'s R. R., (unfln'd). 
Columbia Coal and Iron Co.'s R R 


Carbon Run Coal Co.'s R. R 


Lykens Valley R. R 


Union Canal Co ' R R 


Swatara R R 




Lorberry Creek R. R 


Sundry Coal roads, private and underground, to the 


Morris Canal, (present total cost) 


605 
102 

108 


],433>i 

44 
24 

63 


111,444,885 
5,612,000 
1,994,819 
3,250,000 
5,048,340 


Pennsylvania Coal Co.'s R. R 


Delaware and Hudson Canal and R. R., (estimated) 
Central Rail-road of New Jersey 


Total, 


815 1,564 J i $127,350,044 



The total Capital invested in Manufactories, at Lowell, was, in 

1846 $10,650,000 

On January 1st, 1855, the latest date at hand, Hunt's Merchants' 
Magazine, i October No., 1855,) states that the capital invested 
In all the Manufactories, at Lowell, wa $14,000,000 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS OF PHILADELPHIA. 85 

But the development of the mineral regions of Eastern 
Pennsylvania was not the only scheme that abstracted 
the attention and capital of the citizens of Philadelphia 
from the prosecution of Foreign Commerce. The West 
was becoming known as " The Great "West." Regiment 
after regiment of hardy pioneers, armed with axes and 
plowshares, had entered the wilderness to subdue it: 
each successive year the frontiers of civilization were 
carried further westward; production outran consump- 
tion ; and the people of Pennsylvania were called upon 
to furnish superior avenues and outlets for the prod- 
uce of the West to the best markets on the Atlantic 
coast. A grand system of internal improvements was 
therefore resolved upon, and undertaken, to connect the 
metropolis of Pennsylvania with the Ohio River and the 
Lakes. The Erie Canal in New York was then near its 
completion, and herculean and partially successful efforts 
were being made to divert the trade of the West away 
from its natural and geographical channels by a cir- 
cuitous route to New York. But the means adopted 
by Pennsylvania to establish superior connections with 
the West were less successful in execution than praise- 
worthy in conception. The Alleghanies defied the skill 
of the engineers, broke up the chain of communication 
into disjointed links ; and the attempts made to unite 
them constructing part rail-road, and part canal in- 
stead of affording to shippers and producers the promised 
benefits, only fully succeeded in arousing the fears of for- 
eign creditors, and provoking the sarcasm of the witty Dean 
of St. Paul's at the "the drab-coated gentry." No one 
acquainted with the physical characteristics of this State 
its magnificent scenery, its rugged acclivities and ira 
penetrable fastnesses need be told that to construct rail- 
roads and canals within its limits, is and must be a seri- 
ous and costly undertaking. The cost of the Commercial 



86 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Marine of many recognized commercial nations is a mere 
bagatelle in comparison with the vast sums expended in 
Pennsylvania for internal improvements alone. 

On the first of January, 1858, Pennsylvania had 2773J 
miles of rail-road, costing $135,166,609 ; or, estimating 
the population of the State at three millions, the amount 
expended was at the rate of $45 for each man, woman, 
and child in the Commonwealth. The cost of construct- 
ing the canals within its borders, exceeding as they do 
1200 miles in length, has been stated at thirty millions 
of dollars. To these immense sums, if we add the 
amounts expended in seeking for minerals, sinking 
shafts, opening mines, disinterring iron ore, and erect- 
ing works to manufacture it, the vastness of expenditure 
incurred for the development of internal wealth may 
well astonish and appal even those to whom the theme 
has become familiar by daily contemplation. In all these 
enterprises, the capital and credit of Philadelphia are 
conspicuous. Owning property equal to one third the 
assessed value of the property in the entire State, the 
city has contributed more than one half of the cost of 
public and private improvements. To aid these, her 
merchants sold their ships : to sustain them, her capital- 
ists declined the profits of Bottomry and Respondentia. 

But the prodigies achieved within the limits of Penn- 
sylvania, great as they are, did not exhaust the zeal of 
the citizens of Philadelphia in behalf of internal im- 
provements. Their brethren in neighboring States, in 
the South and the West, have drawn largely for contri- 
butions to such projects ; and, to the extent of our abil- 
ity, their drafts have not been dishonored. The port- 
folios of our merchants are now plethoric with such 
obligations and bonds; and when presently available, 
will build an Armada of merchant ships. If it were 
practicable to ascertain how many thousands of mer- 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS OF PHILADELPHIA. 8T 

chants are now thriving, how many tens of thousands 
of farmers in the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wis- 
consin, and the South, are now comparatively wealthy, 
because of their present facilities for reaching good 
markets facilities encouraged and perfected through 
aid from Philadelphia the revelation would so interweave 
the ties of friendship with those of mutual mercantile 
interests, as to form a bond indissoluble by any assaults. 

The citizens of Philadelphia, it is then safe to aver, are 
eminently patriotic, even in their business predilections. 
They have withdrawn their capital largely from pros- 
perous commerce, to invest it in Mines, Rail-roads, Iron- 
works, and Manufactories, preferring to aid the develop- 
ment of the resources of the interior even at the ex- 
pense of commercial importance and reputation abroad. 
Without giving assent to the doctrines of Chinese econo- 
mists, who hold that Foreign Commerce is generally pre- 
judicial to a State, because, by diminishing the quantity 
of desirable products, it must raise their price to the 
home consumer, they nevertheless believe that a pros- 
perous, active interchange of products between citizens 
of the respective States is more conducive to the perma- 
nence and well-being of the Republic than even a more 
profitable commerce with foreigners. Cherishing, then, 
as they have done, and as they do, what they presume 
to be the best interests of our whole country, and having 
proved, by -abandoning their share in the rich commerce 
of the Indies, the sincerity of their desire to accelerate 
its industrial development, the Merchants and Capitalists 
of Philadelphia would seem to be entitled to praises rather 
than taunts for the decline of their city in direct Foreign 
Commerce ; and certainly they have established a claim to 
the high place which they hold in the friendly regard of 
their intelligent fellow-merchants throughout the Union. 

But while acknowledging a decline in the Foreign 



88 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Commerce of Philadelphia, it is but justice to state that 
the decline is more apparent than real. The number of 
foreign arrivals, and the amount of duties paid at the 
Custom House here, are no index to the imports of the 
merchants of this city. Many of the most extensive im- 
porting-houses and there are some, we were about to 
say, quite too extensive for the country's welfare import 
nearly all their goods via New York. The largesses given 
by Government to steamers connecting with that port, and 
the peculiar facilities and inducements said to be held out 
to shippers, not to mention the rumor recently current 
that duties are sometimes lower there than elsewhere, 
influence our merchants in directing their foreign cor- 
respondents to ship goods to Philadelphia via New York. 
The advantage that the New York importer has over his 
Philadelphia competitor is simply a saving in freight 
between the two cities an item perhaps not exceeding 
$2 per ton, or at least so unimportant on imported light 
and costly fabrics as to add no appreciable per-centage to 
the cost. That this advantage is overbalanced by other cir- 
cumstances lower rents, less extravagant expenditures 
for personal gratification, etc. is evidenced by the fact 
that scores of New York jobbers visit Philadelphia every 
season, to replenish their stocks from the shelves of the 
importers, knowing that they can do so, besides paying 
fare, freight both ways, and all other expenses, at a 
cheaper rate than they can purchase the same goods 
from any of their neighbors. One Fancy Goods import- 
ing-house in particular, whose operations came within 
the range of my personal observation, attracts New York 
and Boston jobbers as regularly and more extensively 
than Cincinnati and St. Louis buyers. This is explained 
in part by the fact that the house has more favorable con- 
nections in Europe than their competitors in other cities, 
and partly by their ability to sell at a lower per-centage 
of profit in consequence of diminished expenses. These 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS WITH THE SOUTH AND WEST. 89 

two circumstances, and especially favorable connections 
with the foreign manufacturers, would seem to be of more 
importance, in a regular importing business, than any 
other; and these, Philadelphia merchants, whose honor- 
able character and mercantile probity have ever been un 
derstood and appreciated in Europe, enjoy peculiar fa 
cilities for obtaining. But in all probability I would not 
misrepresent popular feeling if I were to say that Phila- 
delphia does not covet the distinction of being a great im- 
porting mart. She would be content if other cities mo- 
nopolized the doubtful honor of importing hither French 
gimcracks and German cloths in exchange for gold and 
silver our commercial life-blood provided her mer- 
chants were encouraged to devote their energies success- 
fully and uninterruptedly, to building up Home Industry 
and American Manufactures. 

III. Commercial Relations with the South and West. 

Pennsylvania, it has been frequently observed, is the 
only State in the Union that has a navigable outlet to 
the ocean, a footing upon the Lakes, and a command 
of the Ohio and the Mississippi. This position necessa- 
rily gives the metropolis of the Commonwealth points 
of superiority over all the other great cities on the At- 
lantic coast, for the purpose of receiving and distributing 
merchandise to and from a great portion of the South 
and West. "With the ocean, and the principal cities of 
the Southern seaboard, Philadelphia has regular and 
direct communication by way of the Delaware River ; 
and in consequence of improvements in locomotion, the 
distance is now less than at any previous time. "With 
the gate of the West, Philadelphia is connected by canal 
and a magnificent railway ; and at Pittsburg, with all the 
cities and towns on the navigable waters east of the 
Rocky Mountains, by thousands of miles of river navi- 



90 



PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 



gation, and also by rail-roads joining Cleveland and Chi- 
cago on the one side, Wheeling and Cincinnati on the 
other, continuing through Kentucky to Nashville, and 
prolonged with a continuous, unbroken gauge westward- 
ly, beyond St. Louis, on the Mississippi. Philadelphia 
has also an advantage over New York and Boston, in 
being considerably nearer to all the prominent foci of the 
products of the Great West. The principal rail-road lines 
from New York the Erie and Central it has been aptly 
remarked, lie on the circumference line to the West ; while 
the great rail-road of Pennsylvania the Pennsylvania 
Central is on a diameter line. Their direction is to the 
Lakes ours to the West. But to exhibit more clearly the 
relative position of Philadelphia, New York, and Boston, 
with reference to proximity to the chief centres of trade 
in the West, we have prepared the following Table, from 
data furnished in "Dinsmore's Railway Guide," published 
in New York : 





Clerel'd, 
Ohio. 
Mile.. 


Cincinna- 
ti, Ohio. 
Mile.. 


Chicago, 
111.. 
Mile.. 


Indlanap- 
olii, lod. 
Mile.. 


St. I. .nils, 
Mo. 
Mile.. 


From Philadelphia, via Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, to Pittsburg ; thence by shortest 
Ball-road route to 


001 


703 


851 


746 


1000 


New York, via Hudson River to Piermont, and 
the Erie Rail-road to Dunkirk, 468 miles ; 
thence by shortest Rail-road route 


612 


867 


054 


893 


11*4 


New York, via Hudson River Rail-road to 
Albany ; thence by Rail-road to Buffalo, 412 
miles ; thence as above 


623 


880 


967 


906 


1167 


Boston, via Western Rail-road to Albany and 
Buffalo, 498 miles; thence as above 


681 


936 


1023 


962 


1223 



Hence, it is manifest that Philadelphia has consider- 
able advantage over New York and Boston, in nearness 
to the principal centres of trade in the West. The sav- 
ing in distance will be regarded as an important one by 
the weary traveler, while its effects in reducing the cost of 
transportation will be shown hereafter. It is true, New 
York has a shorter route to the places named than by the 
above-mentioned rail-roads ; but that is, via Philadelphia 
and Pittsburg. Pennsylvania is truly the Key-stone 
State ; and those who would pass and repass from the 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS WITH THE SOUTH AND WEST. 91 

West to the East, may congratulate themselves that their 
most direct route carries them over a rail-road so well 
managed as the Pennsylvania Central, and through a city 
so beautiful as Philadelphia. 

To understand, more especially, the relative cost of 
transportation ly railway, from Philadelphia, New York, 
and Boston, to the commercial centres of the West, we 
procured the published Tariffs of Freight for 1857, of the 
principal rail-road lines receipting through : and the fol- 
lowing Tables will exhibit the results. Any one choos- 
ing to do so, may verify the statements made by pro- 
curing the freight tariffs for 1857, of the Boston and 
Worcester, New York and Erie, and Pennsylvania Cen- 
tral Rail-roads. 

SUMMER RATES-1857. 



Philadelphia to Columbus, Ohio 


1st Class. 


2d Class. 


3d Class. 


4th Clasa, 


1.05 
1.38 
1.43 
1.10 
1.43 
1.48 
1.10 
1.43 
1.48 
1.20 
1.48 
1.63 
1.45 
1.63 
1.68 
1.45 
1.73 
1.78 
1.30 
1.48 
1.48 
1.46 
1.62 
1.67 
1.70 
1.80 
1.98 
1.88 
1.90 
2.08 
1.00 
1.08 
1.13 
1.50 
1.58 
1.58 


90 
1.05 
1.08 
95 
1.05 
1.08 
95 
1.05 
1.08 
1.00 
1.10 
1.13 
1.20 
1.25 
1.28 
1.20 
1.30 
1.33 
1.10 
1.13 
1.11 
1.20 
1.25 
1.28 
1.40 
1.35 
1.48 
1.56 
1.45 
1.58 
80 
80 
83 
1.10 
1.18 
1.18 


80 
88 
91 
85 
93 
96 
85 
93 
96 
85 
93 
96 
1.02 
1.08 
1.11 
1.00 
1.08 
1.11 
90 
96 
96 
1.00 
1.08 
1.07 
1.20 
1.20 
1.31 
1.30 
1.30 
1.42 
68 
68 
71 
1.00 
1.06 
1.06 


60 
71 
84 
60 
73 
86 
60 
73 
86 
65 
75 
88 
80 
88 
1.01 
80 
90 
1.03 
75 
77 
67 
80 
86 
95 
98 

1.20 
1.10 
1.08 
1.32 
65 
53 
66 
80 
87 
07 


New York, " " 










Philadelphia to Cincinnati 


New York, " " 




Philadelphia to Indianapolis 


New York, " " 


Boston, " " 


Philadelphia to Louisville (all Rail) 


New York, " " " 


Boston, " " ....(River from Cincinnati)... 


New York, " " 




Philadelphia to Forte Wayne 


New York, " " 


Boston, " " 


Philadelphia to Lafayette 


New York, " " 




Philadelphia to St. Louis 


New York, " " 






New York, " " 




Philadelphia to Cleveland 


New York, " " 




Philadelphia to Chicago 


New York, " " . , , 


Boston, " " 






92 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 



WINTER RATES-1857 and 1858. 



Philadelphia to Columbus, 


lit Claw. 


SdClau. 


3d Class. 


4th Clu*. 


1.20 
1.50 
1.60 
1.28 
1.58 
1.68 
1.30 
1.60 
1.70 
1.45 
1.75 
1.85 
1.60 
1.90 
2.00 
1.70 
2.00 
2.10 
1.55 
1.84 
1.94 
1.71 
1.98 
2.08 
2.00 
2.30 
2.40 
2.05 
2.35 
2.45 
1.20 
1.35 
1.45 
1.90 
2.10 
2.10 


1.05 
1.23 
1.33 
1.10 
1.28 
1.38 
1.15 
1.30 
1.40 
1.20 
1.40 
1.50 
1.35 
1.55 
1.65 
1.40 
1.60 
1.70 
1.25 
1.46 
1.56 
1.35 
1.58 
1.68 
1.65 
1.90 
2.00 
1.72 
1.95 
2.05 
95 
1.05 
1.15 
1.45 
1.60 
1.60 


85 
95 
1.03 
95 
1.08 
1.16 
1.00 
1.10 
1.18 
1.08 
1.20 
1.28 
1.23 
1.35 
1.43 
1.15 
1.35 
1.43 
1.05 
1.18 
1.26 
1.14 
1.30 
1.38 
1.40 
1.60 
1.68 
1.48 
1.65 
1.73 
85 
85 
93 
1.25 
1.40 
1.40 


70 
82 
90 
80 
85 
1.00 
80 
85 
1.00 
85 
90 
1.05 
1.00 
1.00 
1.20 
1.00 
1.05 
1.20 
85 
1.00 
1.05 
96 
1.09 
1.14 
1.15 
1.30 
1.35 
1.20 
1.35 
1.40 
70 
75 
80 
1.00 
1.10 
1.10 


New York " " 




Philadelphia to Dayton, 


New York " " 




Philadelphia to Cincinnati. 


New York " " 




Philadelphia to Indianapolis 


New York, " " 


Boston " " 


Philadelphia to Louisville 


New York " " . 












New York " " 




Philadelphia to Lafayette 


New York " " 




Philadelphia to St Louis 


New York, " " 




Philadelphia to Cairo 


New York, " " 




Philadelphia to Cleveland 






Philadelphia to Chicago 


New York, " " 


Boston, " ' 


A Table showing the Saving on a Ton (2240 Ibs.) of First Class Freight 
by Shipping, from Philadelphia instead of New York or Boston. 





HEW 

Summer. 


TORK. 

Winter. 


CM 

Summer. 


row. 
Winter. 


$7.39 
7.39 
7.39 
6.27 
4.03 
5.15 
4.03 
3.68 
2.24 
45 
1.79 
1.79 


$6.72 
6.72 
6.72 
6.72 
6.72 
6.72 
6.50 
6.05 
6.72 
6.72 
3.36 
4.48 


$8.61 
8.51 
8.51 
7.39 
5.15 
7.39 
4.03 
4.70 
6.27 
4.48 
2.91 
1.79 


$8.96 
8.96 
8.96 
8.96 
8.96 
8.96 
8.74 
8.29 
8.96 
8.96 
5.60 
4.48 


Dayton Ohio 


Cincinnati Ohio. . . 










Lafayette, " 




Cairo . 




Chicago, Illinois 



These Tables "speak for themselves" comment cannot 
add to their force. They demonstrate, conclusively, that 
every shipper who, during the past year, sent Western 
merchandise by rail-road from the points designated, to 
New York or Boston, that could have been sold as well in 
Philadelphia every "Western merchant who purchased 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS WITH THE SOUTH AND WEST. 93 

goods in those cities on no better terms than he could have 
purchased them in Philadelphia, and sent them home by 
rail-road, expended unnecessarily, or in other words, lost 
from one dollar and seventy-nine cents to eight dollars and 
ninety-six cents on every ton usually classified as first-class 
freight. These are the facts, and the deductions from facts, 
with respect to shipments "all the way by rail-road." 

Now, it may be said that New York and Boston have 
the advantage of Lake navigation to many prominent 
points in the "West. We assert and appeal to the mana- 
gers of the New York and Erie and Boston and Wor- 
cester rail-roads, who receipt through both " all the way 
by rail-road or by steamer on the Lakes," as shippers pre- 
fer that this is no advantage. The Lake freights are the 
regulators of the rail-road charges, which barely exceed 
them by the cost of insurance necessary to cover the 
great risks attending navigation on the Lakes. But 
Philadelphia, on the contrary, has a very important ad- 
vantage, in addition to that stated in the Tables, by com- 
municating at Pittsburg with thousands of miles of safe 
river navigation, extending southwardly to New Orleans 
and the ocean, and westwardly to St. Paul, on the Mis- 
sissippi ; and, in fact, to all the cities and towns on navi- 
gable waters east of the Rocky Mountains. The advantage 
in shipping from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, and thence 
by the Ohio River to Cincinnati and Louisville, over ship- 
ping to those points by the Northern rail-road lines, 
amounts, in addition to the saving stated above, to about 
$5 per ton on first-class goods, $4 on second, $3 on third- 
class, and $2 on very heavy goods; while to Nashville, 
Memphis, Cairo, St. Louis, and all points south of New 
Albany, Ind., the additional saving is nearly double this 
amount that is, about $10 per ton on first-class goods, $8 
on second, $6 on third, and about $3 per ton on fourth- 
class. It is thus evident, as experienced shippers know, 
7 



94 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

that freight from the West, bound for European mar- 
kets, can be brought to Philadelphia, and shipped hence, 
landing it at its destined port abroad, at cheaper paying 
rates than by way of New York. Indeed, the leading 
products of the West for instance, flour, the products oi 
the hog, whisky, etc. can be shipped to Philadelphia, and 
hence at least half the distance to Liverpool, for the cost 
of transporting them to New York. Further, in view 
of the facts stated, it is also obvious that a Western mer- 
chant, purchasing goods in Philadelphia, may have his 
preference rewarded by a saving in the cost of transport- 
ing them home. The only practical question, then, for him 
to consider is, whether it is probable he can make his pur- 
chases in the Philadelphia market as cheaply as in any other ; 
for, supposing the terms to be the same, he will never- 
theless, by doing so, obtain an advantage. We beg per- 
mission to offer a suggestion or two upon this probability, 
for the consideration of those who study and appreciate 
economy. 

We may remark, at the outset, that any one who has 
taken time to examine, compare, and reflect upon the 
characteristics of the respective markets, the develop- 
ment of Manufactures, and the comparative facilities for 
manufacturing, will not need any arguments to convince 
him that the probability of an advantage in price must be 
altogether in favor of the Philadelphia market. Let those, 
however, who have not already done so, examine the 
subject in its details, and they will be astonished to dis- 
cover how few classes of goods constituting a country 
trader's usual assortment are not, to greater or less extent, 
made in or near Philadelphia. For instance, with regard 
to Domestic Dry Croods: According to the census, Penn- 
sylvania, in 1850, contained within her borders a larger 
number of factories for the making of cotton and woolen 
goods than any State in the Union ; even more than the 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS WITH THE SOUTH AND WEST. 95 

great manufacturing State of Massachusetts, and consid- 
erably more than New York. The former had 213 cotton 
and 119 woolen factories, and the latter 86 cotton and 249 
for wool ; while, in Pennsylvania, there were 588 of these 
establishments in all, of which 208 were employed in the 
cotton and 380 in the woolen manufacture. The extent to 
which Philadelphia is engaged in the production of these 
goods, will be illustrated in another place (see DRY GOODS 
MANUFACTURE) ; but we may state here, that one firm, 
Messrs. ALFRED JENKS & SON, manufacturers of cotton 
and woolen machinery, supplied the mills of this city 
alone, during the past year, with 800 looms for weaving 
checks, and on which could be woven twenty thousand 
yards per diem. The New York Tribune of May 1, 1857, 
in an editorial, urging greater attention to manufactures 
in that locality, remarked, we suppose with truth, " Phil- 
adelphia has at least twenty manufactories of textile fabrics 
where New York has one ; and her superiority in the fabri- 
cation of metals, though less decided, is still undeniable." 
Cottonades, checks, carpetings, Germantown hosiery and 
woolen goods, ribbons, sewing-silks, military goods, &c., 
are manufactured here to an immense extent ; and of 
these, New York and other jobbers are constant and ac- 
ceptable customers to the amount of millions annually. 
But, besides the vast quantities of dry goods manufac- 
tured in and near this city, all the principal mills of New 
England, and elsewhere, consign their fabrics to agencies 
established here, with authority to sell them, frequently 
at an abatement from invoice prices. The first agency 
for the sale of domestic fabrics in the United States, 
was that of ELIJAH WARING, established in this city about 
the year 1805 ; and from that day to this, the domestic 
Dry Goods Commission-houses of Philadelphia have 
maintained a position alike honorable to themselves; 
advantageous to American manufactures ; and with one 



96 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

exception, viz., too great liberality in giving credit to 
strangers,* beneficial to the city. 

With respect to Foreign Dry Goods, the importing-housea 
of Philadelphia certainly possess the same facilities for pro- 
curing desirable selections on advantageous terms as any 
others do ; and in some instances enjoy unusually favorable 
connections in Europe, established long since, and by 
means of them secure perhaps more than their share of 
bargains. The stocks are generally selected by resident 
partners, who know the wants and consult the interests 
of purchasers ; and therefore they consist, less than some 
others, of the unsaleable refuse of London warehouses. 

Proposing, as we do, to make a minute and detailed 
examination of the manufacturing industry of Philadel- 
phia, it would not be proper here to anticipate its results; 
but, for the benefit of anxious mercantile inquirers, we 
may state further, that more than four millions of dol- 
lars worth of fine Soots and Shoes are annually made in 
this city ; while of the common, cheap, pegged-work of 
New England, Philadelphia is also a large purchaser, 
consumer, and distributer. The quality of our manufac- 
tures in this department is so generally and highly appre- 
ciated, that several of the manufacturers in Lynn, Mass., 
with a view of attracting additional custom, announce 
on their signs, " Philadelphia Shoes for sale." Of Edu- 
cational and Medical Books, the publishers of Philadelphia 
are generally recognized as leaders ; and for the distribu- 
tion of books of all kinds, Henry 0. Carey, the distin- 
guished political economist, has asserted that Philadel- 
phia has the largest book distributing house in the world. 
As respects Iron, the last census showed that nearly one- 
half of the pig, cast, and wrought iron, made in the 

The late panic disclosed the fact, that a prominent dry goods jobbing- 
house that failed, in New York city, was indebted to a commission-house 
in Philadelphia, in a sum but little short of $100,000 a line of credit 
entirely beyond the limits of prudence. 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS WITH THE SOUTH AND WEST. 97 

United States, was the product of the furnaces and forges 
of Pennsylvania; and the latest statistics show, that of 
the 782,958 tons of iron produced in the United States, 
in 1856, Pennsylvania produced 448,515 tons. Of the 
Manufactures of Iron, as stoves, hollow-ware, and those 
articles, usually denominated Hardware, nails, screws, 
saws, forks, shovels, enameled-ware, hinges, bolts, nuts 
and washers, Philadelphia is an immense producer ; and, 
for the sale of their products, the hardware manufactu- 
rers of Old and New England have agencies established 
in this city, authorized to sell at factory prices. In short, 
the market of Philadelphia differs in many important 
respects from most others, resembling from one point of 
view a Leipsic Fair, and from another the Eastern Ba- 
zaars. Manufacturers' depots are often situated between 
a commission-house and a house importing the same 
class of goods; fabrics, fresh from the loom, may be 
found close to the gold-tipped embroideries of France, 
or the crasse dresses of Turkey; factories adjoin stores, 
and stores are surrounded by manufactories ; while, di- 
verging from the city, are numerous roadways, constantly 
traversed by iron horses, bringing fuel from Nature's vast 
magazines not far distant ; and from the East, caravans of 
boats, propellers, cars, come laden with the products of dis- 
tant workshops, seeking here a central point for redistri- 
bution throughout the South and the West. Hence it is ob- 
vious, that a purchaser of a miscellaneous stock, adapted to 
the wants of a rural, town or city population, must be, when 
in Philadelphia, as near the fountain head, where goods 
are as yet in first hands, as it is possible for him to get ; 
while the merchant, who visits the city to replenish his 
mind as well as his stock, can hardly Ml, in a world of 
machinery, literature and art, as this is, to note much 
that is to him novel, and carry back suggestions that will 
be useful to himself and his neighbors. 



98 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Is it not probable, then, that the merchants of Phila- 
delphia, in view of their advantages, with manufactories 
all around them, consignments from abroad seeking their 
markets and supplying their auction-houses, with abun- 
dance of capital and good credit, can buy and sell on terms 
as favorable as any of their competitors ? "We have no 
doubt they do this ; but we go further, and insist thai those 
now doing business have mistaken their vocation, unless, 
to responsible buyers, they actually do undersell all others. 
One reason that we have for entertaining this opinion is, 
that expenses for conducting business are less here than 
in most other large cities. In the city of New York, the 
leading Dry Goods jobbing-house pay, or did recently 
pay, as we are informed, an annual rent of $22,000 for 
their store ; and a prominent wholesale clothing-firm 
pay, or did pay, $28,000 ; while the greatest amount of 
rent paid by a leading firm, in a similar business in 
Philadelphia, that I have heard of, and for which equal, 
or at least all necessary accommodations are procured, is 
$8,000. It is true, the "Stewart" of Philadelphia deems 
$14,000 a moderate compensation for his magnificent 
store, but his customers are principally the wealthy of 
the city. A proportionate difference in favor of Phil- 
adelphia prevails in rents, generally, for dwelling-houses 
as well as stores. The room for expansion afforded by 
the plan and locality of the city multiplies the number 
of eligible sites, and consequently diminishes specu- 
lation and prevents monopoly. The demands of fash- 
ion and extravagance, also, though sufficiently exor- 
bitant, are less onerous in Philadelphia; and, from 
these and other circumstances, it would seem evident, 
without ocular demonstration, that a merchant in Phil- 
adelphia can afford to sell at a per-centage of profit, 
which, on the same amount of business, would not pay 
the expenses of his less favorably situated competitor. 



PHYSICAL ADVANTAGES FOR MANUFACTURING. 99 

These are the deductions of reason and common sense. 
Their importance entitles them at least to consideration, 
reflection, and experiment ; hence we beg those who are 
engaged in buying and selling, inasmuch as their mer- 
cantile success, and the prosperity of the mercantile 
class throughout the country, depend upon the wisdom 
of their action, to test the respective markets fairly, dis- 
regarding " baits," which are quite too common in all, and 
extending their view beyond exceptional circumstances, 
and if there be an atom of truth in that principle of 
political economy, which demonstrates that the nearer 
the place of production the cheaper the price, they will 
discover, as thousands of thriving merchants have already 
done, that Philadelphia is the CHEAPEST SELLER, and NAT- 
URAL DISTRIBUTER OF MERCHANDISE ADAPTED TO THE 
WANTS OF THE SOUTH AND THE WEST. 

Returning from this digression to subjects more imme- 
diately connected with our inquiries, and having already 
adverted to the moral circumstances that have an effect 
upon economy of production in Manufactures, we now 
proceed to consider the position of Philadelphia with 
respect to 

IV. Physical Advantages for Manufacturing. 

In considering Philadelphia as a Manufacturing centre, 
it must be obvious, from previous remarks, and still more 
obvious from minute information respecting the topo- 
graphical and geological features of Pennsylvania, and the 
intimacy of connection between the metropolis and the 
principal mineral sections of the State, that Philadelphia 
and its vicinity command, in the first place, the most im- 
portant raw materials used in Manufactures; and secondly, 
the agents best fitted to produce power. But the celebrity 
of Pennsylvania for its vast deposits of IRON and COAL 
those primary sources of England's manufacturing 



100 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

greatness is so widely extended, that to dilate upon their 
abundance would hardly convey any additional informa- 
tion to any person of ordinary intelligence. The census 
of 1850, as we previously stated, showed that nearly one 
half of the pig, cast, and wrought Iron made in the 
United States was from her forges and furnaces ; while 
her mines of " black diamonds," it is a proverb, are only 
equalled in national importance by the gold mines of 
California. The district in Pennsylvania that produces 
the most Iron and the cheapest Coal, viz., the Valleys 
of the Lehigh, the Schuylkill, and a part of the Dela- 
ware is directly tributary to Philadelphia, procuring its 
supplies from this city, and selling its products here almost 
exclusively. We therefore record the latest statistics of 
these important products. 

1. IRON. The statistics of the Iron production of 
Pennsylvania, for 1856, as furnished us by the Secretary 
of the American Iron Association in Philadelphia, areas 

follows : 

Anthracite Iron. 

Tons. 

Valley of the Delaware and Lehigh, , v - .-._ '- " "- 108,367 

Valley of the Schuylkill, - - ' r i.' JU '. ^ ' ; . ! ' ". - 60,882 

" " Susquehanua and Juniata, - 76,971 

" " North Branch of Susquehanna, ... 56,411 

" " West Branch of " : A if-v^fc .VI 4,340 

Charcoal Iron, including Five Coke Furnaces. 
Eastern and Northern Pennsylvania, .... 53,160 

Charcoal, Bi'umiitoiiy Codl and Cuke Iron. 
Western Pennsylvania, 88,384 

Total, - - iai>W)fc.{ .... 448,515 
The statistics of the Iron production, for 1857, are not 
as yet prepared, but will probably exhibit an increase 
over that of the previous year. A comparison of results 
shows, that the production of Anthracite Iron in Eastern 
Pennsylvania is an increasing one, that of 1854 having 



PHYSICAL ADVANTAGES FOB MANUFACTURING. 101 

been 67.8 per cent., that of 1855 having been 74.4 per 
cent. ; while that of 1856, was 78.3 per cent of the total 
product of the entire United States. The value in dol- 
lars of the product for 1856, assuming the average price 
of Anthracite Iron to be $27 per ton, and Charcoal Iron 
to be $33 per ton, is as follows : 

it i \ b 
Anthracite Iron, made near Philadelphia, 169,249 tons at 

$27, iaeut;; - - $4,569,723 

Charcoal Iron, made in Eastern Pennsylvania, 53,160 

tons, at $33, 1,754,280 

Product of Anthracite Iron, in Pennsylvania, 306,971 

tons, at $27, &ft DC 'i- " -I ' *_3*<*. 7 .' >T i . . 8,288,217 
Yalue of Anthracite Iron in United States, 393,509 

tons, viz., at $27, *,Vfcj& ^s*\ te*i \A*> U*\s>4*\ 10,624,743 

It is thus manifest, that Philadelphia is situated in the 
district that is entitled to be called the centre of the Iron 
production of the United States. It is further manifest, 
that the centre of the Iron interest is likely to remain 
in the district tributary to Philadelphia, inasmuch as the 
production has been an increasing one ; and, the estab- 
lishments situated within its limits have been able to 
survive disasters that have borne down those in other 
places, and consequently there must exist circumstances 
peculiarly favorable to economy of production. 

2. COAL. The quantity of Coal sent to market from 
the district tributary to this city, was as follows : 

Product of the Anthracite Coal Fields of Pennsylvania, for 1857. 

Area In Acres. Production in Ton*. 

1. Southern Coal District, comprising the 

Schuylkill, Pine Grove, and Lyken 

Valley regions, - . -'f^i 1 ^? ! 75,950 3,256,891 

2. Middle Coal District, comprising the Le- 

high, Mahanoy, and Shamokin regions, 85,525 1,582,786 

3. Northern Coal District, comprising the 

Wyoming and Lackawanna regions, 76,805 1,958,362 



Total of the three fields, - - - 238,280 6,798,039 
The value of this product, at $2 per ton, the minimum 



102 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

price at the mines, would be $13,596,078, while the 
market value certainly exceeds thirty millions of dollars. In 
addition to Anthracite, the mines of Eastern Pennsylva- 
nia produced, last year, 494,100 tons of semi- Anthracite 
and Bituminous coal, and those west of the Alleghanies, 
about thirty-four millions of bushels of Bituminous coal, 
of an estimated value exceeding three millions of dollars. 
The qualities of different coals have necessarily been 
made the subject of careful analysis ; and their relative 
value has been tested by frequent experiments. We be- 
lieve it is conceded by both scientific authority and prac- 
tical experience, that Pennsylvania Anthracite is practi- 
cally the cheapest and best fuel that the United States af- 
ford.* It contains about 90 per cent, of carbon, and, 

* For the purposes of steam navigation, an impression formerly prevailed 
that the Pennsylvania Anthracite was inferior to the Cumberland coal, 
which, it is acknowledged, surpasses in strength the foreign bituminous 
coals of Newcastle, Liverpool, Scotland, Pictou, and Sydney. In January, 
1862, a series of experiments were undertaken at the New York Navy Yard 
with the boilers of the United States Steamer " Fulton," to settle the question 
of relative value and superiority for this purpose. The result is given in 
the following extract from the Report of the Engineer-in-Chief, CHARLES B. 
STUART, to Commodore JOSEPH SMITH, Chief of Bureau of Yards and Docks. 

COMPARISON. 

The coals used in these experiments were the kinds furnished by the 
agents of the Government for the use of the United States Navy Yard and 
Steamers, and was taken indiscriminately from the piles in the yard, with- 
out assorting. 

The bituminous was from the " Cumberland" mines. The anthracite was 
the kind known as " White Ash Schuylkill." 

From the preceding data, it appears that, in regard to the rapidity of 
" getting-up" steam, the anthracite exceeds the bituminous thirty-six per 
cent. 

That, in economical evaporation per unit of fuel, the anthracite exceeds 
the bituminous in the proportion of 7.478 to 4.483, or 66.8 per cent. 

It will also be perceived, that the result of the third experiment on the 
boilers of the pumping-engine at the New York Dry Dock, which experi- 
ment was entirely differently made and calculated from the first and second 



PHYSICAL ADVANTAGES FOR MANUFACTURING. 103 

next to charcoal, gives out more heat than the same weight 
of any other fuel. So far as at present known, Pennsyl- 
vania is the only State where this valuable mineral can 

experiments, gave an economical superiority to the anthracite over the bitu- 
minous of 62.3 per cent. a remarkably close approximation to the result 
obtained by the experiments on the " Fulton's" boilers (66.8 per cent), 
particularly when it is stated that the boilers and grates of the pumping- 
engine were made with a view to burning bituminous coal, which has been 
used since their completion, while those of the " Fulton" were constructed 
for the use of anthracite. The general characters of the boilers were simi- 
lar, both having return drop-flues. 

Thus it will be seen, from the experiments, that, without allowing for 
the difference of weight of coal that can be stowed in the same bulk, the 
engine using anthracite could steam about two-thirds longer than with 
bituminous. 

These are important considerations in favor of anthracite coal for the uses 
of the Navy, without taking into account the additional amount of anthra- 
cite more than bituminous that can be placed on board a vessel in the same 
bunkers ; or the advantages of being free from smoke, which in a war- steamer 
may at times be of the utmost importance in concealing the movements of 
the vessel ; and also the almost, if not altogether, entire freedom from spon- 
taneous combustion. 

The results of the experiments made last spring on the United States 
steamer "Vixen" were so favorable, that I recommended to the Bureau 
of Construction, &c., the use of anthracite for all naval steamers at that 
time having, or to be thereafter fitted with, iron boilers ; particularly the 
steamers "Fulton," "Princeton," and "Alleghany," the boilers for all of 
which were designed with a special view to the use of anthracite, and with 
the approval of that Bureau. 

The " Fulton's" bunkers are now filled with anthracite; and the consump- 
tions referred to in the engineer's report on that steamer show, during the 
short time she has been at sea, that the anticipated economy has been fully 
realized. 

In view of the results contained in this report, I would respectfully re- 
commend to the Bureau of Yards and Docks, the use of anthracite in the 
several Navy Yards, and especially for the engine of the Dry Dock at the 
New York Navy Varii. 

In conclusion, I desire the approval of the Bureau to make such investi- 
gations as my duties will permit, with regard to the experience of the dura- 
bility of copper boilers, when used with bituminous or anthracite coal ; 
which can be done without any specific expenditure. 

The inquiry may prove highly important to the Navy Department, as the 



104 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

be obtained cheaply and in unlimited quantities ; but 
within her borders the supply is seemingly sufficient to 
satisfy the probable wants of this country for centuries 
to come. 

The rapidity with which Anthracite coal has appreci- 
ated in popular estimation, is shown by the increase in 
the demand for it. In 1820, only 365 tons were sent to 
tide-water; in 1840, the product amounted to 867,000 
tons; in 1852, it had reached five millions of tons : being 
an increase in 12 years, from 1840 to 1852, of 600 per 
cent. Supposing this rate of augmentation to continue 
up to 1870, Gov. Bigler once amused himself by calcu- 
lating that the production would be forty-five millions 
of tons, worth, at the present prices of the Philadelphia 
market, the sum of $180,000,000. No wonder the worthy 
Governor was moved to pronounce this a gratifying pic- 
ture, confirming his belief " that, before the close of the 
present century, Pennsylvania, in point of wealth and 
real greatness, would stand in advance of all her sister 
States." 

In the cost of fuel, Philadelphia has an admitted ad- 
vantage over New York of about twenty-five per cent. ; 
over Providence, R. L, from $1.75 to $2.25 per ton ; and 
over Boston, from $2 to $2.50 per ton. The advantage, 
moreover, which Philadelphia enjoys from controlling 
the production of the best fuel, in addition to proximity, 
is too evident to need illustration; and being also the 
central and chief market of the district producing the 

use of anthracite under copper boilers has been heretofore generally con- 
sidered as more injurious than bituminous coal, and is consequently not 
used by Government in vessels having copper boilers. 

Respectfully submitted, by your obedient servant, 

CHARLES B. STUART, 

JEnaineer-in- Chief, U. S. Navy. 
Commodore JOSEPH SMITH, 

Chief of Bureau of Yards and Docki. 



PHYSICAL ADVANTAGES FOR MANUFACTURING. 105 

best and cheapest iron, it would seem almost superfluous 
to inquire further as to her capabilities for Manufactures. 

But Iron and Coal, though the most important, are 
not the only useful mineral products that abound in 
Eastern Pennsylvania. Copper exists extensively in seve- 
ral counties ; Plumbago is obtained in Bucks County, and 
Zinc in the vicinity of Bethlehem. Marble, well adapted 
and extensively used for building purposes, has long been 
obtained from quarries in Montgomery County, a few 
miles above Philadelphia. Steatite, or Soapstone, is quar- 
ried extensively on the Schuylkill, above Manayunk. 
Roofing and Ciphering Slates of the best quality are found 
in the counties of Lehigh, Monroe, and Northampton ; 
there being in the county of Lehigh alone some thirty 
quarries open, with a capital of $60,000 invested, employ- 
ing about 300 men, and producing at least 25,000 squares 
of roofing-slates per annum, valued at $3 per square on 
the quarry bank, and at $5 and $6 in the Philadelphia 
market. Nearly all the best school-slates in this country 
are from the Pennsylvania quarries ; and many of them 
are manufactured at an establishment in this city. Of 
Salt, the census of 1850 states the produce of Pennsyl- 
vania at 184,370 barrels. Kaolin, or Porcelain earth, is 
abundant at several points within a radius of thirty miles 
from Philadelphia. About 2 miles north of Camden, 
N. J., there is an extensive bed of Fire Clay, of which 
specimens have been sent to England, and pronounced 
by competent judges superior to the German clay, which 
commands $25 per ton. Besides these, Barium, Chromi- 
um, Cobalt, Nickel, Magnesium, Titanium, Lead, Silver, 
Zirconium, and Fire and Potter's Clay, are scattered over 
the State, and in some instances of superior quality. 

With all the points in Pennsylvania producing mineral 
and mining products, Philadelphia is directly connected 
by rail-roads and canals, and thus may be said to be situ- 
8 



106 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

sited in close proximity to the original sources of many 
of the most important articles that can be enumerated in 
a list of raw materials of Manufactures. And if we were 
to pass from the products of the mine to those of the 
forest and of Agriculture, we would find them equally 
abundant, cheap, and accessible. Lumber, in immense 
quantities, is obtained on the Susquehanna and the Dela- 
ware, and floated down those rivers every Spring and 
Fall. In 1852, it was estimated that 250,000,000 feet 
were sent down the former river ; while the Lehigh region 
supplied the Philadelphia market, via canal, in the same 
year with 52,123,751 feet. At the present time, we are 
informed by persons intimately acquainted with the sub- 
ject, Philadelphia has a larger stock of seasoned lumber 
than any other mart in the Union.* Wool, of the very 

* Many of the forest trees most useful in the Arts, Manufactures, and 
Medicine, are natives of Pennsylvania. We condense from Trego's Geogra- 
phy of Pennsylvania the following list, which may be of value to some of 
our readers : 

OAKS. At least twelve varieties. The White Oak, the most esteemed 
of this noble family of trees, is found throughout the State ; and in the 
Southeastern districts the wood is exceedingly compact and tough. The 
Black Oak, which is very abundant, and one of our largest trees, furnishes 
Quercitron Bark, which is exported in large quantities, and used in dyeing 
wool, silk, &c., a yellow color. When used by tanners, it imparts a yellow 
tinge to the leather. The Spanish Oak, of which the bark commands a 
high price, is less common in Pennsylvania than further South. The other 
species, valuable for their bark, which is highly esteemed by tanners, is the 
Rock Chestnut Oak, the Scarlet Oak, and the Red Oak. In addition to these, 
there are the Iron Oak, confined to the Eastern part of the State, and re- 
sembling the White Oak ; the Swamp White Oak, the Swamp Chestnut Oak, 
Laurel or Shingle Oak, Scrub Oak, and Pin Oak. 

WALNUTS. Two principal kinds, the Black and White Walnut. The 
former is much used for cabinet-work, and for the stocks of military 
muskets ; also for the posts of fences, which, it is said, will last from 
twenty to twenty- five years. The bark of the White Walnut, or Butternut, 
yields an excellent cathartic medicine, said to be efficacious in cases of 
dysentery. It is also used in the country for giving a brown color to 
wool. 



PHYSICAL ADVANTAGES FOR MANUFACTURING. 107 

best American grades, is grown in the Western counties 
of the State ; and all, or nearly all, of which, as the woolen 
manufacturers of Rhode Island and Massachusetts, who 

HICKOBY. The most common species are the White Heart Hickory, Pig 
Nut, Sitter Nut, Shell Bark, and Thick Shell Bark highly valued for axle- 
trees, handles, flails, &c., and also as a fuel, affording in the same bulk 
more combustible matter than any other wood. 

MAPLE. The Red Maple is the most common, and probably the most 
valuable species. Its wood is much used by chairmakers, and for bedsteads, 
saddle-trees, &c. In many of the old trees, the fibres of the wood, instead 
of following a perpendicular direction, are undulated and waving. This is 
known as the Curled Maple, and when skillfully polished, produces the most 
beautiful effect of light and shade. The bark of the Red Maple yields a 
purplish color by boiling, which, by the addition of copperas, becomes 
dark-blue, approaching to black. It is used in the country for dyeing, and 
for making ink. The true Sugar Maple is abundant, particularly along the 
elevated range of the Alleghanies, and the Black Sugar tree along the West- 
ern rivers. Large quantities of maple sugar are made in the Northern and 
Western counties. The Striped Maple grows in the mountainous parts of 
the State, and the Ath-leaved Maple, or Box Elder, west jf the mountains. 

DOGWOOD. The most valuable species grows to the height of twenty or 
thirty feet. The wood is used for tool handles, and other purposes, and the 
inner bark has medicinal properties resembling those of the cinchona or Pe- 
ruvian bark, from which quinine is made, and has been successfully used 
in intermitting fevers. 

The POPLAR or TULIP tree is common in Pennsylvania, and surpasses most 
of our forest trees in height and the beauty of its flowers and foliage. Its 
wood is applied to many purposes where lightness and strength are desira- 
ble, as trunks, chairs, &c., and the bark is said to possess tonic and anti- 
septic qualities ; and a decoction of it, combined with a few drops of lauda- 
num, has been found efficacious in giving tone and vigor to the stomach 
after fevers and inflammatory diseases. It has been also used in dyspepsia 
and cholera infantum. 

WHITE and RED BIKCH grow abundantly along the Delaware above Phila- 
delphia, and Black, or Sweet Birch, in deep, loose, and cool soils. It is said 
that articles of furniture made from this acquire with time the appearance 
of mahogany. 

Of woods remarkable for their durability, we have the Locust, which is 
abundant in limestone valleys ; and the Red Mulberry, frequently met with 
in fertile soils, when seasoned, is nearly equal to the Locust; also, the 
Red Cedar, exceedingly durable, and highly esteemed for making fence 
posts, is common in most parts of Pennsylvania. 



108 

come liither to purchase it, can testify, is secured to tho 
Philadelphia market. About ten millions of pounds are 
sold annually. But a still wider range of raw materials 
is open to the manufacturers of Philadelphia. Those 
which are the product of other States or foreign coun- 
tries are, by means of direct commerce, brought to her 
wharves, and concentre in her warehouses. The hides 
of Buenos Ayres, the woods of Guiana, the marble of 
Italy, the dye-stuffs of Calcutta, and the cotton of our 
Southern States, are delivered to the doors of our facto- 
ries, in many instances as directly from the producers as 
the Minerals, Lumber, and Wool of Pennsylvania. 

The CHESTNUT may also be ranked among very durable woods. It grows 
most abundantly in the hilly regions, and frequently attains an extraor- 
dinary size; one on Mount Etna being 53 feet in diameter, or 160 feet in 
circumference, but hollow to the bark. The wood is much used for posts 
and rails ; and it is largely consumed in the manufacture of charcoal for 
the supply of the iron-works in the interior of the State. Its fruit is par- 
ticularly appreciated by the boys. 

Of PINKS, there is every variety, though the true Yellow Pine is not very 
common in the State. The Pitch Pine is abundant, and in some places tar 
is manufactured from the more resinous parts of it. White Pine, so useful, 
and applied to such a variety of objects, is becoming comparatively scarce, 
in consequence of the enormous consumption for shingles, lumber, &c. ; but 
nevertheless, it is still found in considerable quantities on the upper streams 
of the Lehigh, the head waters of the Susquehanna, and some of the tribu- 
taries of the Allegbany. 

The Hemlock Spruce, however, which is more common, growing on the 
steep banks of streams, and in dark and shaded situations, is being substi- 
tuted for White Pine, wherever it can well be done. 

The other forest trees which are natives of Pennsylvania are the White 
and Red Ash, highly esteemed for strength and elasticity, several species 
of the Aspen, White and Red Beech, Buttonwood or Sycamore, Catalpa or 
Bean tree, Crab-apple, Cucumber tree, so called because the cones or fruit 
somewhat resemble a small cucumber, Chincapin, White and Red or Slip- 
pery Elm, Sweet and Sour Gums, Hornbeam, June Berry or May Cherry, 
Linden, Lime tree or Basswood, Magnolia or Beaver tree, Papaw, Persim- 
mon. Sassafras, Black or Double Spruce, Tamarack or American Larch, 
Willow, and Wild Cherry, of which the wood is used as a substitute for 
mahogany, and the bark as a valuable tonic medicine. 



PHYSICAL ADVANTAGES FOR MANUFACTURING. 109 

But the term raw material, though ordinarily limited 
to natural or unmanufactured products, is more compre- 
hensive in its scope, embracing Chemicals, substances used 
as food, and such substances of vegetable and animal origin 
as are used in Manufactures. 

3. CHEMICALS. We before remarked that the finished 
product of one class of manufacturers is often the raw 
material of another class. If the proposition needed fur- 
ther illustration, we might advert to Chemicals, which are 
such important reagents in manufacturing operations, 
that without them it would be difficult, (in fact, by any 
known processes,) impossible, to produce several articles 
of daily and essential utility. Without Sulphuric Acid 
or Oil of Vitriol, for instance, we could not probably 
produce Alum, Ammonia, Sal-ammoniac; Iodine and 
Bromine, upon the existence of which the daguerreotype 
art is dependent ; Bleaching powder or Chlorid of Lime ; 
Corrosive Sublimate and Calomel; Bichromate of Potash, 
and consequently the pigments of chrome-red, chrome- 
green, and chrome-yellow; Phosphorus, and consequently 
friction matches ; or lastly, Stearic acid candles. By means 
of this acid, more than 100,000 tons of Soda-ash are ex- 
tracted from common salt in Great Britain yearly. With- 
out Muriatic and Nitric acids, the art of refining gold and 
silver, the jeweler's art, the art of electrotyping, and 
numerous other branches of industry, could not flourish, 
and some of them could not exist. The useful Arts and 
Manufactures, it is thus evident, are largely dependent 
upon Chemicals ; and, consequently, a locality possessing 
those of the best quality in abundance, has necessarily se- 
cured an important and undoubted advantage. The chem- 
ical factories of Philadelphia, every one acknowledges, 
rank among the first in extent and celebrity through- 
out the Union. About seventeen millions of pounds 
of Sulphuric Acid, are made yearly, and other acids and 
8* 



110 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

alkaline salts in proportion. The products of the estab- 
lishments of POWERS & WEIGHTMAN, ROSENGARTEN & SONS, 
LENNIG & Co., HARRISON BROTHERS, BUCK, SIMONIN & Co., 
and others, are recognized as of standard excellence in 
the markets of the world ; and where such establishments 
exist, we can hardly err in presuming, that at least, those 
Manufactures which are dependent upon the Chemical 
Arts must certainly flourish. 

4. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS, PROVISIONS, &c. Again, 
no one need be told that with substances used as food, the 
markets of Philadelphia are always abundantly supplied, 
at moderate prices. As a wheat-growing State, the 
census of 1850 shows that Pennsylvania excels all her 
sister States; the product for that year having been 
15,367,691 bushels, which exceeded that of Ohio, and was 
two millions of bushels more than that of New York. 
Of Rye, the product was 4,805,160 bushels ; of Indian 
com, 19,835,214 bushels ; of Oats, 21,538,156 bushels ; 
and hay, grass seeds, wool, butter, maple sugar, &c., in 
proportionate quantities. The counties immediately sur- 
rounding Philadelphia vie with each other, and rival the 
best counties in any other State, both in the quality and 
quantity of their productions. In 1850, Montgomery 
produced greater quantities of hay and butter than any 
other one county in the State ; Lancaster produced more 
oats than any other county in the United States, more 
wheat than any, excepting Monroe County, New York, 
and more corn than any other county in Pennsylvania. 
In Chester, the quantity of corn produced exceeded that 
of any other county of the State except Lancaster, and 
of hay, except Montgomery ; while Delaware excels in 
dairy products, supplying the markets of Philadelphia 
with butter, cheese, milk, and ice-cream, and the Union 
with whetstones. 

Fifty years ago it was remarked, and the remarks are as 



PHYSICAL ADVANTAGES FOR MANUFACTURING. Ill 

true now as then, " Much of the land within five or six 
rniles North and South of the city is devoted to the pur- 
pose of market-gardens, and is kept in the highest state 
of cultivation. Two crops are very commonly produced 
on the same ground in one season. The neighboring 
State of New Jersey contributes to the abundant supply 
of those species of fruit and vegetables to which its 
light soils are particularly adapted : such as the grateful 
musk-melon, the water-melon, sweet-potato, cucumbers, 
and peaches, immense quantities of which are brought in 
boats across the Delaware. The superiority of the butter 
of Philadelphia, and the great neatness with which it is 
prepared for market, are generally acknowledged. One 
fourth of a dollar may be said to be the average price of 
a pound of butter, throughout the year."* 

The abundance and superior quality of the Agricultural products, for 
which the markets of Philadelphia are distinguished, are probably the 
fruition, and certainly the just reward, of the interest that has always 
been manifested by her citizens in Agricultural improvement. As early as 
1785, a number of gentlemen, among others Robert Morris, Dr. Rush, and 
Richard Peters, met together and established the first Agricultural Society 
on this continent, under the title of the " Philadelphia Society for Promot- 
ing Agriculture," which still survives, surrounded now, however, by almost 
innumerable sister associations, diffusing information on rural affairs 
throughout the entire Union. At a later period, in September, 182G, a 
company of Philadelphians, principally through the instrumentality of the 
late Dr. James Mease, founded the "Pennsylvania Horticultural Society," 
which, like its predecessor, has the proud distinction of having led the way 
iu its own particular sphere, and induced the creation of many kindred 
associations, promoting refinement and kindling a taste for Horticulture, even 
at the verge of Western settlements. One of the means early adopted by 
both associations to stimulate improvement was holding Annual Exhibi- 
tions, at which live stock, implements, fruits, vegetables, and flowers, were 
brought into competition. The exhibitions of the Agricultural Society 
attracted, years before they were held elsewhere, throngs of intelligent 
observers and practical cultivators from neighboring States, as well as 
from Pennsylvania, and diffused a most salutary and beneficial influence. 
The development which it is possible for such societies to attain, was 
witnessed in October, 1856, when the exhibition of the "United States 



112 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Of Fish, the markets of Philadelphia are constantly 
supplied, from the river, the bay, and the sea, with almost 
every desirable variety. We can imagine the delight with 
which epicures, a half century ago, read, that " early in the 
spring large sun-fish are caught in the Bay, and are suc- 
ceeded by herrings, shad, roach, four kinds of cat-fish, 
four kinds of perch, rock, lamprey eel, common eel, 
pike, sucker, sturgeon, gar-fish. These are river fish, 
and appear in the order mentioned. From the sea, come 

Agricultural Society," held in Philadelphia, by invitation of the Philadel- 
phia Society and the officers of the City Government, attracted the most 
imposing display probably ever witnessed in the United States, on any 
similar occasion. Upward of forty thousand dollars were received, and the 
entire sum expended in premiums and for the necessary preparations. 
Competitors from distant States carried off many well-earned and important 
premiums; but it would be only justice rewarding merit, to record the 
fact, that to a Philadelphia firm, that of DAVID LANDRETH & SON, was 
awarded the first and most important premium, viz., that for the best display 
of Agricultural Implements manufactured by the exhibiler. 

In the importation of Live Stock, Philadelphians were among the first to 
embark, and they have had the satisfaction of introducing to agricultural- 
ists some of the most valuable foreign breeds that are known. The first 
"short-horned" cow that probably ever crossed the Atlantic, was landed 
at the wharf in Philadelphia, in 1807. This importation was in advance 
of the appreciation of such stock, and the cow was returned to England ; 
but a bull-calf, dropped by her whilst here, was fortunately retained, and 
impressed his stamp on the cattle of the country. 

About the year 1828, Mr. JOHN HARE POWELL, imported South Down 
Sheep ; and the sume enterprising gentleman, some years subsequently, 
commenced his importations of Short Horns, (Durhams). Not long after- 
ward, Mr. Whittnker, the noted English breeder, consigned similar animals 
to his care for sale. Other gentlemen in this vicinity followed the example 
of Mr. Powell ; and shortly afterward further importations were made for 
Kentucky, and other Western States. Mr. Sarchet, of Philadelphia, has 
the credit of the first importation of " Alderneys" ; afterward, in 1840, 
the Inte Mr. Nicholas Biddle, imported specimens of the " Jersey" or 
' Alderney" cattle. Their descendants are now spread into the adjoining 
counties, and have produced a sensible improvement in the quality of the 
cream and butter wherever the strain has been infused. It seems to us 
proper, that early enterprise in this direction should be recorded. 



PHYSICAL ADVANTAGES FOR MANUFACTURING. 113 

cod, sea-bass, black-fish, sbeep's-head, Spanish mackerel, 
haddock, pollock, mullet, halibut, flounder, sole, plaice, 
skait, porgey, torn-cod, and others. Of Shell-fish, there are 
oysters, (several kinds,) clams, lobster, crab, snapping-tur- 
tle, and terrapin all excellent. Oysters abound through- 
out the year, and are sold at a low price. The shad 
caught in the vicinity of Philadelphia are generally es- 
teemed superior in flavor, and more delicate than those 
caught elsewhere. It is supposed that the situation of the 
fishing-places influences the size and the flavor of shad." 
But the abundance, cheapness, and excellence of pro- 
visions in Philadelphia are conceded. The New York 
Tribune of May 1, 1857, stated that " Philadelphia has 
about twenty-five per cent, the advantage of us in fuel, and 
perhaps ten per cent, in the average cost of provisions." 

HI. SITUATION, RAIL-ROAD CONNECTIONS, &c. The third 
point that we have considered essential to success in 
Manufactures, is a favorable situation. Viewing Phila- 
delphia with respect to situation, we remark, in the first 
place, that it is far enough from the ocean to be exempt 
from a salt atmosphere, which has been found decidedly 
injurious in several Manufacturing and Chemical proc- 
esses ;* yet it is near enough to the great highway of na- 
tions to partake of the advantages of a port on the sea- 
coast, in receiving raw materials and sending away man- 
ufactured products. Secondly, Philadelphia now pos- 
sesses unrivaled means of communication with the inte- 
rior of our country, and directly or indirectly with all 
foreign countries. Shippers of freight, destined for 
other seaports, have a choice of routes to the ocean, viz., 
the Delaware River the ordinary and natural channel 
and the Camden and Amboy Rail-road, the Philadelphia 
and Trenton Rail-road, and the Delaware and Raritan 

* In paints, a pare Carbonate of Lead cannot well be made near to the sea. 



114 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Canal. By way of the river and the ocean, merchandise 
may be forwarded and received cheaply and expedi- 
tiously from all parts of the world, regular lines being 
established to all principal cities of the United States 
Boston, New York, Baltimore, Richmond, Savannah, 
New Orleans, California, and to Liverpool, &c. During 
the last year, (1857,) as we have stated elsewhere, there 
were 505 foreign, and 32,142 coastwise arrivals, princi- 
pally at the Delaware wharves. Since 1845, the vessels 
annually employed in the coal trade alone, from Port 
Richmond, largely exceed in number and capacity the 
whole foreign tonnage of the city of New York. But, 
though the Delaware River be the natural channel for 
freight destined to distant sections, it is by no means the 
only one. Immense quantities of goods are daily sent 
and received by the Propeller lines, via the Delaware and 
Raritan Canal ; and the Camden and Amboy, and Phil- 
adelphia and Trenton Rail-roads, which are far-famed 
thoroughfares. A shorter and more direct route to the 
ocean than any of these, may now be finished for a tri- 
fling expenditure, viz., by the extension of the Camden 
and Atlantic Railway ; and when the contemplated proj- 
ect of building a magnificent roadway from Florence 
to Union, N. J., is carried into execution, another ave- 
nue for the conveyance of light freight, cheaply and ex- 
peditiously, between Philadelphia and the ocean, will be 
opened. 

But the highways in which Philadelphia has invested 
the greatest amount of capital, and which probably will 
in future be of the most advantage to her industrial in- 
terests, are those which communicate with the interior. 
To the North, and connecting her with the coal regions, 
there are several canals and two principal rail-roads 
the Reading, and the North Pennsylvania. The latter is 
a new and promising road, communicating with the 



PHYSICAL ADVANTAGES FOR MANUFACTURING. 115 

populous towns of Lehigh and Northampton counties, 
and in connection with the Lehigh Valley Rail-road, 
affording another outlet for the Coal and Iron products 
of the Lehigh regions. The former was constructed 
primarily as an avenue for the transportation of coal 
from Schuylkill County ; but by means of connections 
established with other roads, it now forms part of a great 
through route to the Falls of Niagara, the Lakes, the 
Canadas, and the "West. 

The READING RAIL-ROAD, being unquestionably one of 
the most magnificent freight roads in the world, is en- 
titled to further notice. It was the first rail-road that 
revolutionized popular opinion with respect to the adap- 
tation of railways for carrying heavy burdens. Having 
a slightly descending grade in the direction of the loaded 
trains, the entire distance from Schuylkill Haven to the 
Falls of Schuylkill, 84 miles, it is able to transport 
heavy freight at a cost which is insignificant, even in 
comparison with the usual tolls on canals. The cost of 
transporting a ton of coal, per round trip of 190 miles 
that is, from the coal region to tide-water and back with 
empty cars, was, during the last year, only 36.3 cents ; 
whereas, the tolls on a ton of merchandise on the Erie 
Canal were nearly double that amount. The average 
load of an engine, during the busy season, is nearly 500 
tons of coal ; and a single engine has conveyed a train 
of 166 cars, weighing 797 tons of 2240 Ibs. each. 

The original charter, passed in 1833, contemplated 
Reading as the northern terminus of the road hence its 
name ; but subsequently the charter was extended, and 
the road constructed to Pottsville. The first locomotive 
and train passed over the entire line on the first day of 
January, 1842. The event was celebrated with military 
display, and "an immense procession of seventy-five 
passenger cars, 2,225 feet in length, containing 2,150 



116 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

persons, three bands of music, banners, &c., all drawn by 
a single engine. In the rear was a train of fifty-two bur- 
den cars, loaded with 180 tons of coal, part of which was 
mined the same morning, 412 feet below water level." 
The road now consists of a double track ; rail of the H 
pattern ; whole length 258 miles, of which 127f miles 
have been relaid during the last seven years, at a cost 
of $796,735 43. The rolling stock includes 142 locomo- 
tives, 58 passenger cars, 924 merchandise cars, and 4,831 
iron and wooden coal cars, besides over 600 used by 
the company, but owned by other parties ; and the whole, 
if placed in a line, would extend for a distance of fifteen 
miles. The equipments are ample for the transportation 
of 2,500,000 tons per annum; the tonnage, in 1855, 
being 2,213,292. The road has nearly ninety stone and 
iron bridges, and over forty wooden bridges ; four tun- 
nels, the largest of which at Phoenixville is 1,934 feet cut 
through solid rock; numerous depots, wharves, and 
workshops, (those at Reading furnishing employment to 
about 400 hands, including boys,) and a vast deal of val- 
uable real estate.* The entire cost of the whole, on 

*"At Richmond, the lower terminus of the road, at tide-water on the 
river Delaware, are constructed the most extensive and commodious wharves, 
in all probability, in the world, for the reception and shipping, not only 
of the present, but of the future vast coal tonnage of the railway; forty- 
nine acres are occupied with the company's wharves and works, extending 
along twenty-two hundred and seventy-two feet of river front, and acces- 
sible to vessels of six or seven hundred tons. The shipping arrangements 
consist of some twenty wharves or piers, extending from three hundred and 
forty-two to eleven hundred and thirty-two feet into the river, all built in 
the most substantial manner, and furnished with chutes at convenient dis- 
tances, by which the coal flows into the vessel lying alongside, DIRECTLY 

FROM THE OPENED BOTTOM OF THE COAL CAR IN WHICH IT LEFT THK 

MINE. As some coal is piled or stacked in winter, or at times when its 
shipment is not required, the elevation of the tracks, by trestlings, 
above the solid surface or flooring of the piers, affords sufficient room 
for stowing upward of two hundred and fifty thousand tons of coal. 
Capacious docks extend in-shore, between each pair of wharves, thus 



PHYSICAL ADVANTAGES FOR MANUFACTURING. 117 

November 30, 1857, was $19,262,720 27. The officers are: 
President, R. D. CULLEN ; Treasurer, SAMUEL BRADFORD ; 
Sec'y, W. H. MC!LHENNEY, and Gen'l Supt., G. A. NICOLLS. 

With Pittsburg, and the "Gate of the West," Phila- 
delphia is connected by a magnificent Railway, to 
which we have more than once referred, and to which it 
seems proper to refer again, if for no other purpose than 
to aid in perpetuating the names of those who have been 
most active in contributing to the success of so great an 
undertaking. While the Reading cheapens fuel to the 
citizens of Philadelphia, the Pennsylvania Central cheap- 
ens food, and both are entitled to rank among the most 
important enterprises of modern times. 

The act incorporating the Pennsylvania Central Rail- 
road Company was passed April 13th, 1846. As soon 
as the news of its passage had reached Philadelphia, a 
large meeting was held, and a committee appointed to 
prepare an address inviting the co-operation of the citi- 
zens. This committee consisted of THOMAS P. COPE, 
(since dec'd,) Chairman ; DAVID S. BROWN, JOHN GRIGG, 
THOMAS SPARKS, GEORGE N". BAKER, RICHARD D. WOOD, 
JAMES MAGEE, and J. R. TYSON. The address issued by 
these gentlemen met with a warm response, and public 
and private subscriptions were freely tendered. The city, 

making the whole river front available for shipping purposes. Over one 
hundred vessels can be loading at the same moment; and few places pre- 
sent busier or more interesting scenes, than the wharves of the Reading 
Rail-road, at Richmond. A brig of one hundred and fifty-five tons has been 
loaded with that number of tons of coal in less than three hours time, at 
tliese wharves. The whole length of the lateral railways extending over the 
wharves at Richmond will probably exceed ten miles, affording a ship- 
ping capacity for upward of three millions of tons ! and it will probably not 
be many years before this amount, extraordinary as it may seem, (as, in- 
deed, it really is,) will be annually transported over this great thorough- 
fare. The company has laid the foundation for a trade as broad as the 
future destiny of the coal trade itself." 



118 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

in its corporate capacity, subscribed two and a half mil- 
lions of dollars, and this gave an impulse to the enter- 
prise that left no longer any doubt of its success. The 
first Board of Directors consisted of the following gentle- 
men, most of whom had been active in promoting this 
great work, viz. : S. V.Merrick, Thomas P. Cope, Robert 
Toland, David S. Brown, James Magee, Richard D. Wood, 
Stephen Colwell, George W. Carpenter, Christian E. 
Spangler, Thomas T. Lea, William C. Patterson, John 
A. Wright, and Henry C. Corbit. First officers S. V. 
Merrick, President ; Oliver Fuller, Secretary ; George V. 
Bacon, Treasurer; J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer; 
William B. Foster, Jr., Associate Engineer, of the East- 
ern Division ; Edward Miller, of the Western. 

During the past year this Company made a most im- 
portant and extensive negotiation, being no less than 
the purchase from the Commonwealth of 285 miles 
of Canal, between Philadelphia and Pittsburg; and 
37 miles of Railway, between Johnstown and Ilolli- 
daysburg ; and 80 miles of double track between Phil- 
adelphia and the Susquehanna River, with all the ap- 
purtenances, giving their bonds, bearing five per cent, 
interest, for the sum of $7,500,000, payable $100,000 
on July 31st, 1858, and $100,000 annually thereafter, 
until July 31, 1890, when the payments will be at the 
rate of $1,000,000 per annum until the whole is paid. 
Present total cost of roads and canals belonging to Com- 
pany, $27,266,981 58. The rolling stock consists of 
216 locomotives, 99 passenger cars, 27 baggage cars, and 
1,945 freight cars. The aggregate tonnage of the road, 
for 1857, was 530,420. The surplus earnings were 
31,854,926 86. The present officers of the road are- 
President, J. EDGAR THOMSON; Vice-President, W. B. 
FOSTER, JR. ; Treasurer, THOMAS T. FIRTH ; Secretary, 
EDMUND SMITH ; Gen'l Superintendent, THOS. A. SCOTT; 
Controler and Auditor, H. J. LOMBAERT ; Superintendent 



PHYSICAL ADVANTAGES FOR MANUFACTURING. 119 

Philadelphia Division, G. C. FRANCISCUS ; Superintendent 
Eastern Division, A. L. ROUMFORT ; Superintendent Mid- 
dle Division, THOMAS.?. SARGENT ; Superintendent Western 
Division, JOSEPH D. POTTS; General Freight Agent, H. H. 
HOUSTON. 

The last link in the chain is now perfected, connecting 
Philadelphia and Chicago, via Pittsburg, Fort Wayne and 
Chicago Rail-road ; other connections are constantly being 
made ; and the Pennsylvania Central Railway, fortunate 
in its mode of construction, and fortunate in its officers, 
will hereafter still further reduce the cost of transporta- 
tion between Philadelphia and the West, and perpetually 
prove an increasing source of benefit to both. 

The other great trunk line diverging from Philadel- 
phia, and increasing its rail-road connections with the 
South, is the PHILADELPHIA, WILMINGTON, AND BALTIMORE 
RAIL-ROAD. This road forms part of the great Southern 
mail route and being one of the oldest, is consequently 
one of the best known rail-roads in the country. The 
low charges for water carriage between Philadelphia and 
the prominent points of the South, have heretofore de- 
prived this road of any considerable revenue from 
freight ; but, nevertheless, the Company is now free from 
floating debt, has paid all the demands that were made 
upon it, and its regular dividend, without borrowing a 
dollar. This Company is peculiarly fortunate in its Pres- 
ident, 8. M. FELTON, Esq., who is regarded as one of the 
ablest rail-road officers in the country. 

A new road to Baltimore, entitled the Baltimore Cen- 
tral, connecting with the Westchester Rail-road, at 
Grubb's Bridge, is in course of construction, and thirty 
miles will probably soon be finished. This road, it is said, 
can bridge the Susquehanna. The minor rail-roads di- 
verging from Philadelphia, are the Philadelphia, German- 
town, and Norristown, which, in 1857, carried 1,378,228 
passengers ; and having as tributaries the Chester Valley 



120 



PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 



and Chestnut Hill Rail-roads ; and the Westchester Rail- 
road, of which seventeen miles are completed, and the 
balance (ten miles) graded and ballasted. 
The following Table exhibits the 

Names, Length, and Cost of the Bail-roads centering in Philadelphia 
with their Heceipts, Expenses, and Surplus Earnings, for 1857. 



Names. 


t 

a 

3 


Cast 


Gross Receipts. 


Expenses. 


Surplus 
Earnings. 


Pennsylvania * 


393 

9S 
98 
91 
28 
68 
21 
17 
61 


< 19,766,981.58 ) 
I 7,500,000.00 < 
19,262,720.27 
8,568.369.32 
5,563,580.11 
1,000,000.00 
6,106,280.57 
1.810,812.28 
1,300,000.00 


$4,855,669.76 

3,065,521.56 
1,143,852.69 
1,598,124.91 
operated in 
248,783.80 
312,958.63 
50,986.00 


$3,000,742.90 

1,481,745.22 
764,917.10 
880,131.17 
part by C. & 
112,186.65 
132,852.25 
39,000.00 


$1,854,926-86 

1,583,776.34 
378,935.59 
717,993.74 
A. Co. 
136,597.15 
170,268,75 
unfinished. 


Reading 


PUilad, Wil'g'n and Bait.... 
Camden aud Amboy f 


Philadelphia and Trenton... 
North Pennsylvania 


Philad. Germt'n & Norris'n. 
Westchester and Philad 
Camden and Atlantic 



* This inclndes the Indiana Branch, 19 miles ; Hollidaysburg Branch, 9 miles ; and Johns- 
town Branch, 37 miles but excludes the Harrisburg, Lancaster and Mountjoy Bail-road, 
(35 miles) which is leased, not owned by the Pennsylvania Kail-road. 

t This includes Trenton and other Branches. 

The rail-road system of Philadelphia, we may remark, 
in conclusion, adopting the language of one who has 
made it the subject of careful consideration, extends to 
all points of the compass, pushes out toward the ocean, 
pierces the coal regions of the North, reaches Eastward 
to the great seaports of the nation, drains the rich and 
fertile agricultural counties of our own State, and ex- 
tends Westward toward the Rocky Mountains and the 
gold region beyond. It is a grand plan, and needs but 
one important line to make it perfect. The Sunbury and 
Erie road must be completed to Lake Erie, to develope 
the resources of that portion of the State through 
which it passes, while our legitimate portion of the trade 
of the Northwest runs along it into the lap of Phila- 
delphia, which will be nearer to the great inland seas 
than either of her rivals Baltimore or New York. 

IV. The fourth and last subdivision of essential phys- 
ical advantages is a suitable climate a climate favorable 
to vigor of mind and health of body, and chemically 



PHYSICAL ADVANTAGES FOR MANUFACTURING. 121 

adapted for manufacturing processes. The climate of 
Philadelphia, in common with other portions of the 
State, we may say the countrj 7 , has undergone important 
changes within a half century. The winters are less 
uniformly cold than formerly, and the summers less uni- 
formly warm. Except during the winters of 1855-6, 
and 1856-7, which were entirely exceptional, ice in the 
Delaware has not presented any formidable obstruction 
to navigation for many years, and sleighing has been a 
sport of short duration. In the present winter (1857-8), 
no snow, worth mentioning, has fallen up to the middle 
of February ; and the weather during January was as 
genial as spring. In the summer, the thermometer some- 
times rises for a few consecutive days above 93 ; but 
the temperature invariably diminishes sensibly after 
sunset, and the nights are generally comfortable and re- 
freshing. The most disagreeable feature of the climate 
in summer is liability to sudden variations, amounting in 
some rare instances to 30 in twenty-four hours. These 
variations, however, it would seem, are more unpleasant 
than permanently injurious in their effects. 

The air of Philadelphia, compared with that of New 
York, has less keenness ; and being free from saline im- 
pregnation, it is less irritating to weak lungs. It was ob- 
served long since, and remarked by physicians, that per- 
sons did spit blood in New York who were entirely free 
from any pulmonic affection in Philadelphia. Compared 
with New England, generally, the winters in Philadelphia 
are less severe, and consequently less fuel is consumed ; 
while the days are of greater average length, thereby dimin- 
ishing the consumption of gas. Both of these items have 
a bearing upon economy of production in Manufactures. 
But the climate of Philadelphia has further some pecu- 
liar and remarkable properties, as is evidenced by its 
effects upon certain chemical processes. It is conceded, 
9* 



122 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

even by Englishmen, that the woven fabrics of southern 
Europe are superior to those of England in the richness 
and clearness of their colors ; and this superiority is ac- 
counted for by ascribing it to atmospheric qualities and 
peculiarities, for which neither the science of chemists 
nor the skill of dyers in England, has been able to pro- 
vide a complete equivalent. So, experience demon- 
strates, that it is possible in Philadelphia to attain a 
degree of excellence in dyeing fabrics, unattainable by 
the same processes anywhere else except in Southern 
Europe. A celebrated French dyer, whose local partial- 
ities are distant from this city, experimented in various 
localities in France and the United States, and found the 
climate and water nowhere in either country so well 
adapted for his purposes as those of Philadelphia. Hence, 
every year the practice is becoming more common with 
the merchants of Philadelphia, New York, and else- 
where, to import silks, and woolen goods in an unfin- 
ished state, have them dyed in Philadelphia, and then 
they readily command prices equal to the best French 
or European finished fabrics. 

In addition to these circumstances, which are con- 
sidered essential to success in Manufactures, there are 
many others so desirable and important, that they can 
scarcely be ranked as secondary. Foremost in this 
class is 

1. PUKITY OF WATER. Water, like climate, has a san- 
itary, and also a chemical bearing. The water princi- 
pally used in Philadelphia proper is from the Schuylkill ; 
while in Frankford, Bridesburg, and other important 
manufacturing adjuncts, there are springs possessing 
some remarkable properties. The Schuylkill water, as 
we learn from the report of Messrs. Booth and Garrett, 
who, in 1854, made it the subject of careful analysis, is 



WATER HEALTH. 123 

distinguished above almost all other waters for its purity 
and freedom from organic matter. Their very able re- 
port concludes with the following opinion : 

" We may further observe, that a comparison of our 
waters, with waters used elsewhere in the United States 
and in Europe, highly esteemed for their excellency, may 
be characterized by its greater purity, its slightly alkaline 
impregnation, and by being nearly free from organic 
matter. In conclusion, we infer that the Schuylkill water 
has deteriorated, in no important respects, from its former 
excellent quality ; is superior to most waters for domestic 
and manufacturing purposes; and lastly, a comparison 
of the past and present, leads to the inference, that no 
plan of improving the water will be required for many 
years to come." 

By analysis, it has been ascertained that the water of 
the Cochituate, (used in Boston,) contains 1,16 grs. of 
solid organic substances in one gallon ; and the Croton, 
(used in New York,) contains 4.28 grs., and that, too, 
after it had passed through forty-one miles of aqueduct ; 
while the Schuylkill water, taken directly from the river, 
before it had entered into the reservoir, and had time to 
deposit its solid particles, contained but a trace of organic 
matter. The chairman of the Philadelphia County Medical 
Society concludes, that we possess the advantage of a 
purer quality of water for drinking purposes than any 
other city in the United States, or perhaps the world over, 
a prerequisite as essential to the enjoyment of health, as 
it is necessary for the preservation of life itself. 

The sanitary results of the climate and the water aro 
manifested in 

2. THE STATISTICS OF HEALTH. The comparative 
healthfulness of various cities has been made a subject 
of careful observation by physicians and others, for more 



124 



PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 



than a half century, and the tables of mortality have 
uniformly shown that Philadelphia is the most healthy of 
the great cities of the United States. In 1806, when the 
city contained a larger population than JSTew York, the 
deaths per day in the former were 5f , and in the latter 
6. In 1810, the proportion of deaths to population, in 
Philadelphia, was one to fifty. In 1855, WILSON JEWELL, 
M. D., as chairman of the Committee on Epidemics of 
the State Medical Society, presented a report full of val- 
uable suggestions, and containing the following Table and 
remarks relative to the sanitary condition of our principal 
cities : 













Per ct. of 


Deaths 




1858 


Popula- 
tion. 


Total 
mortality. 


Ratio of 
deaths to 
population. 


every 1000 

inhabit- 


deaths un- 
der 5 years 
to total 


under 5 
years to 
every 


Ratio of 
still-born to 
deaths. 












mortality. 


1000. 




New York 


650000 


22,728 


1 in 28.59 


So. 


53.40 


18.67 


1 in 13.70 


Philadelphia 


500,000 


10,4o8 


1 in 47.81 


20.91 


44.86 


9.38 


1 in 17. 85 


Baltimore 


215,000 


5,465 


1 in 39.52 


25.41 


44.88 


11.40 


1 in 14.01 


Boston 


162,748 


4,308 


1 in 39.36 


26.59 


46.63 


12.40 


1 in 19.33 



" The averages, deductions, and comparisons drawn in this Table, 
prove conclusively that the mortality in our own city is much less, com- 
pared with the total of deaths, with the deaths to population, or with 
every thousand, than in the other Atlantic cities. 

" While in New York 1 in every 28 of the population dies annually, 
and in Baltimore and Boston 1 in every 39, in Philadelphia there is 
only 1 in every 47 ; more favorable by one half than the death rate of 
New York ; and, by nearly one fourth, more favorable than that of Bos- 
ton and Baltimore. 

" Again, the health of Philadelphia, contrasted with that of the other 
cities named in the Table, is shown by estimating the deaths to every 
thousand of the population. While New York contributes 35, Boston 
26, and Baltimore 25, Philadelphia gives only 20. 

" Nor can it be overlooked, that the infantile population in New York 
suffers by death to a far greater extent than in either of the other 
cities. Those under five years of age (exclusive of still-born) make up 
53 per cent, of the total mortality ; Boston 46 per cent. ; while Balti- 
more and Philadelphia are each 44 per cent. : less by 8 per cent, than 
the former, and 5 per cent, than those under five years in the latter 
city. 

" The deaths under five years in every thousand of the population 



HEALTH PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE. 125 

presents an equally favorable contrast ; New York furnishing 18, Bos 
ton 12, Baltimore 11, and Philadelphia only 9 in every thousand. 

" It will be seen, too, while the population in New York was but 13 
per cent, greater than that of Philadelphia, the deaths for the year 1855 
were 35.90 per cent, more than in our own city. The ratio of still-born 
children to the mortality is Jess in Philadelphia than in either of the 
other places. 

" The preceding estimates are sufficiently clear to maintain the posi- 
tion, that we are the healthiest of the large Atlantic cities, and that for 
salubrity, we should have the preference before the others named in the 
Table. 

The aggregate mortality in the four cities, in 1856 and 

1857, was as follows : 

7 jijj . -*<i 

1856. 1857. 

Philadelphia, 12,090 - 10,950 - Decrease, 1,140 

New York, 21,496 - 23,370 - Increase, 1,874 

Baltimore, 5,677 - 5,524 - Decrease, 153 

Boston, 4,170 . . 4,005 - Decrease, 165 

Total, 43,433 43,849 Increase, 416 

The proportion of deaths to population, it will be per- 
ceived, is about the same as in 1855, and the result 
equally* favorable to Philadelphia. 

3. PROTECTION AGAINST FIRES, &c. Disastrous fires, it 
is well known, occur more frequently in American than 
European cities ; and there was a period when Philadel- 
phia enjoyed an unenviable distinction in this respect, 
even among her sister cities. Fortunately that period 
has gone by, and we now may proclaim confidently that in 
no American city is life more secure, or property better 
protected, than in Philadelphia. One of the causes, it 
was ascertained, of the former prevalence of fires, and 
the destruction of property, was the feuds which in 
course of time had sprung up between the various organ- 
izations originally established for the extinguishment of 
fires. The system of voluntary association for this pur- 
pose, inaugurated, it is said, by Franklin, in 1732, 
though manifestly calling forth a great deal of self-sacri- 



126 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

fice and heroism, was regarded by many as a failure, or 
in other words, as better adapted for small towns than 
for large cities. But many of the evils developed from 
this source have been obviated by the reorganization of the 
Fire Department, recently effected: that is, by disbanding 
the most disorderly companies, dividing the city into dis- 
tricts, permitting only a prescribed number of companies 
to go into service except in case of a large fire, when 
the general alarm rung on the State-House bell calls 
the whole Department into requisition.* 

In 1856, another very important improvement was 
made by the establishment of a Police and Fire Alarm 
Telegraph, by which information can be communicated, 
at a moment's notice, to and from any of the sixteen 
Police-stations that comprise the jurisdiction. During 
1857, by this means, 34,207 messages were transmitted, 
3,430 lost children restored to their parents, 884 strayed 
and stolen animals were restored to owners, 392 fire 
alarms given, the Coroner notified 387 times, and 1,361 
Police-officers subpoenaed to testify before the courts. Still 
more recently, another safeguard was originated by the es- 
tablishment of the Fire Detective Police a department of 
the General Police specially charged with the duty of 
investigating fires and detecting incendiaries. The incep- 
tion of this wise measure is due, we believe, to the Mayor, 
the Hon. RICHARD VAUX, and its success and efficiency, 
largely to the signal ability of the chief officer, A. W. 
BLACKBURN. But the improvement that will probably be 
found the most effective of all, as a protection against se- 
rious loss by fire, is the introduction of Steam Fire Engines. 

*The Fire Department now consists of 42 Engine Companies, 43 Hose 
Companies, 6 Hook and Ladder Companies, and 1 Steam Fire Engine. 
Members about 8,500. Officers Chief Engineer, SAMUEL P. FEARON; 
Assistant Engineers : WM. E. STANCLIFF, DAVID M. LTLE, WM. M. LOUG- 
HBAD, MICHAEL YOUNG, JOHN GIVEN; Secretary and Treasurer, EDWIN F. 



PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE CAPITAL. 127 

"Within a few months past a Philadelphia firm, Messrs. 
REANEY, NEAFIE & Co., have produced a machine in all 
respects a striking contrast to its cumbersome and ineffi- 
cient Western predecessor, and which has revolutionized 
popular opinion with regard to the practicability of steam 
for this purpose. Several Steam Fire Engines are now in 
use in this city, and many others in course of construction. 
The law regulating the erection of buildings will, to 
some extent, diminish fires ; but the most efficient pro- 
tection against serious loss which manufacturers and 
owners of property in Philadelphia have, exists in the 
reliable character of numerous Insurance Companies, 
who are always prepared to take risks at low rates, and 
to meet losses with creditable promptness.* In view of 
all these circumstances, we are not surprised to learn, 
that the losses by fire within seven months, from May, 
1857, to January, 1858, were a quarter of a million of 
dollars less than for the corresponding period of 1856 ; 
and that the losses to the owners of property, that is, 
over and above insurance, within said period, amounted 
to only $54,780. 

3. ABUNDANCE OF CAPITAL. Another matter that has 
a bearing upon the adaptation of localities for manufac- 
tures, is the quantity of floating or loanable capital or, in 
other words, the normal state of the money market. The 
success of the English manufacturer, compared with that 
of the American, is probably due less to the low rate of 
wages in England, or to any other one circumstance, 
than to the low charges for the use of capital. In this 
country the rates of interest, advanced by the competi- 
tion engendered by the tempting opportunities for profit, 

We may probably insert in the Appendix a list of Insurance Companies 
of undoubted solvency, as in some degree a protection for our distant 
friends, and even our own citizens, against bogus Insurance Agencies, dat- 
ing from this city. 

' 



128 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

are in most places too high for Manufactures yet in 
their infancy, and weighed down by an inhospitable po- 
litical sentiment, to sustain. There is a marked differ- 
ence, however, in this respect between different localities, 
and we think we do not err in saying, that in no city in 
the United States have the rates of interest on second- 
class paper for an average of years been so uniform- 
ly low as in Philadelphia; none in which there are so 
many small surplus capitals, say from ten to one hundred 
thousand dollars and upward, constantly seeking in- 
vestment in temporary and permanent loans. Large for- 
tunes are, it is probable, less numerous now, or at least 
less prominently conspicuous, than formerly ;* the bank- 
ing capital of the city, being about $12,000,000, is hardly 
one third of the amount twenty years ago ; nevertheless, 
that unfailing barometer of money centres the average 
rate of interest has generally indicated an abundance 
of loanable capital. If our Manufacturers have not aa 
yet derived their proper share of benefit from this cir- 
cumstance ; or, if bank officers, in distributing their 
loans, have not exercised a wise discrimination in their 
favor, we sincerely hope that the mistake originated solely 

* A Book of Millionaires in Philadelphia, if published at this time, would 
be more imposing from its subject than its size, unless the author adopted 
the New York plan, and inserted the biographies of all who are worth a 
hundred thousand dollars, or so. There are, however, within our knowledge 
twenty-five individuals in this city accredited, by their intimate acquaint- 
ances, with the ownership of a million and more, viz. ; JOHN GRIGG, (retired 
Publisher) ; Jos. HAKRISON, Jr., (of Russian celebrity) ; QKO. W. CARPENTER, 
(druggist) ; RICHARD ASHURST, (private banker^ ; JOHN B. MYERS, (auc- 
tioneer); ALEX. BENSON, (broker); F. A. DREXKL, (banker); JACOB STEIN- 
HETZ, (farmer) ; J. S. LOVEBINQ, (sugar refiner) ; WM. H. STEWART, (planter) ; 
J. P. GROZER, (manufacturer); RICHARD WISTAR, JOHN WISTAR, JAMKS 

DCNDAS, J. J. RlDOWAY, DR. J. RflEA BARTON, DR. JAMES RUSH, CHARLES 

HENRY FISHER, J. FRANCIS FISHER, MRS. LOGAN, EVANS ROGEKS, H. MESS- 
CHERT, JOHN A. BROWN, DAVID JAYNE, J. L. FLORANCE, and several Million- 
aire estates. But the author of the " Wealthy Men in New York," who in- 
cluded NICHOLAS LONG WORTH, of Cincinnati, among the number, would 
find no difficulty in extending this list in Philadelphia. 



CAPITAL SUPERIOR MACHINES. 129 

in misconception as to the predominant interest of the 
city ; and that, with the aid of the late panic, in destroy- 
ing the blinding fascination of " gilt-edged paper," and 
perhaps in some humble degree, with the aid of this 
volume Manufacturers and Mechanics will hereafter ap- 
proximate more closely to that position in the scale of 
mercantile credit, to which the advantages of the locality, 
and their own solvency and usefulness, unquestionably 
entitle them. 

5. SUPERIOR MACHINES. The immense productive 
power of machinery, compared with mere manual opera- 
tions, can require at this day no illustration. For instance, 
by the improvements effected in Spinning Machinery, one 
man can attend to a mule containing 1,088 spindles; each 
spinning three hanks, or 3,263 hanks a day ; so that, as 
compared with the operations of the most expert spinner 
in Hindostan, an American operative can perform the 
work of three thousand men. The efficiency of ma- 
chinery, however, like that of labor, depends upon its 
quality ; and this, it would seem, depends upon the 
cheapness and abundance of the materials that enter 
into the composition of machines. In England, it has 
been supposed, that if Iron, Steel, and Brass, were less 
abundant, the machines would be in a less degree supe- 
rior; and in the United States, though the mechanical 
appliances in use are almost everywhere deserving of ad- 
miration none are probably more remarkable for power 
and efficiency than those in Philadelphia. A gentleman, 
who has quite recently made the Manufactures of Iron in 
this city the subject of investigation, publishes the fol- 
lowing observations respecting the machines in use in 
the Iron establishments : 

" In the course of our inquiries into the Manufactures of Iron in this 
city, the bearing of machinery upon production has been constantly 
brought to notice, and striking instances of its value have been observed. 
10 



130 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

In a leading establishment, where foundry work is the principal business, 
six thousand tons of iron being melted per year, the economical power 
of machinery in moving all the masses of iron is such that the produc- 
tion of each man exceeds three thousand dollars annually for the aver- 
age of all the employed. This is three times the production of equally 
skilled workmen, without machinery. The lowest average for foundry 
work, as well as for artisans in wrought iron, is below a thousand dol- 
lars per annum, and this whether they handle a large weight of iron or 
not, if the processes are conducted by physical strength alone, and 
wholly without the use of machinery. In short, the economy of ma- 
chinery applies alike to all forms of iron working, and to the processes 
which change its value least, equally with those which increase its value 
many times. 

" The introduction of machinery has revolutionized the simple pro- 
duction of Iron from the ores also. It has been stated to us that the 
anthracite furnaces now make six thousand tons of iron more easily 
than six hundred tons were made fifteen or twenty years ago. In every 
thing that relates to the making or working of iron there is the greatest 
possible inducement to the employment and perfecting of machinery, 
intended to economize the force required, and the labor employed. In 
this direction investment is safe, and capital is certain of satisfactory 
returns. The leading departments of iron manufacture furnish articles 
of universal yse and universal necessity, in which accumulation of 
stocks is not to be dreaded so much as the narrow margin between cost 
and sale prices. Reduce the cost of manufacture fifteen or twenty per 
cent., and the proprietor may proceed in the face of even a dull market, 
and indeed, under a total cessation of orders. The direction in which 
improvement lies is in perfecting and introducing powerful machinery, 
and every inducement concurs to urge attention to this point. 

" It is noticeable that the machinery employed in American manufac- 
tures of iron is new and original in almost all cases. The most signal 
economies of power in the establishments of this city are not by the use 
of purchased machinery, but they are the creations of the proprietors 
who use them, suggested in the course of their work, and devised and 
applied by themselves. In all forms of machinist manufacture those 
inventive and constructive processes are making rapid progress. The 
great capital they represent when finished, is capital created by the 
establishment, and not an investment from the outside. This fact 
guarantees the permanent efficiency of these manufactures, since such 
capital is not easily withdrawn, and the establishment is not broken up 
by temporary depression of a business, or even by the dispersion of 
workmen for a considerable time. 

" It has been recently stated that the machinery invented and applied 



SUPERIOR MACHINES MACHINE TOOLS. 131 

in American armories, private, as well as those belonging to the gov- 
ernment, is mm;h sought in Europe, and will soon be in almost universal 
nse abroad. This fact bears directly on the point we are stating. 
Machinist machinery is equally advanced here ; and at two or three of 
our great establishments it is confessedly superior to that of the cele- 
brated Lowell Machine Works, while constant improvements are being 
made. In the appliances for handling iron in heavy foundry work, the 
world may be challenged for comparison with the machinery of at least 
one great establishment here, and the most important items in that 
case are the absolute creation of the proprietors. It is obvious that 
such machinery differs widely, in its economical importance, from that 
which is purchased by direct expenditure, and particularly from any 
form of machinery imported from other quarters. 

" The direction in which this city always will excel is in the handling 
of heavy masses of metals. Power is cheapest here, and necessity first 
impels to the economy of forge-work, iron rolling, foundry-work, ship 
building, and costly machine building. In the minor manufactures the 
application of improvements is more rapidly made at the North ; but 
this is from want of attention here, instead of from want of the requi- 
site field and facilities. No location in the Union can compare with 
this in natural advantages for the manufacture of arms of every sort, 
cutlery and tools, implements of every kind, and the multitude of minor 
manufactures in which inventive talent and machinery decide the whole 
question of profitable attention to the business. The market is the 
whole world. At this moment many superior instruments of steel and 
iron are actually made here for European sale ; and the skill which does 
this now on a small scale, only requires the aid of more perfect ma- 
chinery, and the capital necessary to work it, to make the business all 
that the most sanguine might wish." 

In the production of MACHINE TOOLS, and fine as well 
as heavy machinery, very marked success has attended 
the efforts of our mechanical engineers. The Lathes, 
Planers, Drills, Borers, and the machinery for working 
metals generally, made in Philadelphia, are wonderful 
specimens of workmanship, and celebrated not only 
throughout the United States, but in portions of Europe. 
A few years ago, Commissioners were sent to this coun- 
try to procure tools and machines for the government 
workshops in Russia. Discharging their duty faithfully, 
they visited, we believe, all the manufactories of these 



132 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

important articles in New England and the principal 
cities ; and, though they found the prices in some in- 
stances nominally cheaper, their order was reserved 
until they again reached this city. The machines of 
New England, in consequence of the great cost of iron, 
are remarkable for their lightness ; but in substantial ex- 
cellence and quality of workmanship, none can compare 
with those of Philadelphia. 

In reflecting upon the causes conducive to superiority 
in this particular, it has occurred to me as probable, that 
the establishment and continuance of the United States 
Mint, in this city, have tended in some degree, by creating 
a demand for a finer and higher class of workmanship, to 
centre here the best skill in this department of Me- 
chanics. No expense being spared by the able managers 
of that Institution to procure the most perfect machines ; 
and every reasonable facility being afforded for experi- 
ment, we need scarcely wonder at the degree of perfec- 
tion that has been attained. Our Mint has probably 
originated a greater number of valuable improvements 
than any similar establishment in the world ; and all per- 
sons familiar with its past history and present manage- 
ment, unite with the Committee of the Board of Assay 
Commissioners, in stating " that the Institution, in their 
opinion, is conducted and maintained in such a manner 
as to merit the highest confidence of the Government and 
the public."* 

* The Director of the Mint has favored me with the following letter, in 
answer to a request for some information respecting the machines, and the 
curiosities to be seen in that establishment ; and, as it will be read with 
interest, I trust he will pardon its publication. 

"MiNT OP THE UNITED STATES, 

Philadelphia, Jan. 21, 1858. 
"DEAR SIR: 

" Without being able at present to go minutely into the subjects 
mentioned in your note of the 5th, I may state, that the establishment and 



ESTABLISHED REPUTATION. 133 

6. ESTABLISHED REPUTATION. Established reputation, 
though in its nature etherial, is an object of substantial 
value a power in the money market. It is of two 
kinds personal and local. The marketable value of 

continuance of the Mint, in this city, have undoubtedly had their share in 
calling forth the various kinds of scientific and mechanical talent, which 
are requisite for the successful conduct of such an Institution. 

"Within a period, now embracing more than sixty years, there has been 
a large amount of machinery manufactured for, and within the Mint estab- 
lishment, from the more ordinary workmanship up to the most delicate and 
elaborate. A number of important mechanisms and processes have had 
their origin and invention here ; and others, borrowed from other places, 
have been modified and improved. Some instruments, it is true, are still 
imported; but they are now of comparatively trivial account, being such as 
are of so limited demand, as not to be an object for the attention of our 
artists. 

" The most important improvements introduced into the Department of 
the Chief Coiner, have been, the press for cutting out blanks or planchets ; 
the draw-bench for equalizing the strips afterward adopted in the London 
Mint ; the old self-feeding lever-coining press, and after it the steam 
press; the milling machine; the counting machine; and the arrangements 
for cleaning; also, many fine balance beams, large and small; and an as- 
sorting machine, not as yet brought into use. The system of hardening dies 
was originated at the Mint, and is greatly superior to the methods hereto- 
fore practiced. 

" In the Melter and Refiner's Department, we may specify the parting 
arrangement, for separating gold and silver ; the hydraulic press, for con- 
densing the powdered gold or silver; the sweep machine; and the various 
arrangements by which the melting has been made a neat and economical 
operation. 

"In the Assayer's Department: the delicate balances; the gas-bath; 
and generally, the systematic arrangements for the assay of gold, silver, 
and copper. 

"The Cabinet of coins, medals, and ores, which occupies a suite of 
apartments at the Mint, is an attractive feature in the Institution. The 
collection is not very large, if compared with similar Cabinets in Europe ; 
but it is sufficiently so to furnish valuable information on the subject of 
Coinage, and useful monuments of history. Besides, an examination of tho 
collection gratifies popular curiosity, as well as educated taste. 

* I may add in conclusion, that the Mint has, within a year or two past, 
been rendered thoroughly fire-proof in all its departments, and the arrange- 
10* 



134 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

the products of mechanical industry, every one will 
concede, is affected riot merely by the reputation of the 
maker, but also to a greater or less extent by the gen- 
eral reputation of the place of their manufacture. No 
illustration of the principle can be necessary; but if it 
were, we might refer to France, the stamp of whose 
city, "Paris," on articles of vertu, of itself commands a 
premium; or again, we might refer to New England, 
whose stamp unfortunately, in many instances, does not 
tend to elevate the price of articles to which it is at- 
tached. The value of a good name is appreciated, per- 
haps, by none so forcibly as by those who have lost it. 
The manufacturers and mechanics of New England 
would no doubt give millions to obliterate from human 
recollection the impressions produced, in part, by oper- 
ations in wooden nutmegs, mahogany hams, oak-leaf 
cigars, and paper-soled shoes. Deceptions of this kind, 
and trickeries frequently practiced by Yankee operators, 
though we believe and insist only by a few, and the pro- 
duction of a vast quantity of cheap, fragile fabrics, have 
so impaired confidence in Yankee contrivances in gen- 
eral, that all, no matter how excellent in themselves, 
are prejudged unfavorably from the place of their origin. 
To avoid this prejudice, or to partake of the advantages 
of an established reputation, New England manufactu- 
rers are often tempted to put foreign or fictitious stamps 
on their best fabrics ; and thus our country loses its share 
of credit for the excellence it has achieved, while it must 

nient of the rooms appropriated to the different branches of business greatly 
improved. It is thus in a condition of great efficiency and security, and is 
believed to be unsurpassed by any similar institution. 
" I am, very respectfully, 

" Your ob't servant, 

"JAMES ROSS SNOWDEN, 

" Director of the Mint. 
"To E. T. FRKEDLBT, Esq." 



OPPORTUNITIES TOR ART-CULTURE. 135 

bear the reproach of its defaults. But mechanics in 
Philadelphia, fortunately, have none of these difficulties 
to overcome. The same manufacturers, if located here, 
and we welcome them, would find the way clear before 
them, the prepossessions of people at a distance in the 
South and the West in their favor, and their products 
commanding a readier sale in consequence. Every 
auctioneer will testify that a Philadelphia made car- 
riage will command more spirited bidding, and most 
probably a higher price, than a Connecticut carriage of 
equal quality. The stamp, "Philadelphia," is every- 
where regarded as prima facie evidence of good ma- 
terials and superior workmanship. A Philadelphia me- 
chanic is everywhere a title of reputable distinction, 
and a very acceptable passport to employment in every 
intelligent master-workman's shop. Hence our Manu- 
facturers reverse the practice of their competitors in New 
England, and put their names and stamp on their best 
products, leaving the inferior in some instances to those 
who choose to adopt them.* 

7. Lastly. OPPORTUNITIES FOR ART-CULTURE. Art, 
in its relations to Manufactures, has not, until quite re- 
cently, been appreciated by any considerable portion of 
the American, or even the English people, to a degree 
in anywise approximate to its importance. Both have 
long known, it is true, that certain goods sell better than 
others that English and American prints, for instance, 
would be less saleable at the same price than those of 
France ; yet, even while claiming superiority in the qual- 
ity of the cloth, neither has been willing to attach any 
special importance to beauty and originality of design. 

The principal exception to this rule is, that New York dealers some- 
times pay such irresistibly tempting prices to have their names affixed, as 
makers, to articles nctunlly made in Philadelphia, that our Manufacturers 
forego the honor for the sake of the money. 



136 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTUPvES. 

This is the more remarkable, inasmuch as it must be 
evident to the least imaginative, how many articles are 
valued mainly for their style of ornamentation. We 
might mention carpetings and floor-cloths, carved wood 
and furniture, curtains, and other hangings ; inlaid 
floors, ornamental glass, stained glass, metal work, grates 
and stoves, gas fittings, paper and other hangings, por- 
celain, pottery, works in the precious metals, works in 
stone, and a great variety of garment fabrics. The 
French, in the meanwhile, have unceasingly aimed at 
perfection in the Ornamental Arts. To improve the na- 
tional taste, they long ago established Schools of Design 
and National Collections of Art ; and to train up a band 
of skilled workmen, they more recently erected National 
Manufactories, employing the best painters, sculptors, 
and designers, as well as men of the most scientific ac- 
quirements in Botany, Mineralogy, and Chemistry. In 
these establishments the cost of repeated failures is 
totally disregarded, and every effort made to bring to 
perfection the fabrics wrought in them, both as to the 
highest excellence in workmanship and materials, and to 
their embellishment in ornamental design. The result is, 
that both English and American Manufacturers must 
admit, as Cobden did before a Manchester audience, 
" we do not know what we shall have to print, nor what 
the ladies will wear, till we find out what the French are 
preparing for the next spring." But with all their 
schools, Art collections, and national manufactories, we 
do not believe that the French would have attained any 
notable success in decoration, if they had adopted the 
Yankee system of segregation ; and instead of carrying 
on their manufactures in cities like Paris and Lyons, they 
had sought cheap lots, gentle water-falls, and the mossy 
banks of meandering streams. Taste is a thing of cul- 
ture it is only in isolated instances, if ever, a gift of 



OPPORTUNITIES FOR ART-CULTURE. 137 

Nature. The ability to judge, and especially to execute 
what is tasteful in works of Art, is the result of long 
familiarity with good models and constant observation 
of the master-pieces in Art. The sight of excellence in 
the products of skilled workmanship stimulates to exer- 
tion, and produces excellence in other fabrics perhaps 
essentially dissimilar. Hence, the great advantage of car- 
rying on the higher class of Manufactures in or near the 
cities abounding in the best models, and where the eye, 
if not the hand, may be educated almost imperceptibly 
to a high degree of artistic perception. 

Now, if we were seeking some one of the various 
cities in which to apply these principles, where, we would 
ask, is the principal home of the Arts in America? 
"Which contains the finest models in Architecture, Sculp- 
ture, and Painting ? There could be but one answer 
Philadelphia. No other city in the Union contains so 
many buildings that are models of classic beauty so 
many evidences of a cultivated taste so many eminent 
artists and, we may say, so many devotees of Music, for 
no other city has been able to sustain the Italian Opera 
with equal success. A procession of those in this city, 
who make Art their study, would be imposing from its 
numbers, as well as the talents of its members. At their 
head, by common consent, we would find the veterans 
Sully, Neagle, and Peale ; and not far behind them, Lamb- 
din, Waugh, Scheussle, Hamilton, Rothermel, "Weber, 
Van Starkenborg, Moran, Schindler, Conarroe, Boutelle, 
and Bowers ; and among the younger men, George C. 
Lambdin, George F. Bensell, Edwin Lewis, Haseltine, 
Richards, Furness, and many others, who are entitled to 
a niche in the temple of artistic fame ; while in the ranks 
there would be many who, when the leaders fall, can 
fill their places many Engravers on wood and steei, 
and Lithographers, who give to our Government's costly 



138 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

publications their principal value and attractions many 
Designers and Artists in bronze, whose chandeliers and 
lamps, at the World's Fair, extorted admiration from 
the English and French for " lightness and purity of 
design," some beautiful women, too, whose cultivated 
fancies, stamped on paper or woven fabrics, gladden 
the eye in thousands of homes; and sculptors, whose 
works in stone and marble grace Galleries and Capitols, 
and whose sarcophagi and mausoleums adorn almost 
all the Cemeteries in the land. Ornamental Art is with- 
out a home in America, if it be not in Philadelphia. 
Here then is the proper place for the establishment of a 
Normal School of Design, to supply manufacturing towns 
throughout the country with competent teachers, who 
may aid in elevating the Art-products of America to a 
level with those of the most advanced European coun- 
tries. We trust some one of our men of fortune will in- 
herit the blessings of future ages by endowing such an 
Institution, and in connection therewith establish a Mu- 
seum of Art, which shall contain all the best models 
ancient and modern in every department of Decorative 
Art, from a coffee-pot to an original Apollo Belvidere. 

' ' ' ' ' I ' i f'-llir'Htill'l ' i I >' ' ' ' "/ f ' ' , . I 

There are many other advantages that might be noted 
the law of limited liability in Partnership for instance 
tending to show that Philadelphia ought to attain 
eminence in Manufactures. We, however, pass them by, 
for they may all be included in one point, viz., Philadel- 
phia is already a great Manufacturing city. I hold it to 
be eminently safe to infer, that a locality in which manu- 
facturing industry has already taken a deep, permanent 
root, particularly if it manifest an indigenous growth, 
possesses a soil adapted therefor, whether by analysis 
we can perceive the ingredients or not. Moreover, it 
seems probable, almost certain, that the spot in this 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY OF PHILADELPHIA. 139 

country now exhibiting the most varied and extensive 
development of mechanical industry, in conjunction with 
enduriugly favorable circumstances, will remain for a 
century to come the central and chief seat of the higher 
and more artistic Manufactures in America, notwith- 
standing the growth and promise of other places pos- 
sessing theoretically marked advantages. 

To illustrate the present development of manufactur- 
ing industry in Philadelphia, I herewith submit the 
results, not generally of my own observation or knowl- 
edge, but that of others, and principally of reports 
made to me by gentlemen specially employed to report 
on certain branches men far more competent and more 
experienced in mechanical matters than myself and not 
one of whom is a native of this city. Months have been 
occupied in this investigation ; but as comparatively 
few facts, especially statistical facts, after due inquiry, 
could be precisely and accurately ascertained, and none 
others were desired, the reports give no indication of the 
labor involved.* ' ^.'', 

Numerous attempts have been made at different times to investigate 
the manufacturing industry of Philadelphia. Several years ago a Statis- 
tical Society was organized, we believe, for the express purpose of ascertain- 
ing the capital in trade and manufactures, the number of hands employed 
and wages paid, and the aggregate of production; but its officers, we un- 
derstand, have not as yet submitted their report. More recently, a com- 
mittee of highly respectable and trustworthy gentlemen, appointed by 
the Board of Trade, undertook the commission ; but the most important 
information that they ascertained and reported was, that "inquiries of 
this kind are exceedingly impertinent and offensive, and they will not be 
answered ; nor can any authority compel a response to them. They will be 
either treated with silence; or, if replied to, they will elicit no full and re- 
Liable intelligence. We do not make this assertion without ample reason." 
The Board of Trade consequently recommend, and their advice has been 
heeded by us, not to extend inquiries beyond what can be precisely and 
accurately ascertained. If, by this course, a less number of important 
facts are elicited, many rash or doubtful assertions are avoided. Our con- 
viction with respect to statistics is, that the mean of estimates of intelligent 



140 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

They may also, to a certain extent, be considered the 
opinions of one or more of the leading men in each 
branch of industry; for large indebtedness is due to this 
source, both for original suggestions and confirmation of 
points otherwise doubtful. The reports submitted are 
not intended to exhibit the entire manufacturing indus- 
try of Philadelphia to ascertain that would require the 
purse of Fortunatus, and inquisitorial powers far greater 
than any possessed by the Pope of Rome, the King of Na- 
ples, or the Emperor of all the Russias, or all of them 
combined but simply to state the facts that have come 
within the range of our observation, and submit them 
in illustration of the position and assertion, that Phila- 
delphia is already a great Manufacturing city, most prob- 
ably the greatest in the Union. 

men, familiar with the branch with which they are connected, or with the 
business of their neighbors, is likely to lead to more reliable aggregate 
results than any direct personal inquiries of each individual. In the latter 
case, the small operators who reply at all, are habitually disposed to exag- 
gerate, and the larger ones, who have a mortal aversion to the tax-gatherer 
and competitors, frequently report a small product and a gloomy state of 
affairs. It is probable, however, that each succeeding attempt will be 
attended with more success than the previous ones ; and the time will come 
when it will be possible to exhibit statistically the particulars, as well as 
the aggregate of the mechanical and manufacturing industry of Philadel- 
phia. At present, the best than can be done is to make a readable exhibit. 



REPORTS 

UPON THE 

PROGRESS AND PRESENT DEVELOPMENT 

OF THE 

LEADING BRANCHES OF PRODUCTIVE INDUSTRY 

IN 

PHILADELPHIA. 



ASSUMING that an Alphabetical arrangement of subjects would 
be most convenient for reference ; but, deeming it advisable to 
group together those which have practically some points of affin- 
ity, whether through identity of raw material or similarity in uses, 
we come to 

I. 
Agricultural Implements, Seeds, Fertilizers, &c. 

The manufacture of Agricultural Implements, we are somewhat 
astonished to learn, is comparatively a new branch of industry in 
Philadelphia. It seems almost incredible that her citizens, ever fore- 
most, as we have shown them to have been, in enterprises designed 
to promote Agricultural Improvement, were, until within a few 
years, content that the farmers of Pennsylvania and New Jersey 
should be dependent upon other States for the improved imple- 
ments with which to till the soil. The deficiency, however, is 
now supplied. Philadelphia now contains some very superior 
establishments in this branch of industry, as will be seen by the 
following report, which a gentleman, thoroughly familiar with the 
subject, has placed at our disposal. 

Pennsylvania, so widely celebrated for her Agriculture, did not make 
within her borders, until within a few years, many of the Implements 
used in tillage and harvesting. It is true, almost every cross-road had its 
blacksmith and wheelwright, whose united efforts produced a plow, or 
u harrow ; and many of the former stand, to the present day, unrivaled 

11 (HI) 



142 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

ill the immediate locality of their production ; but regular Agricultural 
Machine-shops are of quite recent establishment, the larger portion of 
the Implements, formerly sold at the city warehouses, having been 
imported from New England, whose sterile soil had compelled its ener- 
getic sons to seek more profitable occupation than its tillage, 

In 1854, we find, was founded the first establishment in Eastern 
Pennsylvania, for the manufacture of Agricultural Implements gene- 
rally ; prior to that, there were shops located for specific objects, as for 
instance Grain Drills, tff which those made by Steacy, and by Pennock, 
had acquired marked celebrity; but for the manufacture of Farm Im- 
plements generally, we believe none of any moment existed. In the 
year abovementioned, David Landreth & Son, who, with their prede- 
cessors in the house, had for many years kept large supplies in Phila- 
delphia, obtained from various sources, established their Steam-works 
at Bristol, not only for the supply of their principal warehouse in Phil- 
adelphia, and their branch-houses in Charleston, S. C., and St. Louis, 
but for the trade in general. Shortly subsequent thereto, was likewise 
established that of Bradfield, the ' Mount Joy Car Manufacturing Com- 
pany,' Savery's Eagle Plow Factory, that of C. B. Eogers, and Boas, 
Spangler & Co., of Reading, and more recently Boyer & Brother, each of 
whom turn out admirable machines, both as regards workmanship and 
materials ; and Philadelphia, once dependent upon other cities for 
tillage implements, is now not only independent, but capable of minis- 
tering to the wants of her sister States ; and we trust all from distant 
points, whom business or pleasure may bring among us, will examine 
the rural machinery manufactured in and near our city. 

GARDEN SEED TRADE. The Seed trade of Philadelphia, though, in 
comparison with many other branches, one of very limited extent, is 
nevertheless entitled to consideration, when discussing the industrial 
pursuits of our citizens. From its nature, it cannot be expected that 
we should count the amount of sales, in this department, by millions 
a few hundreds of thousands, at the most, complete the aggregate ; but 
the reputation which our city sustains in this especial branch, is more 
worthy of note than the amount of sales, however large they might be. 
In no city of the Union, is the sale of Garden Seeds conducted as at 
Philadelphia. In New York, Boston, and Baltimore, the only other 
points at which the wholesale trade in Seeds approaches a profession, the 
supplies are mainly obtained from Europe, where the effect of cheap labor 
upon prices, coupled with freedom from imposts at home, enables the 
'mporter to purchase many varieties for sale here at a cost far below the 
actual expense of production in this country. It is true the humid 
climate of Great Britain, from which country the major portion are 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS, SEEDS, ETC. 143 

obtained, is not favorable to ripening Seeds, and that many kinds suffer 
by a sea voyage so greatly do they swell, that the twine on papered 
parcels is not nnfrequently imbedded, or burst, by the expansion; 
and in other cases, there is reason to believe Seeds already im- 
paired by age, are shipped to this ' western wilderness.' Still so low- 
priced are many, in comparison with the American, that the mere 
dealer, whose study is to buy cheap, imports his stock not reck- 
lessly we hope, but trusting for the best, and anxious to quote low 
prices to the country-merchant a fatal policy to none affording in 
the end pleasure or profit. The druggist, or merchant, who retails 
them, enticed by low quotations, is beset by indignant planters ; and the 
market-gardener, who has unfortunately staked his crop upon the 
issue, finds his land and labor for the season have been cast away far 
better for him had he paid the full price for American Seeds, of reliable 
character. We trust he may have learned a useful lesson, for that 
must be his compensation. 

In the ' Horticulturist,' a periodical of high repute, as associated 
with Downing, its founder and editor, we find, in the No. for August, 
1854. an interesting article on ' The Seed Trade of Philadelphia,' attrib- 
uted to J. J. Smith, Esq., the present efficient editor of that maga- 
zine. 1 presume your limits will not admit of quoting much there said, 
but refer the reader to the article itself. The fact is there made known, 
that in the production of American Seeds, Philadelphia stands pre-emi 
nent if not alone, almost without a rival ; and the productions of one 
establishment, which dates its origin within a few years of the Revolu- 
tion, are sought for and exported to nearly every country to which 
American commerce reaches. Tons are annually shipped to the Brit- 
ish possessions, to India and South America, the West Indies, and the 
shores of the Pacific, each of which call for annual supplies. One firm, 
which is specially alluded to, by reason of its greater prominence, viz., 
that of David Landreth & Son, has Seed Grounds, (Bloomsdale, near 
Bristol), embracing nearly four hundred acres, cultivated in drill crops, 
requiring a large force of hands, twenty head of working stock, and a 
steam-engine for threshing and cleaning seeds. The estate, in its 
entirety, exceeds any similar establishment in the world. Robert Buist 
and H. A. Dreer are also extensive growers ; and we proudly claim for 
Philadelphia a class of seed merchants, worthy the confidence of 
all who may have occasion to purchase, whether for personal use or 
purposes of trade. 

FRUITS. The market of Philadelphia has long been famous for 
the quality and abundance of its Fruits the products of orchards in 
the vicinity of the city. There might be seen in high perfection the 



144 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

choicest of each class, affording all interested the opportunity of useful 
comparison, and test of relative value; whilst annually a show of 
Fruits, held by the Horticultural Society, the accumulated contribu- 
tions of every quarter, facilitates practical comparison with similar ar- 
ticles, drawn from distant sources. Hence, it may readily be seen that 
Philadelphia nurserymen have ample and valuable opportunities to de- 
termine the kinds and varieties most worthy of propagation. 

For some years past the culture of the PEAR has attracted more than 
ordinary interest ; and it is a fact, which should not be passed unno- 
ticed, that Philadelphia and its neighborhood have spontaneously pro- 
duced some of the most valuable varieties of this fruit : seedling trees 
not surpassed by any, either of native or foreign origin. Here was the 
nativity of the Seckel, of world-wide notoriety of the Kingsessing, the 
Lodge, the Tyson, the Ott, the Philadelphia, the Moyamensing, the 
Petre, and some others of high value ; and here is the residence of Dr. 
W. D. Brinkl6, whose indefatigable labors in pomological research have 
gratified his fellow-citizens and benefited the world at large. 

We might extend this sketch of the Agricultural resources of 
Philadelphia, but perhaps enough has already been said to enable you 
to illustrate the idea which we desire to express, that the City of Broth- 
erly Love stands unrivaled in this department of industry." 

In addition to Garden Seeds, referred to above, Philadelphia is 
one of the principal distributing points for Clover and other field 
Seeds, not only supplying the Southern and Western States, but 
sending largely to New England, Great Britain, and the British 
Provinces. Within the last two months, 46,180 bushels of Clover- 
seed were purchased, and recleaned here for shipment, of which 
35,000 bushels were shipped to Liverpool and to New York, 3,000 
bushels to the South, and the balance to points in the interior, 
and to the West. A large proportion of the very best Seeds, 
and noted particularly for cleanness and quality, is grown in the 
counties adjacent to Philadelphia. The annual sales, we are 
assured, frequently amount to one million of dollars. One firm, 
Messrs. P. B. MINGLE & Co., through whose hands an immense 
quantity of Seeds pass annually, are known probably to all dealers. 

FERTILIZERS. 

The manufacture of Artificial Manures has become quite 
an extensive business within a few years. Those made in Phil- 
adelphia, are known as Super-phosphate of Lime, Bone-dust, 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS, SEEDS, ETC. 145 

Plaster of Paris, Pondrette, Philadelphia TJrate, or the con- 
centrated and fixed nitrogen of urine, and Bone-black waste. 
In addition to these, there are agencies for the sale of the Peruvian 
Guano, for a fertilizer known as Blood Manure, and others. The 
popularity of Peruvian Guano was such, that in one year the sales 
of the agent in Philadelphia amounted to 22,000 tons, at $40 per 
ton, or $880,000 ; but the advance in price checked the demand, and 
led to the manufacture of a great variety of Artificial Manures. 

The substitute for Guano, that would seem to be in the greatest 
demand with the farmers of Pennsylvania, and adjacent States, 
judging from the extent of the manufacture, is the SUPER-PHOS- 
PHATE OP LIME. It is said to possess fertilizing properties more 
permanent than those of Guano. Though only introduced fully 
to public notice in 1851, its manufacture now forms an item of 
some importance in the general aggregate of industry. It is 
a somewhat singular fact, that when first introduced it commanded 
a higher price per ton than Peruvian Guano. 

There are seven manufacturers of Super-phospate of Lime in 
Philadelphia, who are well represented by the two most extensive 
POTTS & KLETT, and MITCHELL & CROASDALE. 

The manufactory of POTTS & KLETT is situated near Camden, 
but their product is sold exclusively by a house in this city. 
This firm are also well-known manufacturers of Chemicals. The 
works of Messrs. MITCHELL & CROASDALE are situated in the 
Nineteenth Ward, and cover nearly an acre of ground. They 
produce what they call " Highly Improved Super-phosphate of 
Lime," being a compound of ground bones, Peruvian guano, and 
other substances. The bones are first boiled the fat extracted, 
and pure bone, free from vegetable ivory, which is merely inert 
matter, is alone manufactured into .fertilizers. Additional works 
are now being erected for boiling bone. Their products are 
sold by CROASDALE, PIERCE & Co., Delaware Avenue, above 
Arch street. 

Another preparation of bones, known as Bone-dust, is made 
to a considerable extent by the manufacturers of Glue, &c., and 
by FRENCH, RICHARDS & Co. The latter firm, and the Phoenix 
Mill and others, make Plaster of Paris for fertilizing purposes. 

With regard to the relative merits of the respective fertilizers, 
11* 



146 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

we know nothing, and can only refer those interested to Agri- 
cultural Chemists, or to the pamphlet circulars of the manufac- 
turers, in which the properties of each are duly set forth. We can 
however assure purchasers, that they can probably procure, in 
Philadelphia, any fertilizer of value that they may desire, on 
advantageous terms. 

The Statistics of the Manufacture, for 1857, as nearly as can 
be ascertained, are as follows : 

Super-phosphate of Lime, 7,000 tons, or 55,000 bbls., at $45 per ton, $3)5,000 

Bone-dust, 2,000 tons, at $35 per ton, 70,000 

Plaster of Paris, 3,000 tons, at $6 per ton, ..... 18,000 

Other Fertilizers (see above) approximate, ..... 100,000 

$503,000 

The annual sales of Fertilizers in the city, including Guano, the 
refuse of tanneries, morocco manufactories, sugar refineries, &c., 
will probably amount to a million and a half of dollars. It is, 
however, much to be regretted, that the sweepings of the streets, 
and human ordure, are not more carefully economized to aid in res- 
toring to the earth the fertility of which it is robbed by the neces- 
sary consumption of a vast city. In Paris, a contractor pays a 
large sum into the City treasury, for the privilege of removing these 
fertilizers, and yet derives a handsome profit from the contract. 

II. 

Alcohol, Burning Fluid, and Camphene. 

There are in the city nine establishments engaged in distilling 
Alcohol and Camphene, or Pine Oil, several of whom make it an 
exclusive business. Alcohol, it is generally known, is distilled 
from Whisky nine gallons of the latter making about five of the 
former. Alcohol, for burning-fluid, is 95 per cent., while Drug- 
gists' Alcohol is but 84 per cent., being reduced to that standard 
after distillation. Pine Oil, or Camphene, is distilled from Spir- 
its of Turpentine, the well-known produce of the pine forests of 
North Carolina. This loses in distillation about one gallon in a 
barrel, or two and a half per cent. Burning Fluid is made by the 
admixture of one gallon of Pine Oil to four gallons of Alcohol. 

The Statistics of the business, for the year ending July 1, 1857, 
are as follows : 



ALCOHOL, BURNING FLUID, AND CAMPHENE. 147 

Raw Material. 

Whisky, 2,077,000 gallons, average cost 31 c., - - - $643,870 
Spirits of Turpentine, 380,000 gallons, average cost, 47 c., 178,600 



$822,470 
Product. 

Alcohol, gold by distillers, ..... 395,000 gallons. 
Pine Oil, "".----- 147,250 " 
Burning Fluid, ... .;,,,,.._ . 1,112,000 " 



1,654,250 
Of the value of $1,022,140, averaging nearly 62 cents per gallon. 

There are a number engaged in the sale of Burning Fluid, who 
purchase the Alcohol and Pine Oil from the distillers, and these 
are included in the above statement. The product may be stated, 
in another form, as follows : 

Alcohol, ^-^mtVsI 1,284,600 gallons. 

Pine Oil or Camphene, ..... 369,650 " 



Total, 1,654,250 " 

This does not embrace the Alcohol produced by Powers and 
Weightman, and other Manufacturing Chemists, the value of 
which is included in the Statistics of Chemicals ; nor that made 
by Rectifiers, which is known as " High Wines." 

Burning Fluid was first known as Spirit Gas, and the discov- 
ery patented by Isaiah Jennings, in 1830, who soon after com- 
menced its manufacture in Philadelphia, but subsequently aban- 
doned it. Mr. Locke made it under the Jennings patent, and 
was the only manufacturer in Philadelphia to any extent, previous 
to the expiration of the patent in 1844. The merits of Burning 
Fluid, as a material for light, consist in its brilliancy, cheapness, 
and far greater cleanliness than Oil ; its principal demerit is 
liability to explosion. Upon this important point, we have been 
favored by Messrs. Yarnall & Ogden, one of the principal firms 
engaged in the manufacture, with the following observations, 
which deserve attention, both from their intrinsic importance and 
the experience of those who make them. 

" It has been ascertained, that nearly all the accidents attending the 
nse of Burning Fluid originated, either by attempting to fire shavings, 
or other combustible materials, with a fluid lamp, mostly glass ; or, 



148 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

by attempting to fill the lamp while burning. This is by far the most 
fruitful source of accidents but thanks to the inventive genius of the 
American people, several kinds of lamps have been patented, and are 
now in use, which entirely prevent the possibility of an accident occurring 
from this cause, for the act of unscrewing the top of the lamp, puts 
out the flame by the action of a spiral spring which forces up the slides 
on the tubes, and thereby extinguishes the flame, and entirely prevents 
the possibility of an accident ; and to make it still more complete, the 
fluid is confined in a gutta-percha sack, so that in case of a glass lamp 
falling and breaking, the flame cannot possibly ignite the fluid. There 
are still other improvements in these lamps one is, that the gas and 
not the fluid is consumed, thereby making a light equal to gas. Per- 
sons using the fluid would do well to introduce these lamps." 

The firms engaged extensively in this manufacture, are the fol- 
lowing : 

Z. LOCKE & Co., 1010 Market street. This firm are said to be 
the oldest and the largest distillers of Alcohol in the city. Mr. 
Locke, the senior partner, commenced the distillation in 1829 ; 
and, as we previously stated, was for many years the only one 
who made it an exclusive business. Besides druggists', and 95 
per cent. Alcohol, they make Atwood's Patent Alcohol, which, 
on account of its purity and freedom from any disagreeable 
smell, is preferred and much used by perfumers. The manufac- 
factory of Messrs. Locke & Co. is an important one. 

P. BUSHONQ & SONS, Broad street, above Race. This firm are 
very extensively engaged in the production of Alcohol, and the 
manufacture of Burning Fluid. They combine therewith the 
distillation of Whisky from grain, having a large establishment 
therefor at Reading, consuming about 166,000 bushels of Corn 
annually, and 84,000 bushels of Rye ; and thus all the processes 
are economized, by conducting in one establishment the entire 
manufacture, from the original raw material to the finished pro- 
duct. The firm employ forty persons, ship goods eastward, and 
their fluid has attained a high reputation for quality. 

YARNALL & OGDEN, 472 North Third street. To this house 
we previously referred. They are the successors, at their present 
location, of those who were among the first to introduce Burning 
Fluid to public notice ; and their sales now extend to all parts of 
the South, as well as to Pennsylvania and States adjacent. 



BOOKS, MAGAZINES, AND NEWSPAPERS. 149 

JOHN W. RYAN, Prime street, below Front, has been iden- 
tified with the business for many years, and enjoys an extensive 
city trade. 

Messrs. PORTETJS & PHILLIPS ; ROWLEY, ASHBTJRNER & Co. ; 
WETHERELL & BROTHER, manufacture these articles largely, in 
connection with other products ; and WM. KING, and J. MC!N- 
TOSH, also make to some extent. 

The quality of Burning Fluid made in Philadelphia is very su- 
perior, and in the South readily commands a higher price than 
that made elsewhere. It is shipped eastward to Providence, 
Newport, Hartford, New Haven, Boston, Bangor ; and southward 
to all the Southern States, to California and South America. 

III. 
Books, Magazines, and Newspapers. 

The honor of having established the first printing-press in 
America, must be awarded to Cambridge, Mass. Philadelphia, 
however, may claim, with laudable pride, that in less than six 
weeks after the city was founded, a printing press was established, 
being the second set up in the North American Colonies;* and, 
moreover, that many of the most important works in American 
literature bear the imprint of her publishing houses. We shall 
attempt to trace the progress of Book and Periodical Publishing, 
chronologically, though the records within our knowledge are so 
few, and the pressure of engagements so distracting, as to render 
the task a difficult one. 

Prior to the Revolution, and for some years afterward, the most 
notable issues of the Philadelphia press, in fact, the American 
press, came within Webster's definition of a pamphlet, that is, a 
small book, consisting of a sheet of paper. The first book published 
in this country, of which we have any knowledge, was " The Bay 
Psalm Book," issued from the Cambridge press, in 1640, and this 
was probably the most successful of any. Seventy editions were re- 
published in England and Scotland. The first publication in book 
or pamphlet form issued from the Philadelphia press was a sheet 
Almanac, for the year 1687, in twelve compartments : the year be- 
ginning with March, and ending with February, as was usual before 

Thomas's History of Printing. 



150 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

the eighteenth century. A copy of this early specimen of Amer- 
ican typography, bearing the imprint of "Wm. Bradford, Printer," 
is preserved in the Philadelphia Library. His second work was a 
quarto pamphlet, on the subject of " The New England Churches, 
by G. Keith," dated in 1689. The name of Bradford continued to 
be identified with the history of printing in Philadelphia until a very 
recent period. 

In 1699, the press established by Bradford passed into the 
hands of Reynier Jansen, evidently a Dutchman by name, who 
managed it until the year 1712. There are now in the Philadel- 
phia Library two very curious pamphlets, bearing his imprint, 
and so rare that they are probably the only copies extant. The 
first was published in 1700, and is entitled, " Satan's Harbinger 
Encountered : his False News of a Trumpet Detected : his Crooked 
Ways in the Wilderness laid open to the view of the impartial 
and judicious. Being something by way of Answer to Daniel 
Leeds, his book, entitled, ' News of a Trumpet Sounding in the 
Wilderness,' &c., C. P., (Caleb Pusey). Printed at Philadelphia, 
by Keynier Jansen, 1100." The second bears date 1705, and is en- 
titled, " The Bomb Searched and Found Stuffed with False Ingre- 
dients. Being a just confutation of an abusive printed half sheet 
called ' BOMB,' originally published against the Quakers by 
Francis Bugg ; bat espoused and exposed, and offered to be 
proved by John Talbot. Printed at Philadelphia, by Keynier 
Jansen, 1705." 

The second printing-oflice in Philadelphia was established by 
S. Keimer, in 1723. The first publication, bearing his imprint, 
of which we have any knowledge, is a very curious and rare one, 
entitled " The Craftsman : a Sermon composed by the late Daniel 
Burgess, and intended to be preached by him in the High Times, 
(sic.,) but prevented by the burning of his Meeting-house. Phil- 
adelphia: Printed by S. Keimer, (Circa), 1725." 

The advertising columns of the journals, for the succeeding 
quarter of a century, from 1725 to 1750, contain announcements 
of a number of curious books and pamphlets, of which we append 
a list below.* 

* THOMPSON WESTCOTT, Esq., the author of the "Life of John Fitch," re- 
cently mde an examination of the Journals, from 1728 to 1750, and noted 



BOOKS, MAGAZINES, AND NEWSPAPERS. 151 

In 1735, Christopher Sower published a Quarterly Journal, in 
German, which was the first work of the kind in a foreign lan- 
guage published in the Colony. The same year he published a 
Newspaper, the first German Almanac, " Extracts from the Laws 
of the Province, by William Penn," and several other works, 
the announcements, in the advertising columns, of the principal publications. 
The list was presented to the Philadelphia Library, and the courteous Li- 
brarian of that Institution placed the same at my disposal. The following 
are the most important. 

American Books and Pamphlets advertised in the Pennsylvania Gazette. 

1728. Dec. 24. God's Mercy surmounting Man's Cruelty, exemplified 
in the Captivity and Redemption of Elizabeth Hanson, wife of John Hanson, 
of Knoxmarsh, at Keacheachy, in Dover Township, who was taken captive 
with her children and maid-servants by the Indians in New England, in 
1725, etc. To be sold by Samuel Keimer, in Philadelphia, and by Heurtin, 
Goldsmith, in N. Y. 

1729. Nov. 30. A Short Discourse, proving that the Jewish, or Seventh- 
day Sabbath, is abrogated or repealed. By John Meredith. Printed and 
sold by the printers hereof, B. Franklin and H. Meredith. Price sixpence. 

1730. Feb. 19. The Spirit's Teaching Man's Sure Guide : Briefly asserted 
and recommended to the sober perusal of all Christian believers. By Charles 
Woolverton, Senr. The second edition. Franklin and Meredith, Printers. 

1730. Feb. 3. An Elegy on the Death of that Ancient, Renowned and 
Useful Matron and Midwife, Mrs. Mary Broadwell, who rested from her la- 
bors, Jan. 2, 1730, aged a hundred years and one day. Sold by David 
Harry, printer, in Philadelphia. 

1 730. Dec. 29. Ralph Sandiford, being bound for England, hath printed a 
second impression of his Negroe Treatise, to be distributed gratis; or sold to 
those who would rather pay, at \'2d. each. 

1731. March 4. Some Considerations Relating to the Present State of 
the Christian Religion, etc. By Alex. Arscot. Franklin & Meredith, Print- 
ers. 

1732. Oct. 5. The Minister of Christ and his Flock: a Sermon by David 
Evans, preached at Abingdon, Pa., Dec. 30, 1731. B. Franklin, Printer. 

1734. May 23. The Constitution of the Free-Masons: containing the 
history, changes, etc. Reprinted by B. Franklin, in the year of Masonry, 
5734. (Franklin Gazette.) 2*. Gd. stitched ; 4s. bound. 

1737. Sept. 22. A Treaty of Friendship held with the Six Nations, 
Philadelphia, Sept. and Oct., 1736. Franklin, Printer. Price Sd. 

1738. Aug. 17 Benjamin Lay's Book against Slave Keeping. Printed 
by himself. 2*. Qd. each. 

1739. MaylQ. The Art of Preaching, an imitation of Horace's Art of 
Poetry. Franklin, Printer. 6d. 



152 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

At that time all the type used in the Colonies was brought from 
Europe, and finding this very inconvenient, he commenced a Type 
Foundry and Manufactory of Printing Ink. This was the first Type 
Foundry in the country, and the celebrated house of L. Johnson 
& Co., Philadelphia, claim, through Binney & Ronaldson, to be 

July 26. The History of Joseph, a Poem by a female hand. Franklin, 
Printer. 1. 

1740. May 22. Whitfield's Sermons, 2 vols. : one, Sermons ; one, Jour- 
nals. Franklin, Printer. 

A Letter from Rev. Mr. Whitfield to the Religious Societies lately formed 
in England aud Wales, etc. 

A Letter from the Rev. Mr. Whitfield to a Friend in London, showing the 
fundamental errors of the book entitled "The Whole Duty of Man." 

The Danger of an Unconverted Ministry, considered by Gilbert Tennant, 
etc. Franklin, Printer. 6d. 

July 3. The Character, Preaching, etc., of the Rev. George Whitfield, 
impartially represented and supported in a Sermon preached at Charleston. 
S. C. By J. Smith, V. D. M. Franklin, Printer. 4d. 

A New and Complete Guide to the English Tongue, etc., collected by an 
ingenious hand, for the use of Schools. Franklin, Printer. 2*. 

1741. Jan. 15. Free Grace, a Sermon by Rev. John Wesley. Franklin, 
Printer. 6d. 

22. Free Grace Indeed ! a Letter to Rev. John Wesley. Franklin. 6rf. 
Feb. 19. Free Grace in Truth, by Rev. John Dylander, minister Swedish 
church, Wecaco. Franklin. ">J. 

1742. Dec. 21. A Short Narrative of the Extraordinary Work of God 
at Camberslang, in Scotland. Wm. Bradford, Printer. 

1743. March 3. The Interest of New Jersey with regard to Trade and 
Navigation, by laying duties. Bradford, Printer. 

12. Every Man's Right to Live : a Sermon by Rev. Lewis of Thurenstein, 
Monravift. Franklin. 

1744. Jan. Oglethorpe's Expedition. Report to Assembly of South Ca- 
rolina into the causes of its failure. 2s. Qd. 

April. A Journal of Proceedings in the Conspiracy to Burn New York, 
by white men and some negroes, etc., in 1742. By the Recorder of the 
City of New York. 

Sept. A Grand Treaty held at Lancaster, etc. Franklin. ISd. 

Oct. Remarks upon Mr. Geo. Whitfield, proving him a man under Delu- 
sion. By George Gillespie. Philad., Printed for the Author, and sold at 
the Harp & Crown, in 3d street, opposite the Workhouse. 

Nov. An Account of the newly invented Pennsylvania Fire-places, etc, 
with a copperplate, etc. Price la. 



BOOKS, MAGAZINES, AND NEWSPAPERS. 153 

the legitimate successors of Christopher Sower, in the business. 
In 1743, he printed a quarto edition of the German Bible, Luther's 
translation, having 1272 pp. This was the largest work which had 
then been issued from any press in the Colony, and was not 
equaled for many years after. Copies of this Bible were sold, 
bound, at fourteen shillings, and are now highly prized by book 
collectors. About 1744 he resigned his press to his son, and 
died about 1760. He was a man of large influence among his 
countrymen, and frequently acted as their representative in their 
intercourse with Government. 

His son, also named Christopher Sower, continued the business 
of his father on an enlarged scale, printing many valuable Books, 
and a Weekly Newspaper. In 1762, he printed a second edition 
of the German quarto Bible of two thousand copies; and in 1776, 
completed a third edition of three thousand copies. He had by 

1745. An Essay on the West Indian Dry Gripes. By Dr. Cadwalader. 
Franklin. 

The Art of Preserving Health. By Dr. Armstrong. Reprint. Frank- 
lin. 2. 

Sept. Mr. Prince's Sermon on the General Thanksgiving occasioned by 
the taking of Cape Breton ; with a Particular Account of the Expedition, 
etc. Price la. 

1746. July. The New Manual Exercise, by Gen'l Blakenly, and the Evo- 
lutions of the Foot, by Gen'l Bland. Franklin, Printer. 6rf. 

Reflections on Courtship and Marriage. Franklin. 1*. 6<f. 

1748. Oct. The Congress between the Beasts, under the mediation of 
the Goat, for negotiating a Peace between the Fox, the Ass, wearing a 
lion's skin, the Horse, the Tigress, and other animals at war. A farce in 
two acts. Now in rehearsal at a new and grand Theatre in Germany. 
Written originally in High Dutch, by the Baron Huffumbourghausen, and 
translated by J. J. H. D. G. R., Esq., veluti in speculo. Second edition. To 
be sold by Gotthard Ambruster, at the German Printing-office, in Arch st. 
2. 6<f. 

1749. Proposals for publishing a Map of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and 
New York, and the lower counties, by Lewis Evans. Price, two Pieces-of-8 
each. 

Aug. A Particular Relation of the dreadful Earthquake, etc., at Lima 
and Callao, in Peru. Translated from the original Spanish. Price 9rf. 

1750. June 7. A Short Treatise on the Visible Kingdom of Christ. By 
Thomas James. Franklin & Hall. Price 6rf. 

Letters from the Dead to the Living, by Plularetes. Franklin & Hall. 9<i 
12 



154 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

far the most extensive Book manufactory, then, and for many 
years afterward, in the country. It employed several binderies, 
a paper-mill, an ink manufactory, and a foundry for German and 
English types. He was well educated by his father was ordained 
a minister of the German Baptist Society; and as a man of integ- 
rity was deservedly esteemed. He died at an advanced age, in 
1784. He left several children, among whom Christopher, (third), 
David, and Samuel, were practical printers and publishers. The 
name continues to be very popularly represented in the trade, by 
his descendant, Mr. Charles G. Sower, senior partner of the firm 
of Sower, Barnes & Co. 

In 1782, Robert Aitken published, it is believed, the first 
American Bible in the English language. His edition was re- 
commended to public patronage by Congress. It was projected 
during the war; but with peace, importation of books began, 
and Aitken "lost more than three thousand pounds in specie." 
But his lasting memorial is, that he printed the first American 
edition of the English Bible. " The very paper," said the Phil- 
adelphia Freeman's Journal of that time, " that has received the 
impression of these sacred books, was manufactured in Pennsylva- 
nia; the whole work is therefore purely American, and has risen, 
like the fabled Phoenix, from the ashes of that pile in which our 
enemies supposed they had consumed the liberties of America." 

But Book Publishing in the United States, even as late as 1786, 
was yet in its embryo state. It is recorded, that in that year 
four Booksellers held a consultation as to the policy of publishing 
an edition of the New Testament, deeming the matter a work of 
great risk, requiring much consultation previously to the determi- 
nation of the measure ; but the change in the state of public affairs 
soon infused life and vigor into the business. Less than four years 
afterward one of the prudent gentlemen, above referred to, ven- 
tured upon the publication of an Encyclopedia, in eighteen 
quarto volumes. When the first half volume was published, in 
1790, he had but two hundred and forty-six subscribers, and 
could only procure two or three engravers. One thousand copies 
of the first volume were printed ; two thousand of the second ; 
and when he had completed the eighth, the subscription extended 



BOOKS, MAGAZINES, AND NEWSPAPERS. 155 

so far as to render it necessary to reprint the first. He then 
found difficulty in procuring printers for the work.* 

In 1792, Ebenezer Hazard published a quarto volume of 
"Historical Collections," intended as materials for a History oi 
the United States, and in 1794 another volume. These collec- 
tions were made under the patronage of Congress. 

In the succeeding year, William Cobbett, then a refugee in 
Philadelphia, commenced his political career by writing, at the 
solicitation of some friends of Washington's administration, a 
pamphlet, for the purpose of vindicating Jay's Treaty ; and 
which is said to have had considerable influence in quieting the 
public raind. In the same year he issued his "Tuteur Anglais," 
Thomas Bradford, Publisher. 

In 1804, Mathew Carey set up the Bible in quarto form, and 
this is believed to have been the first Bible, kept standing in type, 
of that size in the world over 200,000 impressions were pub- 
lished. But the state and condition of the Book Publishing bu- 
siness in Philadelphia, in the early portion of the present century, 
were so well sketched by Henry C. Carey, Esq., the distinguished 
political economist, and surviving representative of the house of 
Mathew Carey & Son, at a Festival given May 24th, 1854, in 
honor of Mr. Abraham Hart, on his retirement from the Book- 
selling business, that we cannot do better than submit a lengthy 
extract from his speech on that occasion. 

"For myself, Mr. President, I am a sort of ' remainder' of an edi- 
tion, a representative of a by-gone race of booksellers, as our friend 
Hart is of the present race. There are several among our friends here 
assembled disposed to insist that they carry on their shoulders more 
years than I do, and they are a property, the possession of which I am 
not disposed to dispute with them ; but there is none of them whose 
connection with the trade dates back to as early a period as mine. I 
was, Mr. President, at the first trade dinner ever given in this country, 
and of all who sat at that table, there is, I believe, no one now living 
but myself. It was somewhat more than half a century since. Mr. John 
Conrad, father of our friend Judge Conrad, filled on that occasion a 
distinguished place; but he has recently passed away, and has left me, 
as I think, alone. The occasion of that dinner was the holding of the 
1 Literary Fair,' that was attempted in imitation of the great Leipsic 

* " Hopkinson's Oration before the Academy of Fine Arts," 1810 



156 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Fair, and intended to be held alternately in this city and New York. 
One was held in each city. My father took me with him to the New 
York one ; and although only eight years of age, I was even then a 
bookseller, perfectly familiar with the contents of our establishment. 
They called me 'the bookseller in miniature,' and being such, I was the 
proper representative of the trade of the day, for it was a miniature 
one, and the gentlemen engaged in it made miniature fortunes, com- 
pared with those that, I am happy to learn, are accumulated by the 
men of our day. We then depended on Great Britain for Latin and 
Greek, English, French, and Spanish dictionaries, and to a considerable 
extent, even for grammars. The classics, Caesar, Horace, Virgil, and 
Homer, were all imported, as was the case with llollin, Plutarch, Sully, 
and a host of other common books. Prices were high, and sales were 
small. School dictionaries of the size of Walker's abridgment, which 
now sell, as I am told, for three dollars a dozen, then sold for more 
than half that price per copy. Schools were few in number, and there 
was small demand for books. 

" Two years later, my father carried into effect his project of getting 
up the Bible in quarto, with movable type, and it was the first in the 
world, as I have always understood. It was a gigantic operation ; first 
cost, fifteen thousand dollars a very large sum in that day and it was 
one that he never could have effected without the aid of Mr. James 
Ronaldson, one of the worthiest men that this city has ever possessed. 
He was then the sole type-founder for the Union, and supplied the 
letter required for all the newspapers, magazines, and books, that were 
printed from Maine to Georgia. All of it came from that small foun- 
dry in South street above Ninth, a fact from which, alone, you might 
judge of the diminutive size of the publishing trade of that period. 

" Small as was the trade in foreign books republished, that in do- 
mestic ones was still far less. There was then, in fact, no domestic lite- 
rature. It was half a dozen years later that Irving, Paulding, and 
Verplanck, made their first appearance on the stage as joint authors 
of the little periodical newspaper, well known as ' Salmagundi.' Some 
years still later, Bradford and Inskeep were thought to have displayed 
remarkable liberality in giving to a young lady of this city a hundred 
dollars for the copyright of a very clever novel. Fanny Fern would 
now look upon such a sum with no slight disdain, were it offered in ex- 
change even for a contribution of a dozen pages ; and yet the liberality 
manifested in the case of the Philadelphia novelist was probably greater 
than that now exhibited by the extensive house in Auburn. Amer- 
ican books could not then be sold. It was almost sufficient to insure 
the condemnation of a book to have it known that it was of domestic 



BOOKS, MAGAZINES, AND NEWSPAPERS. 157 

origin. My friend, Major Barker, a man of excellent literary ability, 
dramatized Marinion about the time to which I have referred ; but the 
manager, Mr. Stephen Price, did not venture to produce it as an Amer- 
ican work. It was carefully packed up as coming from England, with 
imitations of the English post-marks, and was produced as the work 
of an English author. As such it succeeded ; but the real authorship 
having soon leaked out, the public thenceforward ceased to find in it 
the merit that before had been so clearly visible. Under such circum- 
stances, it was scarcely extraordinary that an English writer should 
find reason for asking the question ' Who reads an American Book ?' 
' We are surrounded by evidences of progress, but among the chap- 
tors which record its history, there is none more remarkable than the 
literary one. That chapter records great changes in the amount of 
trade, but there are other changes that are perhaps equally remarkable. 
Even so recently as forty years since, the trade looked chiefly to the 
South for a market for their books. Messrs. Conrad & Co. had 
branches in Baltimore, Alexandria, Fredericksburg, Richmond, Peters- 
burg, and Norfolk, but none in the West. Bradford and Inskeep had 
one in Charleston. Benjamin Warner, one of the most high-minded 
and excellent men ever connected with the trade in this city, had one 
in Richmond, and another in Clarleston ; and it was in this latter place 
that our friend, Mr. John Grigg, first exhibited the ability by which he 
has been since distinguished. My father had a branch in Baltimore, 
and one in Richmond. The tendency was then to look almost alto- 
gether South, while it is now almost altogether West. Chicago, a 
city that scarcely existed ten years since, now absorbs, I imagine, more 
books than Norfolk, Charleston, and Savannah united. The conse- 
quences of this have been unfavorable to the printers and publishers of 
Philadelphia, separated, as she has been from the great West by a 
range of mountains that New York could turn, while she was bound 
to scale them. The Erie Canal gave to New York and New England 
a communication with a great and growing market, while that on which 
this city has chiefly relied became a declining one ; and the consequence 
has been that the trade has scarcely kept pace with that of other cities, 
in its growth. It has, nevertheless, increased greatly. You do not 
publish as many novels as New York, but you present more medical 
books than all the rest of the Union. You have here, perhaps, the 
largest distributing house in the world. In conversation a short time 
since with one of its members, I learned that they employed nearly 
eighty clerks ; a fact that astonished me, as I knew how large a business 
we had done with half a dozen. My snrprise, however, disappeared 
when he told me that for many weeks they had sent out an averajre of 
12* 



158 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

more than ten tons per day, or the equivalent of a thousand reams of 
printing paper of the size commonly used when I was in business. 
Were the books they fill all printed ones, there would be no hesitation 
in asserting that they distributed more literature than any house in the 
world. It has recently been made a matter of boast that Chambers & 
Co., of Edinburgh, had sent out ten tons in a fortnight ; but we have 
here as many tons per day in each day of many weeks." 

Within the period referred to by Mr. Carey, a large number 
of very important works were issued. In fact, the first quarter 
of the present century may be entitled the palmy era of booksell- 
ing in Philadelphia. The works published embraced : Dobson's 
Encyclopaedia, 21 vols., quarto ; Rees' Cyclopaedia, 46 volumes, 
quarto; Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, 18 vols., quarto ; Nicholson's 
Encyclopaedia, 12 vols., octavo; Wilson's Ornithology, 9 vols., 
imperial quarto ; Barlow's Columbiad; Pinkerton's Atlas, 1vol., 
folio, price $100 per copy ; Johnson's Dictionary, 2 vols., quarto, 
published by Moses Thomas ; Gibbon's Rome, 8 vols., octavo ; 
Hume and Smollett's and Bissot's England, 15 vols., octavo ; Ma- 
vor's Voyages and Travels, 24 vols., 12mo. ; British Classics 
(" Spectator," " Rambler," &c.) 39 vols., 12mo. For the copyright 
of one book, Marshall's Life of Washington, the sum of $60,000 
was paid in Philadelphia. Truly, there were giants in those days. 

In 1824, the era of Trade Sales was inaugurated in Phila- 
delphia, Moses Thomas, above referred to, being the auctioneer. 
The catalogue of the first sale, we believe, is still in the pos- 
session of that gentleman, who, though past threescore and 
ten, performs more mental and bodily labor than many men twenty 
years his junior. The suggestion and arrangement of the plan 
are credited to Mr. Henry C. Carey, and its adoption was certainly 
attended by the most happy results to the Book trade. Prior 
to the establishment of Auction Sales for books, publishers were 
not permitted honorably to vary from the announced prices of 
the publication ; and their profits were consequently lessened ma- 
terially by the accumulation of unsaleable stock, for the disposal of 
which there was no practicable means. By the establishment of 
Trade Sales, however, this difficulty was overcome ; and a pub- 
lisher who was so unfortunate as not to be able to obtain the nom- 
inal price for his book, could sell it to the highest bidder in opt'n 
market. So popular have Trade Sales become, that now over 



BOOKS, MAGAZINES, AND NEWSPAPERS. J59 

$600,000 worth of books are annually disposed of every spring and 
autumn in" Philadelphia and New York, the sales being conducted 
tinder the supervision of a committee of leading publishers. 

Within the last few years, the demand for minute and exact in- 
formation in every department of learning has become so pressing, 
that the subdivisions which may be remarked in mechanical pur- 
suits are also noticeable with respect to the publication of books. 
Publishers are no longer divided merely into book, newspaper, 
and magazine publishers, as formerly ; but each of the various 
classes, Medical, Law, Theological, School, Illustrated, German, 
and miscellaneous books, has its representatives among the pub- 
lishing houses. We shall instance the more prominent in each 
department. 

1. MEDICAL BOOK& We are informed that nine-tenths of the 
Medical Books issued in the United States are printed and pub- 
lished in Philadelphia. There are three firms extensively en- 
gaged in this branch, viz., BLANCHARD & LEA, J. B. LIPPIN- 
COTT & Co., and LINDSAY & BLAKISTON; while others publish 
Medical Books to some extent. The first-named of these houses 
make this department of the general trade their specialty, and 
their catalogue contains a more important list of valuable Medi- 
cal books than probably any in the world. The list of their own 
publications extends to about one hundred and seventy-five differ- 
ent works, or over two hundred different volumes, besides several 
Medical journals ; one of which, " The American Journal of Med- 
ical Science," edited by Dr. Hayes, is among the oldest period- 
icals of the country. Their cash capital invested in this business 
is not far short of a quarter of a million of dollars. Messrs. LIP- 
PINCOTT & Co. publish a number of important Medical books, as 
Wood & Bat-he's Dispensatory, Wood's Practice of Medicine, 
Wood's Materia Medica, Smith's Operative Surgery, and many 
others ; and a very valuable periodical, entitled " The North 
American Medico-Chirurgical Review." Their general opera- 
tions we shall notice subsequently. Messrs. LINDSAY & BLAK- 
ISTON publish a number of text books in Medical Science, and 
Rankin's Abstract, which has a large circulation. The Homoeo- 
pathic branch has its representative among the publishers in Mr. 
RADDE. The contributions which Philadelphia has made to 



100 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

American Medical Literature, are scarcely less important than 
her Medical Schools. 

2. LAW BOOKS. There are also three houses that make the 
publication of Law Books their specialty : T. & J. W. JOHNSON, 
KAY & BROTHER, and H. P. & R. H. SMALL. The first-named pub- 
lish the Law Library, a reprint of English Elementary works of 
standard value, now numbering 96 volumes ; and the English 
Common Law and Exchequer Reports, a reprint of the decisions 
of the Law Courts of England since 1813, now numbering 125 vols., 
Svo., and believed to be the largest uniform series issued by any 
law publishers in the world. Their list, which embraces works on 
almost every department of law, contains nearly 500 volumes. 
KAY & BROTHER publish the following valuable works : " Bright- 
ly's Analytical Digest of the Laws of the United States," 1 vol., 
Svo. ; " Whar'ton's American Criminal Law," 1 vol., Svo. ; 
"Wharton's Precedents of Indictments": these works compris- 
ing the science and the practice of the Criminal Law of the State 
and Federal Courts of the United States ; " Wharton & Stille's 
Medical Jurisprudence," "Wharton on the American Law of Homi- 
cide," "Morris on Replevin," "Troubat on Limited Partnership," 
1 vol. Svo., "Pennsylvania State Reports," 66 vols., and others. 
H. P. & R. H. SMALL publish Harrison's Digest, Addison on 
Contracts, Selwyn's Nisi Prius, Williams on Executors, Saunders 
on Pleading and Evidence, and many other standard works with 
the legal profession. The business of Law Book publishing, 
however, is not monopolized by these houses. Messrs. CHILDS & 
PETERSON, for instance, publish Bouvier's Law Dictionary, and 
the Institutes of American Law ; Messrs. LIPPINCOTT <fe Co. issue 
Dunlop's Laws of the United States, and Messrs. KING & BAIRD 
the Philadelphia Reports, condensed from their Legal Intelli- 
gencer, which is the only weekly Law Journal published in this 
country. 

3. RELIGIOUS BOOKS. In this department of the book trade, 
individual enterprise has been, to a large extent, superceded by 
incorporated or organized societies, who publish for other objects 
than the realization of profit. In Philadelphia, we believe, 
there are seven of these societies, having a publishing department : 
the Sunday School Union, American Baptist Publication So- 



BOOKS, MAGAZINES, AND NEWSPAPERS. 161 

ciety, Presbyterian Boards, (Old and New School), Bishop 
White Prayer Book Society, Female Prayer Book Society, and 
the Lutheran Publication Society. As an indication of the 
magnitude of their operations, we remark the fact, that in 1856, 
the American Baptist Publication Society printed 16,276,293 
pages, equal to 18,478,293 pages in 18mo. 

Among the individual houses, in whose catalogues Religious 
Books predominate, we would instance W. S. <fe ALFRED MAR- 
TIEN, H. HOOKER & Co., HIGGINS & PERKENPINE, SMITH, EN- 
GLISH & Co., JAMES CHALLEN & SONS, and several publishers of 
Catholic works. Mr. W. S. MARTIEN has been connected with 
the publication business for nearly a quarter of a century. Ilis 
list of publications embraces : Scott's Commentary on the Bible, 
Baker's Revival Sermons, the works of Drs. Alexander, Hodge, 
Junkin, Burro wes, and numerous other Theological works. Messrs. 
HOOKER & Co. publish Episcopal Books largely; several edi- 
tions of the Book of Common Prayer, and many other Religious 
works. Messrs. HIGGINS & PERKENPINE, we are informed, publish 
principally Methodist Books. 

The Bible is a standard volume, we are happy to say, with 
nearly all the publishers; but some confine their operations en- 
tirely to its issue. One establishment, that of JESPER HARDINO 
& SON, is believed to be the largest Bible publishing house in 
this country, conducted by individual enterprise. 

" On a late visit," says our informant, Dr. James Moore, " we 
saw over 20,000 copies in different states of forwardness, em- 
bracing fifty varieties at different prices, from the copies illus- 
trated with engravings on wood to those bound in Turkey mo- 
rocco and embellished with fine steel engravings and chromo-lith- 
ographic illustrations. Five hundred tons of white paper, at from 
$250 to $300 per ton, worth at least $140,000 ; 500,000 leaves 
of gold, 40 tons of tar paper ; 20,000 sheep-skins, which the flock 
of Job, containing only 14,000 sheep, could not have supplied, are 
annually consumed at this establishment. It employs 200 persons, 
a book-folding machine, invented by Mr. Chambers, and the only 
one ever brought into effectual operation, is at work here daily." 

The Rev. THOMAS H. STOCKTON has lately commenced a novel 
and important improvement in Bible publication. His edition is 



1(32 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

distinctive, each book being in separate binding. Its beauty and 
advantages have been acknowledged by a bold imitation on the 
part of the well-known Bible house of BAGSTER & SONS ; a proof 
that London sometimes imitates Philadelphia. 

Bibles are published in this city at all prices, from 40 cents to 
$150, and in every style of binding, from the plainest to brown 
morocco, illuminated, and with painted edges. The styles are gen- 
erally distinguished by the name of the publisher, as Harding's 
Bibles, Butler's Bibles, Miller & Burlock's Bibles, Perry's Bibles, 
Whilt & Yost's Bibles, and Lippincott's Bibles. 

3. SCHOOL BOOKS. In this important department of the busi- 
ness, Philadelphia publishers hold a respectable rank, both as to 
the intrinsic merit of their publications and the amount of their 
sales. H. COWPERTHWAIT & Co., J. B. LIPPINCOTT & Co., E. 
C. & J. BIDDLE, E. H. BUTLER & Co., CHARLES DESILVER, TJ. 
HUNT & SON, HAYES & ZELL, CRISSY & MARKLEY, and SOWER, 
BARNES & Co., are all extensively engaged in this branch of the 
business. The first named house are the publishers of Mitchell's 
Series of School Geographies, the most popular of all the works 
on this study published in the United States, and which are said 
to have met with an annual sale of about 300,000 volumes. They 
also publish many other popular School books. J. B. LIPPIN- 
COTT & Co. publish along with numerous works in other depart- 
ments of literature a large number of books adapted to various 
stages of advancement in school studies, and many of which have 
a large sale, especially throughout the Southern and Western 
portions of our country. The Complete Pronouncing Gazetteer 
of the World, edited by Dr. Joseph Thomas and Thomas Baldwin, 
and published by this house, is a work of such unquestioned 
merit, that it has found, or will find, a place as a book of refer- 
ence in almost every school of a respectable grade in the United 
States, and reflects credit on the publishers. The Messrs. BIDDLE 
devote their attention almost exclusively to the educational de- 
partment of the Publishing and Bookselling business, and limit 
the range of their publications to works adapted to advanced pu- 
pils. Crittenden's Series of Treatises on Book-keeping, Cleve- 
land's Series of Compendiums of English and American Litera- 
ture, and their Series of Class Books of English Etymology 



BOOKS, MAGAZINES, AND NEWSPAPERS. 163 

may be mentioned as fairly representing the class of their 
publications, which have a widely extended and well merited 
reputation for thoroughness. This firm are known, and deserv- 
edly distinguished as Educational publishers. SOWER, BARNES & 
Co., also confine their publications almost exclusively to Educa- 
tional works. One of their leading publications is " Pelton's 
Series of Outline Maps," the demand for which supports two 
manufactories. They also publish Sanders' Readers, and works 
upon Arithmetic, Grammar, History, Philosophy, and Chemistry. 

E. H. BUTLER & Co. have given special attention to the improve- 
ment of School books, in point of mechanical execution. A 
diamond, they have supposed, deserves a handsome setting. Their 
exertions in this respect have been very successful, and not lim- 
ited to the department of School literature. Messrs. Charles 
Desilver, TJ. Hunt & Son, Hayes & Zell, Crissy & Markley, and 
others, publish Educational Books of established reputation, and 
which are extensively sold. As regards mechanical execution, it 
may be safely asserted that owing to the moderate cost of man- 
ufacturing in Philadelphia the publications of her principal 
School Book publishers combine, in an eminent degree, charac- 
teristics of essential importance in the implements with which we 
are to " teach the young idea how to shoot," viz., durability, neat- 
ness, and cheapness. 

4. GERMAN BOOKS. The extent of the German population in 
our city and State, renders the publication of German books a 
distinct and important branch there being at least four houses 
whose attention is principally engrossed by it WM. G. MENTZ, 

F. W. THOMAS, IGNATIUS KOHLER, and JOHN WEIK. The last 
named is very extensively engaged in the publication of German 
works ; and is the first publisher, within our knowledge, who re- 
gularly and successfully exports books from this country to Ger- 
many. In the present season, we are informed, he has sent thither 
three thousand copies of a German Dictionary, to aid in instruct- 
ing his countrymen in the signification of their language. He is 
the sole publisher of a complete edition of Heine's works, either 
in this country or in Germany. 

Numerous as these subdivisions are, they might with propriety 
be further extended. One class of publishers prepare their 



164 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

works with a view to sale mainly by subscription, or through 
agents. We would instance J. W. BRADLEY, who publishes nearly 
thirty volumes of Arthur's works ; JOHN E. POTTER, GEORGE 
W. GORTON, and the long established house of LEARY & GETZ. 
Another class make the publication of Juveniles, or books 
adapted for the young, a principal feature in their business ; 
among these, PECK & BLISS, J. P. KELLER, WILLIS P. HAZARD, 
H. H. HENDERSON, and HENRY P. ANNERS, are prominent. 
Music Books are leading publications with others ; and many 
of the volumes of this description that are standards in the South 
and West, are published in this city. MILLER & BURLOCK have 
sold nearly a half million of the " Southern Harmony," and T. K. 
COLLINS publishes " Aikin's Christian Minstrel ;" and we believe 
nearly a dozen others. The attention of other publishers is largely 
engrossed by illustrated works. Some of the most magnificent 
Fine- Art Books in the world are the issues of Philadelphia houses. 
We would instance RICE & HART'S National Portrait Gallery 
of Distinguished Americans, containing 144 steel engravings, 
which alone cost $40,000 ; and their McKenney & Hall's His- 
tory of the Indian Tribes, with 120 colored illustrations, and 
the North American Sylva, with 277 colored illustrations. E. 
H. BUTLER & Co.'s publications also embrace a number that are 
remarkable for the elegance of their illustrations, and for typo- 
graphical beauty. Murray or Longman might be proud of such 
books as their editions of Burns, or Goldsmith, or Thomson, or 
Keble's Christian Year ; or Heber's Poetical works, or Stevens' 
Parables, or Read's Female Poets, or Macaulay's Lays of Ancient 
Rome, adorned as they are with all the embellishments of taste and 
art. Messrs. HAYES & ZELL, and J. W. MOORE, have also 
issued several most superb works. Lastly, we come to the class 
who may be designated as publishers of miscellaneous works, or 

5. GENERAL PUBLISHERS. Nearly all those whose names we have 
already mentioned belong to this class. With very few exceptions, 
we presume none will refuse to aid in the parturition of a book of 
respectable character and average merit, if they can be assured of 
its saleability, or guaranteed against loss. Whether it be a novel 
or a professional treatise, an annual or a commentary, they are 
indifferent, provided the popular demand is sufficiently significant, 



BOOKS, MAGAZINES, AND NEWSPAPERS. 165 

in their opinion, to justify reasonable expectations of profit from 
its publication. It would, therefore, be tedious to repeat the 
names of all in Philadelphia who publish miscellaneous books. 
We shall only mention, in this connection, those who are prom- 
inently distinguished as extensive and wholesale publishers of mis- 
cellaneous works. 

Foremost in the ranks of geperal publishers, are J. B. LIPPIN- 
COTT & Co., the house referred to by Mr. Carey, as probably the 
largest book distributing house in the world. It was established 
nearly thirty-five years ago by John Grigg, Esq., long and widely 
known as the most successful of booksellers, who, with his part- 
ners, conducted the business under the style and firm of Grigg & 
Eliot, and Grigg, Eliot & Co., until the year 1849, when Mr. J. B. 
Lippincott purchased the respective interests of Messrs. Grigg & 
Eliot, and in connection with the junior partners of the old firm, 
established the present. This purchase was probably the heaviest 
ever made by one individual in the book trade. 

The firm of J. B. LIPPINCOTT & Co. is now composed of six 
partners, Messrs. Lippincott, Remsen, Claxton, Willis, and two 
recently admitted, C. C. Haffelfinger and John A. Remsen. 
Their general business combines that of Publishers, Print- 
ers, Bookbinders, and Wholesale Booksellers and Stationers. 
As publishers, they have frequently set up in a year twenty 
thousand solid octavo pages of new standard works, besides 
printing large editions from the stereotype plates of over two 
hundred different volumes, now in their vaults. Within the last 
few years they have issued a number of most costly and valu- 
able books, as for instance, their Gazetteer of the World, at a 
cost of $50,000 ; Indigenous Races of Mankind, by Nott & Glid- 
don ; and more recently Blodgett's Climatology, which has been 
highly eulogized by Humboldt, and other eminent scientific au- 
thorities. The character of their leading publications, as well as 
the enterprise of the publishers, will be inferred from these; or 
perhaps more distinctly, when we state that the original cost of 
four of their works, including their illustrated edition of the 
Waverly Novels, and the Comprehensive Commentary, was 
$186,300. They have recently incurred an important outlay to 
lo 



166 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

secure to Philadelphia the publication of Webster's Dictionary, 
of which they now publish five different editions. 

In connection with the Publishing house, Mr. Lippincott has 
recently erected a six-story building, equipped with new and 
superior machinery for printing and binding books, and in which 
about one- hundred and fifty persons are constantly employed. 
The capital invested by this firm in the general business exceeds 
a half million of dollars ; and the copyright money paid by them 
to authors annually cannot be far short of one hundred thousand 
dollars. 

CHILDS & PETERSON, to whom we previously referred in con- 
nection with Law Books, are widely known as the publishers of 
the Arctic Explorations, 2 vols., 8vo., for which they paid the 
estate of Dr. Kane the sum of $65,000, as author's proceeds of 
the first year's sale, being, it is believed, a larger amount of 
copyright money than was ever before paid for one work in the 
world. They have now in press, Allibone's Dictionary of Authors 
and Literature, which will contain a mention of every author 
who has written in the English language, making in all upward 
of 30,000 names. It has been in course of stereotyping for the 
last five years, will be issued in 1859, in one volume, super-royal 
octavo of 1,800 pages, and will contain twenty per cent, more 
matter than Webster's quarto Dictionary. The firm of Childs & 
Peterson was established in 1848, and consists of Robert E. Pe- 
terson and George W. Childs. 

T. B. PETERSON & BROTHERS have in their possession the stereo- 
type plates of about six hundred different books, small and great, 
principally novels. They have invested about $50,000 in Dick- 
ens' works alone, of which they print twenty-nine different edi- 
tions : the only complete series in the United States. The sales 
annually average 50,000 volumes. This firm manifest an abiding 
confidence in the virtues of printer's ink. 

PARRY & McMiLLAN are the successors of A. Hart, lato Carey 
& Hart, and their list of publications, as may be supposed, com- 
prises a number of very valuable books. Many of their more 
recent issues are of a religious character. 

WILLIS P. HAZARD'S catalogue is an interesting one, era- 
bracing a new edition of the most popular Poets, standard library 



BOOKS, MAGAZINES, AND NEWSPAPEKS. 167 

editions of good authors, fine editions of Shakspeare, and a va- 
riety of Juveniles, &c. 

The catalogues of H. COWPERTHWAITE & Co., CHARLES DESIL- 
VER, E. H. BUTLER & Co., LINDSAY & BLAKISTON, JAMES B. 
SMITH & Co., J. L. GIHON, and others, contain the titles of nu- 
merous choice miscellaneous works. 

The Publishers of Philadelphia occupying, as they do, a more 
central position than their brethren in New York and Boston, 
and having peculiar advantages for circulating works throughout 
the entire Union, are much sought after by the latter as agents 
for the distribution of their publications. Hence wholesale book- 
selling is usually combined with publishing. Hence, too, while 
preferring, as they manifestly do, for their own issues, works 
possessing some substantial merit aside from mere entertainment, 
their stocks are generally very miscellaneous, embracing every 
variety of books, from the most ephemeral to the most substantial. 
The fact, however, that wholesale bookselling is combined with 
publishing, renders it difficult even for those who are so disposed 
to furnish accurately the statistics of their own publications. The 
best approximation that we can make, with the aid of experienced 
printers, in estimating the annual business of those who decline 
to furnish any statement for themselves, toward ascertaining the 
value of books published annually in Philadelphia, gives a result 
of $3,690,000 ; and of capital employed, $2,500,000. This is ex- 
clusive of books issued by printers, bookbinders, and authors who 
occasionally assume the risk of becoming their own publishers. 

NEWSPAPERS MAGAZINES. 

The first newspaper published in Pennsylvania was printed 
in 1719, by Andrew Bradford, in association with John Copson, 
and entitled " The American Weekly Mercury."* The second 
newspaper was started by Samuel Keimer, in 1728, (immor- 
talized by Franklin, in his autobiography, as a " great knave at 
heart"), and bore the title of " The Universal Instructor in all 
Arts and Sciences, and Pennsylvania Gazette." It was a folio 
sheet. After the return of Franklin from England, he, in 1729, 

* Mease's " Picture of Philadelphia, in 1811," and "Newspaper Record." 



168 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

united for a short time with Hugh Meredith, and continued Kei- 
mer's paper, on a whole or half sheet, as occasion required. In 
1739, as we previously stated, Christopher Sower established 
at Germantown a German quarterly, but changed it to a weekly 
in 1744, under the title of " The Germantown Gazette." What 
however may be called the third paper in Pennsylvania was 
" The Pennsylvania Journal," issued December 2d, 1742. It 
was continued till 1800. "The Chronicle and Universal Ad- 
vertiser" was the fourth in Philadelphia, and the first with four 
columns on a page. It was an influential sheet, and lived till 
1773. Seven Journals in the English language, and six in the 
German, were started in Philadelphia before the Revolution. 

The first daily paper published in the United States was " The 
Pennsylvania Packet, or General Advertiser," established in 
Philadelphia as a weekly, by John Dunlap, in 1771, but con- 
verted to a daily in 1784. At this period, Mr. David C. Clay- 
poole became associated in its management. To him Washington 
presented the original manuscript of his farewell address, which was 
recently sold by his executors, through Messrs. Thomas & Sons, 
and purchased by Mr. Lennox of New York, for a sum exceeding 
$2,000. The first daily evening newspaper established in Phila- 
delphia was " The Philadelphia Gazette," by Samuel Relf, in 
1788. In 1790 Mr. Bache published "The Aurora," afterward 
purchased by William Duane. 1791, Mr. E. Bronson origin- 
ated " The United States Gazette," which is now continued under 
the title of "The North American and United States Gazette." 
The other daily newspapers that flourished in Philadelphia, in the 
early part of the present century, were " The True American," 
established in 1797, by Mr. Bradford ; " The Freeman's Journal;" 
"The Register," commenced in 1804, by Mr. Jackson; "The 
Democratic Press," established in 1807, by John Binns, and 
" Poulson's American Daily Advertiser," which was the successor 
of " The Pennsylvania Packet." 

The first paper that habitually treated Letters and Arts in con- 
nection with commercial and political matters was "The Daily 
National Gazette," originated at Philadelphia in 1820. Accord- 
ing to Dr. Griswold, in his history of American Literature, the 
establishment of this paper was an era in our national mind. 



BOOKS, MAGAZINES, AND NEWSPAPERS. 



169 



Philadelphia was the second city in the Union to encourage 
penny papers ; and the " Ledger" has now a larger uniform circu- 
lation, it is generally believed, than any daily newspaper printed 
in the world, the London Standard perhaps excepted. It is 
printed on two of Hoe's Last Fast eight-cylinder Printing Ma- 
chines, capable of printing 20,000 impressions per hour. 

At the present time twelve Newspapers are published daily in 
Philadelphia, as follows : 



Name. 


Published by 


When 
Established. 


Remarks. 


MORNINQ. 
N. American & U. S. Gazette. 


Morton McMichael 


1791 


Independent. 


Pennsylvania Inquirer 
Public Ledger 


Jesper Harding & Son.... 
Swain & Abell 


1829 
1836 






William Eice 


1S32 




Press 


John W. Forney 


1857 








1848 




Philadelphia Democrat 


Hoffman & Morwitz 
P. W.Thomas 


1838 
1848 


German. 


AFTERNOON. 

Evening Bulletin 


A. Cummings & G. Pea- 


1847 


Independent, successor of 
the American Sentinel, 


Evening Journal 


Grayson, Irwin & Mont- 


1850 


Independent. 




Joseph Severns & Co 


1851 




Evening Reporter 




1857 


Successor of Mor'g Times. 



The following Newspapers are published weekly: 



Saturday Evening Post, 

The Dollar Newspaper, 

The Weekly North American, 

Philadelphia Saturday Bulletin, 

Weekly Peunsylvanian, 

Pennsylvania Inquirer, tri-weekly 

Forney's Weekly Press, 

Fitzgerald's City Item, 

Dollar Weekly News, 

National Argus, 

Commercial List, 

United States Business Journal, 

U. States Rail-road and Mining Register, 

Southern Monitor, 

Sunday Dispatch, 

Sunday Transcript, 

Sunday Mercury, 

The Public Mirror, 

The Tattler, 

Banner of the Cross, 



Episcopal Recorder, 

The Presbyterian, 

The American Presbyterian, 

Christian Chronicle, 

Christian Observer, 

The Catholic Herald, 

The Friend, 

Friends' Weekly Intelligencer, 

Friends' Review, 

The Moravian, 

The Woman's Advocate, 

Germantown Telegraph, 

Frankford Herald, 

The Legal Intelligencer, 

Real Estate News Letter, 

Masonic Mirror, 

The New World, 

Vereingte Staaten Zeitung, 

Republican Flag, 

Philadelphia Wochenblatt. 



Every merchant and every farmer throughout the Union should 
subscribe for at least one newspaper from a city so important as 
Philadelphia ; and no one who reads aright can fail to obtain an 
amount of practical, useful information, that will amply repay the 
trifling expenditure. 

In addition to the Journals above enumerated or referred to, 
there are about fifty Periodicals published in Philadelphia, in- 
13* 



170 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

eluding Medical, Legal, Scientific, and denominational organs. 
Of the strictly Literary Magazines there are four Peterson's Mag- 
azine, Arthur's Home Magazine, Graham's Magazine, and Godey's 
Lady's Book, established in 1830. The last is specially designed 
for the ladies ; and from its devotion to their tastes, and the valu- 
able supply of fashion plates, it has attained an enormous circula- 
tion. It is a creditable fact, worthy of being noticed, that an 
oath has never been registered in its pages. The Philadelphia 
Magazines have long been celebrated for their high moral tone 
and their devotion to the Fine Arts making exquisite illustra- 
tions a leading feature. 

We regret that we are unable to furnish any reliable Statistics 
of Newspapers and Periodicals. We therefore proceed to con- 
sider the most important of the industrial branches to which the 
creation of Books and Periodicals has given rise. 

IV. 
The Book Manufacture and its Kindred Branches. 

Livingstone, the celebrated traveler, in the Preface to his 
Journal of Explorations, states that those who have never carried 
a book through the press, can form no idea of the amount of toil 
it involves ; and adds, that the process has increased his respect for 
authors a thousandfold. Again, in the Introduction, he says, " I 
think I had rather cross the African continent than write another 
book." But books are the embodiment, not merely of the labor 
of the author, but of a vast number of persons occupied in seem- 
ingly diverse branches of industry. A volume, however insignifi- 
cant in itself, represents a portion of the labor of rag-gatherers, 
carters, bleachers, paper-makers, paper-machine makers, miners, 
furnace-men, type-metal makers, type-founders, compositors, press- 
men ; bookbinders, publishers ; manufacturers of printing presses, 
pf printing ink, of gold leaf, of bookbinders' tools, and book- 
binders' muslin and leather; sometimes engravers on wood or 
steel, lithographers, stereotypers or electrotypers ; marble-paper 
makers, and others. All those who are directly concerned in 
the production of books are largely congregated in Philadelphia, 
with many in each of the kindred branches, as blank books, maps, 



THE BOOK MANUFACTURE. 171 

envelops, &c. To notice the present development of the more 
important and prominent of these is our present purpose. 

1. TYPE METAL. 

Type-metal is composed of block-tin, lead, and antimony. 
There is one large establishment in this city for manufacturing 
Type and Stereotype metal, in connection with Babbitt metal 
and packing, and anti-friction metals of every description. In 
this foundry eight furnaces are used ; one of which is con- 
structed on a new principle, and is used for smelting lead and 
antimony from the ore, as it comes from the mine. This furnace 
is of the largest size. The proprietor, Mr. H. W. Hook, has for 
some years directed his attention to the production of a durable 
metal for Type-founders, and now manufactures an article, of 
which the ingredients are not disclosed, but which is claimed 
to be the best in the United States. It is known as Hook's 
Adamantine Metal ; and when cast into the smallest type may be 
driven, it is said, without injuring its face in the least, into the 
hardest type heretofore known. It produces type in sharpness, 
clearness, and delicacy, comparing favorably with electrotype. 
Mr. Hook also produces a metal for hardening, which may be 
used as a substitute for tin. 

2. TYPE-FOUNDING. 

Type-Founding, in or near Philadelphia, dates from 1735, 
when Christopher Sower established a printing-office at Ger- 
mantown, and cast his own types. Soon after the close of 
the war, Mr. John Baine, of Edinburgh, established a Type- 
foundry here ; and was, it is believed, the first who regularly 
carried on the business of Type-founding in the United States. 
In 1790 Baine died, and Messrs. Archibald Binny and James Ro- 
naldson established another foundry, unconnected with any other 
business, and were eminently successful. It is to them the world 
is indebted for the first real improvement in Type-founding since 
the days of Peter Schceffer ; this was in the type mould : enab- 
ling a caster to cast 6,000 types in a day, as easily as he could 
have done 4,000 by the old process. It is known in Europe a3 
the American Mould. 



172 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Iii 1808, Mr. AVm. L. Johnson patented a machine for casting 
type, by which he was enabled to give a sharper outline and better 
face to the letter, by using a pump to force the liquid metal into 
the mould. This idea subsequently passed through many modi- 
fications and improvements, and the casting capacity of Binny 
and Ronaldson's Mould is now multiplied threefold. 

The quality of Philadelphia type bears a favorable comparison 
with that of Europe, and is cheaper. The metal used is a mixture 
composed chiefly of lead, antimony, and tin, in proportion to the 
kind of type required. There are now four establishments in the 
business L. Johnson & Co., Collins & McLeester, Pelouze and 
Son, and A. Robb ; and another firm, Starr & Co., produce type for 
marking linens. The amount of capital invested is stated approxi- 
mately at $500,000, and the aggregate product at $420,000. Messrs. 
Johnson & Co. employ in this department of their general busi- 
ness, which includes also Stereotyping and Electrotyping, about 
two hundred and twenty-five persons, and produce annually about 
600,000 Ibs. of type, averaging fifty cents per pound, or $300,000. 
This firm publish very elegant specimen books ; which may be 
referred to as a sample not merely of their own product, but of 
all the Philadelphia Type-founders. 

3. STEREOTYPING. 

Stereotyping is the mode of casting perfect fac-similes, in 
metal, of the face of movable types. The plan is simple. After 
arranging the type in pages, and getting it perfectly smooth 
and clean, it is placed in a frame, the surface being thoroughly 
oiled to prevent the mould from adhering, when liquid gypsum, 
or Plaster of Paris, is poured over the page. The mould 
thus taken, if perfect, is dressed with an instrument, and a 
hole made to admit the metal. It is then dried, after which it is 
put into an iron casting-box, and the whole immersed in liquid 
type-metal. Twenty to thirty minutes usually suffice for casting. 
The box is then swung out of the molten mass into a cooling- 
trough, in which the underside is exposed to the water. When 
hard, the caster breaks off the superfluous metal, and separates 
the plaster mould from the plate. It is then picked, the edges 
trimmed, the back shaved to a proper thickness, and made readj 
for the press. 



THE BOOK MANUFACTURE. 173 

Stereotyping is of comparatively recent introduction into the 
United States. Mr. L. Johnson, to whom we have already re- 
ferred, was among the first to practice the art in Philadelphia, 
about thirty-five years ago. For many months he was able to 
execute all orders with his own hands. There are now seven 
Stereotype foundries in this city, employing about one hundred 
and eighty hands, and having a capital invested of $150,000. 

4. PRINTING. 

The processes of Printing are familiar to the majority of per- 
sons, and are generally the same in all the offices: nevertheless, 
the results produced, singular to say, differ very widely. The 
characteristics of the typography of different printers are almost 
as marked as their nasal protuberances, and as readily distin- 
guishable by close observers. Some of the literati of Washing- 
ton, recently admiring the typography of a work, credited it 
to their own printers ; when a publisher present, though he had 
never seen nor heard of the work, confidently attributed it to 
Philadelphia ; and subsequent information confirmed his sagac- 
ity. In fact, a large portion of fine work, bearing the im- 
print of Southern printers, and particularly of the Washington 
establishments, is executed in this city. Some of the most beau- 
tiful specimens of which the Art in America can boast, have 
issued from the Philadelphia press. The typographical beauty of 
such works as the Indian Biography, the National Portrait Gal- 
lery, Schoolcraft's Indian Tribes, and Gliddon's Types of Mankind, 
is acknowledged everywhere, and is the result, not of accidental 
circumstances, but of long experience, unsurpassed facilities, and 
unremitted vigilance and care. 

There are now about fifty Printing-offices in Philadelphia, ex- 
clusive of the newspaper press, employing from three to one 
hundred persons each ; and executing work of every descrip- 
tion, from a card to a quarto. The compositors in the city, who 
are members of the Printers' Association, are about four hundred ; 
while the force engaged in ordinary times is nearly one thousand 
persons. Many of the employees who tend presses are females, 
whose earnings average $4 per week. Power-presses are in use 
in all the leading establishments, five having seventy-four in con- 
stant operation, the cost of which was not far short of $150,000 



174 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS. MANUFACTURES. 

A.S an evidence of the capacity of our Book offices for executing 
work with expedition, we may state, that the average of each 
week's work done in one single establishment is about fifteen hun- 
dred tokens for fifty-nine working hours, which is equivalent to nine 
million duodecimo pages ; or, in other words, the presses of one 
firm turn out about twenty-five thousand duodecimo volumes of 
ordinary size each week. By working at night, the quantity could 
be doubled. As an illustration of the facilities possessed for 
printing in different languages, we subjoin the following extract 
from a note received from one of the leading firms : 

" We set up for the Stereotypers, during the last year, Dr. Jayne's 
Medical Almanac, in the following eight languages : -English, German, 
Hollandische, Sivedish, Norwegian, French, Spanish, and Portuguese. 

" "We have set up and printed from type six volumes Latin Theology, 
octavo, with Greek and Hebrew Notes ; a Hymn Book in Cherokee, 
from movable type ; several German Dictionaries, from one of which 
we have sent three separate editions to Germany in all six thousand 
copies. Also, a German Grammar, two editions of which went to Ger- 
many. Last month we completed a small work in French on Prosody 
one half the edition was ordered, and shipped by us direct to Paris, 
on account of the author, Victor Value, Esq. K. & B." 

Ornamental Printing, or Printing in Colors, is carried on by 
the principal firms as a branch of their general business, and it 
is also made an exclusive business by several. This department 
of the Printer's Art has been developed wonderfully within a 
few years. In England its importance dates from the commence- 
ment of the present century, when the rivalry existing between 
the proprietors of various State lotteries, induced them to invoke 
its virtues for making their advertising schemes attractive. It was 
subsequently applied principally to Playing-cards. On the day 
of the Coronation of Queen Victoria, an edition of the Sun news- 
paper was printed entirely in gold. This was considered a great 
feat. At the present time, printers in Philadelphia frequently 
execute orders for bank checks in gold ; and fancy show bills, and 
especially Druggists' and Perfumers' fancy labels, demand all the 
tints of the rainbow. A great deal of work is done in this 
branch upon orders from New York. 

Printing for the Blind has been executed in Philadelphia with a 



THE BOOK MANUFACTURE. 175 

fair share of success, and its importance is evident, inasmuch as 
the statistics show, that in America one out of every two thousand 
is blind. The process adopted was what is known as printing in 
relief the alphabet being Roman capitals, in small, compact, sharp 
type, and the relief produced by heavy pressure on thick paper 
between two sheets of copper, having the letters deeply cut. The 
embossing is thus on both sides. Several works, including nearly 
all the Gospels and Epistles, have been printed at the Institution 
for the Blind, and the typography was complimented by the Lon- 
don juries as exceedingly well executed, and comparing " most 
favorably with the best of the Glasgow books." 

PRINTING INKS. In printing, especially plate printing, the 
tone and color of the Ink used are all important. Without good 
Inks it would be impossible to attain any marked success in letter- 
press. There are now five establishments in this city engaged in 
making Printing Inks Chas. E. Johnson, Lay & Brother, Caleb 
Pierce, Woodruff & Co., and L. Martin & Co.* The first named 
is probably the oldest established concern in the United States. 
Some of these establishments confine their manufacture to Black 
Inks solely others make all the usual varieties of Colored Inks, 
which have been compared with the English and pronounced supe- 
rior. Within the last few years a great impetus has been given to 

* The youngest of these enterprising firms, Messrs. L. MARTIN & Co., 
have very politely proposed to furnish a fair sample of Philadelphia Ink for 
use in these pages. This firm claim to have freed their Inks entirely from 
those empyreumatic oils, the presence of which so often endangers the best 
efforts of the printer, by causing the work to change to a dingy brown. 
Mr. Adams, the author of the well-known " Adams' Typographia," is associ- 
ated in this firm, and has succeeded in producing a very superior article, of 
which the one-dollar quality has been used side by side with English four- 
dollar Ink, and the difference is imperceptible to au unpracticed eye. They 
state, "true economy in business is one of the chief elements of success; 
but in relation to Printing Ink particularly, the lowest priced is not always 
the cheapest ; but that which, containing the most color, will require the 
least ink, and as a consequence, produce the finest work." 

In connection with Printing Inks, Messrs. L. Martin & Co. manufacture 
Lamp Black extensively many tons being exported to Europe every month. 
Their manufactory is said to be the largest in the Union. A few years since, 
America depended for Lamp Black entirely upon foreign supplies. 



176 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

this business, and a great improvement effected in the manufac- 
ture ; and, at the present time, the quality of Ink made in Philadel- 
phia is said to be superior to any in the country. Product about 
$160,000. 

5. PAPER. 

The extent of the publishing interest in Philadelphia neces- 
sarily makes this city one of the great Paper marts of the Union. 
There are now at least thirty-five houses in Philadelphia engaged 
more or less extensively in dealing in Paper and Paper-maker's 
materials ; and on Sixth, Commerce, and other streets, there are 
immense warehouses filled, ream upon ream, with paper of all 
kinds, sizes, and colors, the product of European, New England, 
and Pennsylvania mills, consigned for sale, and sold in some in- 
stances at lower prices than the same paper could be purchased 
for cash from the manufacturer. In the vicinity of the city, along 
the Brandywine, in Delaware and Chester counties, the Paper- 
mills are very numerous, some of them the oldest in the country, 
as for instance, the Ivy Mill, which produced, it is said, the first 
Printing Paper made in America ; and also, the first Bank Note 
Paper, viz., that for the old Continental money. But within the 
limits of the consolidated city, there are only nine Paper mills 
four in Manayunk, three on the Wissahicon, one in West Phila- 
delphia, and one on the Schuylkill, near the Soapstone quarry. 
These mills, however, are generally of the first class, some of 
them new Steam-mills, (see APPENDIX) ; and produce, including 
those of two other parties, whose head-quarters are in this city, 
and whose products are sold exclusively here, an average annual 
value of $1,250,000. The City Mills are occupied principally in 
executing orders for paper of a particular quality, or unusual sizes. 

The products of the Philadelphia mills include, besides the usual 
varieties of News and Book Paper, some of the rarer descrip- 
tions. The Writing and Letter Paper at least of one manufacturer 
is very celebrated ; the Bank-note paper of another received the 
premium of superiority from the Boston Bank Association, in 1855 ; 
Plate and Lithographic Paper is made by Messrs. Magarge ; and 
paper from Straw by a firm in Manayunk the Ledger and 
Dollar Newspaper alone consuming about 50,000 reams, or 



THE BOOK MANUFACTURE. 177 

24,000,000 sheets per annum.* Pasteboards and card-boards 
for printers, paper-box manufacturers, and others, are manufac- 
tured extensively one firm, Messrs. A. M. Collins & Co., making 
annually 5,000 gross, or upward of 100,000 sheets, and believed 
to be superior in style of finish to any other in the Union. 

The advantages that the manufacturers of Paper in Philadelphia 
have, including cheap coal, superior water, a first-rate Paper- 
making Machine establishment, and cheap supplies of raw mate- 
rials, are so manifest, that no better locality could be selected for 
the manufacture, particularly of the fine kinds of Paper. 

6. BOOKBINDING. 

Bookbinding may be considered both as an Art and as a 
manufacture. As an Art, it was practiced two thousand years 
ago, and we are told that no expense was deemed by some too 
great for the decoration and preservation of rare manuscripts. 
Only within the last ten years, however, has ornamental binding 
received much attention in the United States; and except for 
the superior quality of Philadelphia workmanship, the national 
reputation, in this particular, would be far from enviable. The 
credit of American Book-binding was saved, both at the London 
World's Fair, and at the Crystal Palace in New York, mainly by 
the favorable specimens sent from this city. There are now estab- 
lishments in Philadelphia occupied almost exclusively upon Fine 
Art binding for private individuals, and largely upon orders from 
New York, Albany, and Boston. In this city, if nowhere else 
in the country, men of wealth and taste can procure their rare 
volumes bound in accordance with the true principles of the art 
that is, to adapt the style of the covering to the contents of the 
volume. 

* A resident of this city, Mr. G. A. Shryock, claims to have been the first 
in this, or any other country, to manufacture by machinery Paper and 
Boards from various kinds of straw and grass. The discovery of straw as 
a material for Paper was patented by Col. William B. Magraw, of Meadville, 
Crawford County, in 1828. In the succeeding year, Mr. Shryock purchased 
a cylinder machine, and adapted it to the manufacture of Paper from this 
material, and his success was noticed in the American and European jour 
nals of that period. 
14 



178 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

As a manufacture, modern Book-binding is distinguished for 
the extent to which machinery has been employed, and the con- 
sequent rapidity of production. In our large establishments, oc- 
cupied principally with orders from Publishers and Publication 
Societies, nearly all the leading processes are executed by ma- 
chines. Mechanism is applied to block-gilding, blind-tooling, 
and embossing ; hydraulic presses are used instead of the old 
wooden screw-presses ; Riehl's cutting-machine supersedes the 
plow ; cutting-tables, with shears, are now used for squaring and 
cutting mill-boards for book-covers ; and machines have recently 
been invented for backing and finishing. As a result, 1,000 
volumes can now be put into boards in ten hours, and 2,500 
volumes are with some an average day's work, in busy seasons. 
The Binders of this city have peculiar advantages in being able to 
procure the requisite materials direct from manufactories in their 
midst. The very best Morocco that can be obtained is made in 
this city ; Marble paper, of unsurpassed quality, is made here ; 
and Tar boards are supplied from the immediate vicinity. Messrs. 
GASKILL, COPPER & FRY, supply the best Bookbinders' tools and 
ornamental brass work used in New York and Boston, as well as 
in this city ; and the whole trade looks to Philadelphia for the 
most efficient Bookbinders' machinery.* 

Of Marble Paper, Philadelphia has the principal manufactory 
in this country, that of Mr. CHARLES WILLIAMS. He claims to 
have been the first in the Union whp made the Antique Dutch 
and Drawn patterns, and also the only one that has succeeded in 
matching the celebrated "Papier de Annonay," of France; and 
still is the only manufacturer in the United States of all of the 
English, Dutch and French patterns. He supplies Boston, New 

* Book-binders' Muslin is not made in this city, and we believe not in this 
country, excepting by one house, Messrs. N. M. ABBOTT & Co., of New York city. 
This house is entitled to very great credit for their successful and persever- 
ing efforts to produce an article of American manufacture, fully equal in nil 
respects to the imported, and cheaper. Their sales now exceed one half the 
entire present importation. We are assured by practical binders, who have 
thoroughly tested Messrs. Abbott & Co.'s muslins, that the trade would find 
an advantage in using the American in preference to the foreign article; 
and we trust patriotism and good sense will induce them to heed the sug- 
gestion. This volume we shall order to be bound in American muslin. 



THE BOOK MANUFACTURE. 179 

York, and the chief cities of the whole Union with nine-tenths of 
the fine papers that are used on extra work, and go by the name 
of English and French paper. " There is no manufacturer in this 
country," he says, "that has equaled my styles of work, and none 
that has even matched my common papers for durability and finish." 

The binding of BLANK BOOKS is a distinct but important 
branch of the general trade. In the manufacture of Account 
Books, foreigners acknowledge that Americans excel all others ; 
and those who are conversant with the best workmanship executed 
in this city, will acknowledge that our makers are not surpassed 
by any. Every variety and description of Blank Books for 
merchants, banks, and public offices, are made here, from the 
cheapest to those distinguished as indestructible, which are bound 
in Russia, paneled, and edged with brass, varying, in full sets, 
from $75 to $300. The leading establishments employ the most 
improved machinery, and 110 expense is spared to expedite and 
cheapen the processes of manufacture. One enterprising individ- 
ual recently paid $15,000 for a limited monopoly of one machine 
for Ruling. By means of this invention, known as the McAd- 
ams' Ruling Machine, horizontal and vertical lines, in red and blue 
inks, are ruled on both sides ef the paper by a single passage 
through. Seventy-five to one hundred reams may thus be ruled 
per day ; while eight or ten reams are considered rapid work by 
the ordinary hand-ruling machine. The pens used in the McAd- 
ams' invention are of gold, tipped with rhodium, which prevents 
wearing of the points, and insures uniform and unbroken lines. 
It is estimated that these pens will endure six years. Any variety 
of width of heading is made possible by an improvement in lift- 
ing the pens. Another invention, in general use, is a machine 
for paging Blank Books, introduced but a few years ago. The 
method consists in the simultaneous application of numbered 
types to each sides of the sheet ; and so great is the working ca- 
pacity of the machine, that it is capable of producing thirty or 
forty thousand impressions per day, requiring only one operator 
to move the treadle. Purchasers now generally stipulate that 
their Blank Books shall be delivered paged. 

The business of Account Bookbinding and Ruling, in this city, 
amounts to about $260,000 ; while the entire Bookbinding, in- 



180 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

eluding Blank Books, exceeds a million of dollars as nearly as 
we can ascertain it, $1,210,000 ; and employs, in favorable times, 
about seven hundred males and one thousand females. 

6. ENGRAVING. 

The arts of Engraving may be divided into two principal 
classes Engraving in Eelief, of which Wood Engraving is the 
principal representative, and Engraving in Basso, as Line engrav- 
ing, Mezzotinto engraving, engraving in Stipple and Aquatinta. 

Engraving on Wood has become exceedingly popular within 
the last twenty years, as a means of illustrating natural or 
familiar scenes. So great has been the demand for Wood 
Engraving, that the art in many places has degenerated into a 
mere mechanical trade. But in Philadelphia, fortunately, there is 
not an overbearing demand for indifferent styles to illustrate cheap 
publications ; and consequently, the artists have been employed 
in branches which called for their best powers, and developed the 
highest capabilities of the Art. Government reports, Scientific 
works, and orders from individuals other than Periodical Pub- 
lishers, have been the principal sources of employment to the 
Wood Engravers in Philadelphia.* 

* Philadelphia contains so many names of celebrity, as Wood Engravers, 
that it would be difficult to instance any as special representatives of the 
general excellence. We shall therefore merely refer to those whose Engrav- 
ings are in this volume, and of whose merits the reader can judge. 

The principal firm selected is that of BAXTER & HARLEY, whose engrav- 
ings may be known by the mark. The establishment occupied by them 
was founded by Mr. R. S. Gilbert, for some time the only Engraver in Phil- 
adelphia, and probably the best in the country. The firm subsequently 
included Mr. William Gihon, since 'deceased, of whom Mr. Baxter was the 
pupil, and is the successor. Mr. Harley was also a pupil of Mr. Gihon. 
Mr. Baxter is said to be one of the best designers in the city, and has had 
a large experience, and been peculiarly successful in engraving Anatomical 
subjects. Wilson's Anatomy, Carpenter's Physiology, Gliddon's Types of 
Mankind, &c., were illustrated by this firm, and are fair samples of the ac- 
curacy with which they execute engravings for Medical and Scientific works. 

Engraving on Pine has been brought to great perfection by Messrs. Bax- 
ter & Harley: some of their large show-bills, &c., are really works of Art. 

Other of the Wood Engravings in this work were executed by Mr. ED- 
WARD ROGERS, an enterprising young artist, rapidly rising in his profession. 



THE BOOK MANUFACTURE. 181 

Line Engraving is the general term for the process of en gray- 
ing on the two metals commonly employed Copper and Steel. 
The manufacture of Bank Notes affords occupation to a large 
number of the very best Engravers on Steel ; but aside from this, 
the demand for Steel Plates in this city has called into existence 
several important establishments. Philadelphia now contains what 
is believed to be the largest Plate Engraving establishment in the 
United States. Several line engravings in this work were exe- 
cuted by SAMUEL SARTAIN, a young American artist, who stands 
in the very front rank of his profession. 

Mezzotinto Engraving, so far as the history of the art in Amer- 
ica is concerned, is inseparably associated with the name of JOHN 
SARTAIN, of this city, who first introduced it here about a quarter 
of a century ago, during more than half of which period he was 
alone in the practice. In his hands it underwent a change in its 
application, and consequently in its methods, by adapting it to 
the production of small book embellishments, for which it had not 
been used before. From the broad effects of large framing prints, 
it was forced down to the expression of the most minute details, 
on the diminutive scale of Pictorial Books ; and we count by hun- 
dreds the Steel Plates engraved in this style during the period 
referred to, all the product of one prolific hand. The facility of 
its execution, its inexpensiveness, the richness and softness of its 
effects, all tended to extend its popularity ; and its use, doubtless, 
hastened the diffusion of that rapidly growing taste for prints in 
this country, everywhere observable. 

The other processes of Engraving enumerated, are Engraving 

* The establishment alluded to is that of J. M. BUTLER, in Jayne's Gran- 
ite Building. We extract from our Reporter's Notes: "Mr. Butler has 
now in course of publication Washington at Valley Forge, and Franklin be- 
fore the Privy Council, in Whitehall Chapel, London, 1774. The Painting is 
by C. Schuessele, Artist, at a cost of $1,800. The Engraving is being exe- 
cuted by Whitechurch, one of the best English Artists, at a cost of $5,000. 
It will take four years to complete it. Hamilton, the Marine Painter, (for 
some years associated with Butler in designing), is now making illustrations 
for Col. Fremont's Explorations." 



14* 



182 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

in Stipple, and Aquatinta Engraving. Engraving in Stipple is a 
costly method of Engraving, seldom used except in portraiture. 
The largest, and one of the finest Stipple Portraits ever exe- 
cuted in this country, is a copy of Gilbert Stuart's Washington, 
executed by Mr. T. B. Welch, of this city. Aquatinta Engraving 
is a secondary method, unsatisfactory where minute and accurate 
details are required. d V 

7. LITHOGRAPHY. 

This ornamental art, of so much service to the useful arts, is 
so nearly allied to Engraving, that it might be treated as a branch 
thereof being, in fact, Engraving on Stone, or Surface Engraving. 
The stone used possesses, in a high degree, calcareous qualities 
similar to limestone, and absorbs to a certain extent the oily sub- 
stances that are used to give the drawings sufficient adhesiveness 
to resist the friction of printing. These are Lithographic chalk 
and Lithographic ink. They are composed of tallow, virgin wax, 
soap, shellac, and colored with lamp-black. The principal styles 
in Lithography, are Linear and Crayon Drawings, transfers on 
stone from steel or copper-plate engravings, wood-cuts, or 
from Lithographic drawings themselves. 

The second Lithographic establishment in the United States, 
was opened in Philadelphia in 1828 ; and here many of the most 
important processes and improvements in the art have had their 
origin. Works have been executed here that would do credit to 
the artists of any city or place in the World.* 

In illustration of the correctness of this assertion, we may refer to plate 
XXI. of the seventh edition of Lieut. Maury's "Sailing Directions," pub- 
lished by Messrs. E. C. & J. BIDDLE, of this city, for the U. S. Hydrograph- 
ical Department. The plate referred to, by a series of differently colored 
lines some continuous and others broken extending across two quarto 
pages, exhibits the percentages resulting from the average of observations for 
46,000 days, of fair gales, head gales, total gales, calms, fogs, and thunder 
and lightning, met with, in each month of the year, in every five degrees 
from 10 to 75 West latitude, along Lieutenant M.'s proposed track for 
steamers bound from America to England ; and also, along his proposed 
homeward track. The precision required both in the engraving and in 
the printing of this plate was such as almost defied the powers of li- 
thography ; but it was executed to the satisfaction of Lieutenant Maury, 



THE BOOK MANUFACTURE. 183 

There are now two hundred and thirty-five Lithographic presses 
in operation in this city. 

8. MAPS. Map manufacturing, it is believed, is conducted on 
a more extensive scale in Philadelphia than in any other city in 
the Union. One establishment alone turns out twelve hundred 
Maps weekly. Connected with it are two Lithographic Printing- 
offices, having twenty presses ; coloring rooms, in which thirty-five 
females are employed ; twenty engravers are occupied in the en- 
graving office, and sixteen men in the mounting rooms. Maps of 

and of all good judges. Again, some years ago, Messrs. Lippincott & Co., 
published an Annual, called "The Iris," having chromo-lithographic illustra- 
tions, representing various subjects of Indian Life and Wild Scenery, 
printed in eleven colors. This volume was so much admired in England, 
that the Queen ordered a dozen copies for her own household, expressing 
by letter to the agent in London, her admiration of the manner in which 
the book was illustrated, and saying, "that it was the prettiest book she had 
seen from America, and reflected great credit on the city of Philadelphia." 

The firm who executed the above works now conduct business tinder the 
style of P. S. DUVAL & SON. The senior is now, we believe, the oldest es- 
tablished Lithographic Printer in the city. Mr. S. C. Duval, the son, is 
also an accomplished Lithographer, having just completed a three years' 
practice in some of the principal establishments of Paris. Among the 
numerous works recently executed by this firm, we might mention a large 
and beautiful view of Baltimore, in 1752, printed in colors; a book of speci- 
mens for Messrs. Cornelius & Baker, containing Drawings printed in colors 
of the principal styles of Chandeliers ; and one hundred and fifty plates for 
a Government report of the Pacific Rail-road and Mexican Boundary. 

The art of Photographic Drawing on Lithographic Stone has been at- 
tempted by this firm with probabilities of success. The process is simple, 
and much more economical than drawing on stone. 

The art of transferring Plate Engravings to stone, of so much importance 
in the publication of Maps, Outline Drawings, &c., was introduced, it is 
said, into this city by Mr. F. BOUKQUIN, who, for a long period, occupied 
the position of foreman in Mr. Duval's establishment. To this day he has 
few if any equals in the art. An Isothermal Map, lithographed by him for 
Blodgett's Climatology, is equal in delicacy and accuracy to copper-plate. 
The firm with which he is connected, Messrs. F. BOURQUIN, & Co., have 
executed for this work the view of the Bridesburg Machine Works. 

Another Lithographic establishment, in this city, includes and represents 
a combination of master-artists. We refer to that of T. LEONHARDT & Co., 
and F. MAEAS, 609 Chestnut street. The duties are subdivided thus : 

Mr. THEODORE LEONIIABDT, whose skill as a Lithographer is well known 



184 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

all the counties in Maine, and others of the New England States, 
have been executed in this city ; and one firm in Philadelphia haa 
the contract for making a Map of the State of New York, in 
which $50,000 has already been expended. The product amounts 
to about $400,000 annually. 

9. ENVELOPES. The British Post-office Statistics state, that 
in 1850, three hundred and forty-seven millions of letters were 
posted, and of this large number three hundred millions were in- 
closed in Envelopes. In this city, many millions of letters are 
mailed annually ; hence it will be seen, that the manufacture of 
Envelopes must necessarily have some importance. There are 
now four establishments engaged in the manufacture, the largest 
having five machines for folding and gumming, each of which can 
turn out eighteen thousand Envelopes a day : though, of course, 
the full power is seldom exerted. Not only plain, but embossed 
and enameled Envelopes are made ; and one firm makes twenty 
sizes and styles. 

in this and other cities, has special charge of the Engraving Department. 
He gives particular attention to the execution of Bonds, Diplomas, Certificates 
of Deposit, Checks, Notes, Drafts, and all other mercantile work, having no 
superior in this line. His productions with the Ruling-machine are elegant 
in design, and have been in many cases pronounced equal to copper. 

F. MARAS, who has had twenty-two years experience in the leading es- 
tablishments of Europe, and who is well known in London and Paris as a 
first-class artist, personally superintends all the artistical branches and the 
color printing. 

Mr. J. H. CAMP, celebrated as a practical printer, and transferrer from 
Stone, Steel, and Copper Plates, leads the Printing Department. His pro- 
ductions are esteemed perfect by the principal artists ; and in combination 
with the above-named gentlemen, contributes largely to the reputation and 
excellence of these establishments. ' In union there is strength." 

Mr. THOMAS SINCLAIR has executed some very fine Lithographic En- 
gravings for the Harpers and other publishers; and Messrs. WAGNER and 
McGuidAN, and Mr. ROSENTHAL, have had a good share of Government 
and other work, which they have executed in a masterly style. 

Mrs. BOWEN continues the establishment of her late husband, a cel- 
ebrated Lithographic Engraver in the department of Natural History ; 
\nd M. H. TKAUBEL, and others, execute Lithographic Engravings of great 
ixcellence. 



BOOTS AND SHOES. 185 

The product of the Book Manufacture, and its kindred branches, 
is stated approximately as follows : 

Type-Metal, Type Founding, and Stereotyping, - $650,000 

Printing Book and Job, (including Fancy Printing,) - 1,183,000 

Printing Inks, - 160,000 

Paper, 1,250,000 

Book Binding, including Blank Books and Marble Paper, - - 1,230,000 

Engraving Wood and Steel, and Lithography, .... 570,000 

Maps, - . ., j ro , {r ,,,; - ... , > ^ i ; or - T ,> 400,000 

Fancy Stationery and Envelopes, - - - - - > .^.. . ^ 150,000 

Total, 1'y.r, ; .j r -; gjjjf^' $5,593,000 

V. 

Boots and Shoes. 

The manufacture of Boots and Shoes would be treated by Play- 
fair as a subdivision of the general subject of Wearing Apparel. 
Those who have never heard of the machine, invented by a Penn- 
sylvanian, which will peg a Boot or Shoe, two rows on each side, 
in three minutes, and cut its own pegs, might be disposed to clas- 
sify the trade with Stationery. But within the last few years, so 
great an advance has been made in the science of pedology, and so 
many improvements have been made in the mechanism expediting 
the manufacture, that it is entitled to distinct and separate consider- 
ation ; and, as respects first-class Boot-makers, particularly those 
of Philadelphia, there is now neither wit nor justice in compar- 
ing them to their predecessors in the time of Simon of Joppa, 
nor in ranking them, as some one has done, among the great 
scourges of humanity. 

The chief seats, in the United States, of the Wholesale Manu- 
facture of Boots and Shoes, are Lynn, Mass., and Philadelphia. 
The former makes cheap, common work its specialty the latter, 
fine Boots and Shoes, particularly Ladies' Shoes. The former 
has had the advantage of Boston enterprise in scattering broad- 
cast the particulars of its industry ; the latter has produced annu- 
ally an equal product of really, though not nominally, cheaper 
work ; but has taken such precautions to guard the secret that but 
few persons have even accidentally heard of it. Mr. Edward 
Young has made the manufacture, in Philadelphia, one of the 
subjects of thorough investigation for this volume, and the fol- 
lowing extract from his report exhibits its present condition 



186 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

With respect to the reputation of Philadelphia Shoes, I first 
heard of it while traveling in the South. I noticed that a Pe- 
tersburg retailer offered his customers ' Great inducements ! 
Miles' celebrated Boots only eight dollars a pair.' As I had 
heard of Boots in New England for something less than that per 
pair, I was led to inquire who Mr. Miles was, and received an ac- 
count, which was amply confirmed when I recently visited his es- 
tablishment on Fourth street. An inspection of his work profoundly 
impressed me with the sagacity of the Petersburg merchant. 

The results of an extended personal examination and inquiry 
into the manufacture of Boots and Shoes, in Philadelphia, are 
these. In the first place, the quality is most superior. This su- 
periority may be ascribed in part to the advantage which the 
manufacturers have in this market for purchasing leather and 
skins sole-leather, calf, goat, and sheep-skins and especially 
for obtaining morocco, of which they have the first choice from 
the large stock made in this city; and can also obtain them in 
such quantities as they desire. Secondly, to the skill of the 
workmen. A large number of the journeymen are foreigners, 
chiefly Germans, many of whom are first-class workmen. 

Some of the work in both branches excels any I have seen, 
of either European or American make. The character of the 
work may be judged by the following scale of prices, paid by 
the best houses for making 

Men's Dress Boots Fitting, ..... 75 cents. 
Crimping, - - - - 10 '* 
Bottoming, - - - - $2 25 " 
Heeling, .... 12 " 

Total, $3 22 " 

Ladies fine heel Gaiters Cutting, - - - 3 cents. 

Binding, Ac., - - 33 " 

Making, - - - $1 00 " 

Total, $1 36 " 

There are about 7,000 men employed, equal to the constant lahor of 

5,000 average wages $6 per week for 50 weeks, or $300 each, $1,500,000 

2,000 females, not fully employed, averaging $100 per annum, 200,000 



Total Wages, $1,700,000 

In addition, there are 165 Sewing Machines in constant use. 



BOOTS AND SHOES. 



1ST 



Making Men's wear, and making Women's wear, are distinct 
branches ; although several are engaged in both, having, how- 
ever, separate establishments. The men's men, and women's 
men, as the workmen are distinguished, have separate organiza- 
tions, and neither know nor mingle with each other. Which is 
the higher caste we do not know gallantry would say the women's 
men. Besides, they are the most numerous, there being forty-two 
hundred of the latter to twenty-eight hundred of the former. 
The average wages is about the same in each branch some earn- 
ing but $5 per week, while superior and fast workmen obtain $8 
to $10, and occasionally $12 per week. It is generally known 
that the work is cut in the establishment, and given out to the 
men who work at their homes. 

The Statistics of the Capital and Product are as follows : 

Capital invested by the regular manufacturers, - - $1,650,000 

Product, viz. : 

18 Manufacturers, being all tbose whose annual product 
exceeds $50,000 per annum, make - 



$1,689,000 



make over 



11 

4 

9 

7 

2 

4 

20 

12 



$40,000 
30,000 
25,000 
20,000 
15,000 
14,000 
12,000 
10,000 
8,000 



per annum, 



80 who produce annually from $3,000 to 7,000, 
average $5,000 each, ?b orf J* : T r 
100 " " " " $2,500 

180 who sell to dealers over and above 

customer work, on an average, 1,000 



Made in Prison and other Public Institutions, about - 
" " Burlington, N. J., for Phil'a dealers, at least, 



$335,000 

330,000 

100,000 

180,000 

105,000 

28,000 

48,000 

200,000 

96,000 



400,000 
250,000 

180,000 



1,422,000 



830,000 

$3,941,000 

100,000 
100,000 



Total, ,,.,4 $4,141,000 

The amount then of Boots and Shoes, made in Philadelphia, 
exceeds, it will be seen, four millions of dollars annually, being 



188 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

more in value, though not in number of pairs, than the whole 
production of Lynn, where shoes are supposed to grow sponta- 
neously. In addition to these, there are a large number whose 
operations, though in the aggregate important, cannot easily be 
ascertained. They are known by a term, more expressive than 
euphonious, "garret bosses," who employ from one to twelve men 
each ; and having but little capital, make Boots and Shoes in 
their own rooms, and sell them to jobbers and retailers in small 
quantities at low rates, for cash. One retailer, who sells $20,000 
worth per annum, buys three fourths of his stock from these makers. 

The manufacture of this article, in Philadelphia, owing to supe- 
rior facilities, could be greatly extended if the jobbers had more 
of the amor patrice, and would purchase Philadelphia-made work 
instead of the Eastern made, the sales of which in this city annually 
amount to nearly ten millions of dollars ; but, unfortunately, the 
latter affords more profit. As consumers, too, we are not blame- 
less ; for were we willing to pay a remunerative price for Phila- 
delphia work, instead of a dollar or two for Yankee-made, which 
appear to be leather-soled, but which two weeks wear may dis- 
cover to be paper, this branch of industry would be doubled. 
Recently, some efforts have been made to compete with the East- 
ern in price, at the same time excelling them in quality. One 
maker in particular, with great tact has turned his atten- 
tion to this branch, and has been eminently successful in selling a 
better article at the same price as the best Eastern Boots and 
Shoes. As a specimen, his leather Boots for women, at $1, is 
superior to the Eastern made at the same price with the lower 
qualities, say at 90 cents, he does not compete. 

At another establishment, I noticed a very superior ar- 
ticle of grained hunting Boots, made of Pennsylvania leather, 
blacked on the grain side. Being tanned with oak-bark, the leather 
is more pliable, and the Boots are almost impervious to water. 
They are well suited to the West and South, where the hunter 
has to wade through water. 

Since the introduction of Sewing Machines, the manufacture 
of Gaiter uppers has become a distinct branch, and gives em- 
ployment to hundreds of females. 

The entire trade of Philadelphia in Boots and Shoes, including 



BRASS AND COPPER MANUFACTURES. 189 

City manufacture and Eastern work, is stated approximately at 
-fifteen millions of dollars. 

VI. 

Brass and Copper Manufactures. 

Of Brass there are two principal varieties, distinguished as Yei- 
low and Red Brass. Yellow Brass is composed of seventy parts 
of copper, and thirty of zinc ; and Red Brass is produced by using 
not more than twenty per cent, of zinc. Though these are the pro- 
portions generally observed, manufacturers in many instances adopt 
special precautions to render the alloy homogeneous. In Philadel- 
phia, it is usual for the workers in brass to procure the materials 
and compound their own metal the manufacture of Pig Brass, as 
a general rule, being limited to inferior qualities, made from scraps 
and filings from the shops. There are at least four concerns in 
Philadelphia engaged in this branch of the business, and known 
as brass smelters and refiners. 

The uses and applications of Brass are so numerous, that 
while its manufactures are extremely important, it is very diffi- 
cult to trace them in their details. In the production of orna- 
mental brass-work, and especially in that department distinguished 
as Lamps, Chandeliers, and Gas Fixtures, the manufacturers 
of Philadelphia are declared, by the best foreign judges, to have 
no superiors in the world. (See LAMPS, &c.) The same may be 
said of those who convert it into various Military, Odd-Fellows, 
Firemen's, and Theatrical Ornaments, and other light and artis- 
tic forms. At one establishment, that of Samuel Croft, Sheet 
Brass is made quite extensively, though less so than we should 
think the demand would justify. Bells of every description, from 
the smallest to a full chime, are made by one firm extensively, and 
by three others to some extent. Several foundries are chiefly 
devoted to making castings in brass, of every kind of article that 
may be ordered, from the largest to the smallest, either for brass- 
workers and finishers who finish up the foundry products, or for use 
in connection with other manufactures. Brass is used largely by the 
manufacturers of Marine Engines and Locomotives, and in Ship- 
work. Castings of this description are supplied by the founders 
to a large amount ; while many of the engine and propeller 
15 



190 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

builders have Brass foundries as a part of their works. An- 
other form in which Brass is largely used, in connection with 
steam apparatus, is the manufacture of Gauges, c. One 
brass-founder, Mr. M. A. Dodge, gives special attention to mould- 
ing Steam and Water Gauges for boilers, and oil-cups of peculiar 
construction, for Locomotive and Steam-Engines. Messrs. Hook 
& Pritchard are engaged extensively in the manufacture of 
Brass Boxes, or Composition Bearings, for cars, &c. One firm 
in Kensington make, yearly, many tons of Composition Nails and 
Spikes, for copper sheathing and other copper work ; besides 
Rudder Braces, Pintles, Dove Tails, Side Lights, Ventilators, 
Port Hinges, and other ship-joiners' castings, and Castings for 
machinery generally the two branches constituting their prin- 
cipal business. They make besides Bells of all sizes, and Carriage 
and Harness Mountings, &c. Brass Gun Mountings constitute a 
principal item in the business of one shop ; and another is occu- 
pied principally in producing Brass Tubing, or tubes for Philo- 
sophical, Optical, Mathematical, and other instruments, as Teles- 
copes, Spy-glasses, Cameras, Air-pumps, &c., &c., requiring the 
same nice polish interiorly as externally. Hose Screws and 
Branch Pipes, (for house and garden hose), employ, either wholly 
or in part, another manufacturer. Brass Book mountings and or- 
naments, as Locks, Clasps, Bands, &c., of superior quality, are 
made by several different persons, and form the exclusive busi- 
ness of at least one manufacturer. Castors, for furniture, are 
made to a limited amount by at least three persons, and of excel- 
lent quality ; but they complain that our dealers do not sustain 
our own manufacturers. 

Besides four Lamp and Chandelier establishments, there are 
several smaller ones, that make Lamps of every variety for do- 
mestic use, chiefly of brass ; and for the consumption of the various 
patent oils, and other illuminating substances, besides common 
oils, &c. Moulds of great variety, as for dentists, bottle-makers, 
and for pressing Sperm or Adamantine candles, for pattern-mak- 
ers, confectioners, &c., are made by several. Locks, Keys, Door 
Plates and Knobs, Hinges, Fenders, Andirons, Fire Irons, Candle- 
sticks ; and the nameless varieties of house-keeping articles in 
brass, as Pans, Kettles, Coal-hods, &c., are nearly or quite all 



BRASS AND COPPER MANUFACTURES. 191 

made here to some extent at least. But the distinctive feature of 
this department of industry, as respects this city, is the manu- 
facture of Brass Cocks. This branch is said to have originated 
in Philadelphia ; and those who are now engaged in it and there 
are several quite extensively occupy a prominent and leading 
position. 

The " Philadelphia Brass Works," WILER & Moss, proprietors, 
are occupied largely in the manufacture of Stair Hods. This 
firm, it is believed, are more extensively engaged in this branch 
than any other in the "United States. In addition to Stair Rods, 
and their appendages, they manufacture Brass Mouldings, Brass 
Nails, Trunk Bands of all widths, Step Plates, Curtain Tubing, 
Curtain Wires, &c., of every description. They are also the 
patentees of a cheap and useful article for lighting gas, known as 
the " Patent Taper Holder," of which they have already sold to 
an amount exceeding $10,000. The Patent Holder is made of 
brass, rolled like a tube, with a turned handle ; and so constructed, 
that the wax-taper is slipped in, or thrown out, at pleasure. In 
these works 56,000 Ibs. of sheet brass, and fO,000 Ibs. of hoop 
iron, were consumed during last year. 

The miscellaneous articles in brass, made in Philadelphia, it 
will thus be perceived, are quite numerous; nevertheless, there cer- 
tainly is room for very considerable extension of the manufacture. 
Brass Wire is not made, to our knowledge ; besides many other 
articles that form prominent items in the industry of Waterbury, 
Conn. The locality we think especially worthy the attention of the 
enterprising. Intermingled as Brass work is with Iron Founding, 
Gas Fitting, Plumbing, &c., scarcely a satisfactory approxima- 
tion can be made to the annual product ; but the mean of esti- 
mates, by experienced men, gives a result of $830,000 per annum. 

COPPER, like Brass, is applied to a great variety of purposes 
its principal use being the manufacture of Brewing Coppers, 
Sugar Cans, Teaches, Clarifiers, Evaporators, and every article 
used for making or refining Sugar; Stills for turpentine, alcohol, 
&c. ; Pumps, Dye Kettles, Mineral Water Apparatus, Bath Heat- 
ers, Drying Machines for manufacturers. It is also used largely 
by Locomotive and Stationary Engine builders, and by Plumbers 
and Gas Fitters ; and for lining Bath Tubs, and as a base for 



192 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Tinning, &c. The department of Coppersmithing, in which the 
manufacturers of Philadelphia excel, is the production of heavy 
Copper work for Sugar Refiners and Sugar Planters. It is be- 
lieved, that at least one of the establishments in this branch is 
unequaled in extent and quality of workmanship by any similar 
one in the Union. The annual product in Copper, in Philadel- 
phia, is about '$400,000 per annum. 

VII. 
Brewing Ale, Porter, and Lager Beer. 

ALE AND PORTER. 

"Beer," says the author of the " Picture of Philadelphia, in 
1811," whom we have before quoted, "was brewed in Philadelphia 
for several years before the Revolutionary war ; and soon after 
peace, the more substantial Porter was made by the late Mr. 
Robert Hare. Until within three or four years the consumption 
of that article has greatly increased, and is now the table-drink of 
every family in easy circumstances. The quality of it is truly ex- 
cellent : to say that it is equal to any of London, the usual stand- 
ard of excellence, would undervalue it, because, as it regards 
wholesome qualities and palatableness, it is much superior ; no 
other ingredients entering into the composition than malt, hops, 
and pure water. A fair experiment has shown, that even so far 
back as 1790, Philadelphia Porter bore the warm climate of Cal- 
cutta, and came back uninjured. In 1801, orders were given by 
the merchants of Calcutta, after tasting some of it taken out as 
stores, for sixty hogsheads. Within a few years Pale Ale of the 
first quality was brewed, and justly esteemed being light, 
sprightly, and free from that bitterness which distinguishes 
Porter." 

The reputation of Philadelphia Ale has but strengthened with 
the lapse of years; and at the present time the Malt liquors made 
in Philadelphia take precedence in every market in the Union. 
The qualities for which they are distinguished are purity, bril- 
liancy of color, richness of flavor, and non-liability to deteriora- 
tion in warm countries qualities, the result in part of the pecu- 
liar characteristics of the Schuylkill water in part of the intelli- 
gence, care and experience of our brewers, conjoined to the use 



BREWING. 193 

of apparatus possessing all the best modern improvements made in 
England and in this country. 

The following is an outline of the processes adopted in the man- 
ufacture : 

Preparatory to the process of Brewing, the barley is converted 
into malt. This method consists of four processes, viz. : steep- 
ing, couching, flooring, and kiln-drying. Great care is taken, 
and no expense is spared, to secure the best grain from this and 
the adjoining States. The grain is first steeped in water con- 
tained in wooden or stone cisterns ; the water being frequently 
drawn off and a fresh quantity supplied, to cleanse the grain. 
When sufficiently saturated to admit of its being crushed be- 
tween the thumb and finger, it is then drained of the water, and 
spread over a cement floor to the depth of six or eight inches, 
and left, with occasional turning, until it sprouts. 

In the process of germination, a peculiar azotized substance is 
evolved, called diastase, which acts as a powerful agent in con- 
verting starch into dextrine, and ultimately into saccharine. The 
maltster continues to turn the barley, at intervals, so as to pro- 
duce a uniform growth, upon the floors. When the barley has 
sufficiently sprouted, a stage determined by the sweet taste and 
the chalky appearance of the inside of the grain, it is dried rapidly, 
in order to retain the starchy matter, which, in a long growth of the 
sprouts and rootlets, would be wasted. This drying is done in kilns ; 
here the heat destroys the germ of the grain, expels the moisture, 
and converts it into a sweet and friable grain called malt. It is 
then passed through a cylindrical sieve, separating it from all 
stones, beans, straws, &c. ; and subsequently crushed by rollers. 
When the brewing is commenced, the ground malt is conducted 
into a large vat, infused in heated water, and thoroughly mixed 
by a machine adapted for the purpose : there it remains at rest 
until the starch is converted into sugar, and then drained into 
boiling coppers, additional water being sprinkled upon the grain 
until the saccharine is extracted, which is ascertained by an instru- 
ment called the Saccharoraeter. In these boiling coppers the clear 
extract, or wort, is boiled with hops, for the purpose of imparting 
to it an aromatic, bitter flavor, and the property of keeping with- 
out injury. This accomplished, it is drained into shallow vessels, 
15* 



194 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

and cooled (by an apparatus called a Refrigerator), to the tem- 
perature at which the brewer desires the fermentation to commence. 
Thence it is conducted into a vat, and mixed with yeast of a 
previous brewing, where the fermentation is carried on. This 
process continues from three to five days, during which the tem- 
perature of the fermenting body rises, and a rapid disengagement 
of carbonic acid takes place. To prevent the creation of too 
high a temperature, which would cause acidity of the worts, it is 
racked off from the fermenting vats into puncheons of one hun- 
dred and twenty to one hundred and fifty gallons capacity, where 
it purges itself of its yeast. The fefrnentation being now com- 
pleted, and the Ale or Porter perfectly clear, the sediment or 
yeast remaining settles at the bottom ; it is racked off from the 
puncheon into casks of convenient size for use, or stored in large 
cedar vats for future consumption. 

There are now nine extensive Brewers of Ale and Porter in 
Philadelphia, viz. : MASSEY, COLLINS & Co., FREDERICK G-AUL, 
ROBERT SMITH, W. C. RUDMAN, ROBERT NEWLIN, GRAY & 
STALEY, DITHMAR & BUTZ, W. B. TAYLOR, and JAMES MOORE. 
The oldest Brewery in this city is probably that upon the 
corner of Sixth and Carpenter streets, which was built about 
one hundred years ago, by William Gray, a native of Philadel- 
phia. The most noteworthy Brewery is probably that belonging 
to MASSEY, COLLINS & Co., situated at the northwest corner of 
Tenth and Filbert sts. ; it was originally erected by the farmers of 
Chester and Delaware counties, Pa., and purchased from them by 
the Brewers' Association of Philadelphia ; they subsequently sold 
the establishment to M. L. Dawson, a member of the Association, 
and whose ancestors had been prominent Brewers for a period of 
eighty years. Poultney & Massey, the predecessors of the pres- 
ent firm, in the year 1855, greatly enlarged the buildings, which 
have recently been increased by the present owners. The build- 
ings, as now erected, form a hollow square of one hundred and 
fifty feet each way, making an extent of buildings of six hundred 
feet, seven stories in height, with extensive cellars and vaults 
underneath the whole, eighteen feet in depth, which are furnished 
with large vats containing from two hundred to four hundred bar- 
rels each, and sufficient for the storage of ten thousand barrels of 



BREWING. 195 

Ale and Porter. Their Brewing Apparatus has been put up within 
the past three years, of the latest and most approved description ; 
comprising large Mash Tubs, capable of brewing nine hundred 
bushels of malt daily ; boiling Coppers heated by means of steam- 
pipes; large Coolers, and Refrigerators, and Fermenting Tuns, 
the capacity of the latter being forty-five thousand gallons. At- 
tached to the Brewery are malt-houses, which are designed for 
the malting of one hundred thousand bushels of barley. From 
seventy-five to one hundred men are employed about the estab- 
lishment. The firm is extensively engaged in the manufacture of 
Pale and Amber Ales, and Porter, for draught and bottling; 
Brown Stout, and XX Ale, for all the markets upon the coast, 
from Maine to Louisiana, also for the numerous markets of the 
West Indies and South America. 

The greatest cleanliness is required in this establishment ; 
every cask returned to the Brewery being unheaded, scalded, and 
scrubbed with hickory brooms by hand ; and lime is used fre- 
quently to purify the utensils. 

The capital invested in the Brewing of Ale and Porter is 
$1,500,000, and the annual product exceeds one million of dollars. 

2. LAGER BEER. 

The manufacture of Lager Beer was introduced into this 
country about eighteen years ago, from Bavaria, where the process 
of brewing it was kept secret for a long period. Its reception 
was not a very cordial or welcome one ; and about twelve years 
elapsed before its use became at all general. Within the last few- 
years, however, the consumption has increased so enormonsly > 
not merely among the German population, but among the natives f 
that its manufacture forms an important item of productive in- 
dustry. The superior quality of that made in Philadelphia has, 
no doubt, increased the demand, and by diminishing to some ex- 
tent the use of fiery liquor, has effected partial good.* Lager 

*The following report by "Our Reporter," contains some important facts. 

"Sia : You entrusted the investigation of the Lager Beer manufacture to 
one who wants every essential qualification for the task. I can neither 
speak German, eat Sauerkraut, nor drink Lager. Before undertaking the 
commission, T wished to ascertain for my own satisfaction, without practical 



196 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

signifies "kept," or "on hand;" and Lager Beer is equivalent 
to " beer in store." It can be made from the same cereals from 
which other malt liquors are made ; but barley is the grain gen- 
erally used in this country. The processes resemble those of 
brewing Ale and Porter, with some points of difference, and the 
brewing generally forms a separate and distinct business. 

experiment, 'whether Lager Beer will intoxicate. I procured the evidence 
before the King's County Circuit Court (Brooklyn), and the following sy- 
nopsis of the testimony on the part of the defense satisfied me, at least, if 
not the Jury. One German testified, 'that he had on one occasion drank 
fifteen pint glasses before breakfast in order to give him an appetite.' An- 
other, Mr. Philip Kock, testified that ' once, upon a bet, he drank a keg of 
Lager Beer, containing seven and a half gallons, or thirty quarts, within 
two hours, and felt no intoxicating effects afterward. He frequently drank 
sixty, seventy, eighty, and ninety pint glasses in a day did it as a usual 
thing when he was "flush." ' Others testified to drinking from twenty to fifty 
glasses in a day. One witness testified to seeing a man drink one hundred 
and sixty pint glasses in a sitting of three or four hours, and walked straight. 
Dr. James R. Chilton, chemist, testified to analyzing Lager Beer, and found 
it to contain three and three quarters to four per cent, of alcohol, and did 
not think it would intoxicate unless drank in extraordinary quantities. 'He 
had analyzed cider and found it to contain nine per cent, alcohol ; claret, 
thirteen per cent. ; brandy, fifty per cent. ; Madeira wine, twenty per cent. ; 
and Sherry wine, eighteen per cent.' 

" Lager Beer was first introduced into Philadelphia in 1840, by a Mr. 
Wagner, who afterward left the city. It was a lighter article than that now 
used. The first who made the real Lager was Geo. Manger, better known as 
' Big George,' who, in October, 1844, had a small kettle in one corner of the 
premises still occupied by him in New street, above Second. The beer used 
in the winter is lighter, and may be drawn five or six weeks after brewing; 
but the real Lager is made in cold weather, has a greater body that is, 
more malt and hops are used and is first drawn about the first of May. It 
is much improved by age and by keeping in a cool place. When first drawn 
it is five months old ; and as it is usually made in December, it is ten months 
old when the last is drawn. The vaults are probably the most interesting 
' sights' connected with the business. The firm that constructed the 
first vault is that of ENOEL & WOLF a firm that ranks among the most 
extensive, accommodating, and enterprising of our brewers. The vaults 
are built in the vicinity of Lemon Hill, near the Schuylkill, and consist of 
solid stone exterior walls. These are subdivided by brick partitions 
into cellars or vaults of about twenty by forty feet, and communicate 
with each other by a door large enough to admit a puncheon; in this 



BREWING. 197 

There are now about thirty brewers of Lager Beer in Philadel- 
phia, having a capital employed of $1,200,000. 

The Statistics of the entire Brewing business in Philadelphia, 
for 1857, are as follows : 

Product. 

Ale, Porter, and Brown Stout, 170,000 barrels, averaging $6, - $1,020,000 

Lager Beer, 180,000, " " $6, - 1,080,000 

Other Beer, say .... 200,000 

Total, -. ( ",K-,J!C^ >j3fohS-9*13[ .wiohfi - $2,300,000 

Raw Material consumed, viz. : 

Barley or Malt, 750,000 bushels, at $1.40, - "*-; ... *'.'" ^ 1,050,000 

Hops, 800,000 Ibs, at 15 cents, - - - - ; R? IT firv 120,000 

Total, - ''-'"'- ' - "-.*?- { ~t -' $1>170,000 

The capital invested in Ale, Porter, and Lager Beer brewing, 
including Malting, is $3,050,000; being, it will be perceived, a 

is a smaller door or aperture, about two feet square, barely sufficient to 
allow the passage of a keg. 

"After the brewing has commenced, say in' December, unless cold weather 
occur earlier, the most remote cellar or vault is filled the ground tier, 
consisting of large casks, usually three rows, is placed on skids or sleepers 
perhaps a foot from the ground, the rows far enough apart to permit a man 
to walk between. On these two rows of casks are placed ; and above these, 
if the vault is high enough, one row of smaller casks or kegs are stowed. 
The other vaults are filled in like manner. After each is filled, the door is 
closed, and straw, tan, and other non-conductors are placed to keep out the 
external heated air of summer. The vaults are ventilated, and the tempe- 
rature kept as low as possible. Should it exceed 8 Reamur, or 50 Fahren- 
heit, the beer spoils. One only is opened at a time. 

" Messrs. Engel & Wolf, before referred to, have seven vaults, in five of 
which 50,350 cubic feet were cut out of solid rock. The bottom of the vault ia 
about forty-five feet below ground. This firm have an agency in New Or- 
leans, and sell to nearly all the South, including Texas. 

" One of the peculiarities of Lager Beer is the flavor imparted to it by 
the casks. The casks, previous to use, have their interior completely coated 
with resin ; this is done by pouring a quantity of melted resin into the cask 
while the head is out, and igniting it. After it has been in a blaze for a few 
minutes, the head is put in again, which extinguishes the blaze, but the 
resin still remains hot and liquid ; the cask is then rolled about, so as to 
coat every part of the interior with it ; any resin remaining fluid is poured 
out through the bung-hole. This resin imparts some of its pitchy flavor 
to the beer." 



198 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

larger amount in proportion to the product than probably in any 
other business. This arises from the necessity of occupying large 
plots of very valuable ground, from the extent of the buildings, 
and from the great number of vats and casks required. The 
casks alone, exclusive of vats, in use by Philadelphia brewers, 
cost $320,000. 

VIII. 
Bricks, Fire-Bricks, Pottery, &c. 

The objects of which Clay is the principal raw material are 
exceedingly varied in their uses, as well as in appearance ; and 
range from the least ornamental to nearly the highest in the 
department of Art from Bricks to Porcelain, from a Clay Fur- 
nace to a Terra-Cotta Vase. Commencing with the least artistic, 
though the most important, judging from the extent of the manu- 
facture, we are led first to the consideration of Bricks. 

1. BRICKS. The manufacture of Bricks, in Philadelphia, is 
carried on, like many other important branches of industry, mainly 
by individual enterprise, the business expanding or contracting 
according to the current demand, without much concert of action 
between the producers, and without any very large establishments, 
at least compared with those in Vienna, or even in Massachu- 
setts.* The statistics of the trade are given, and its present 

* Vienna has the honor of containing, undoubtedly, the largest and most 
remarkable establishment for Brick-making in the world. The descrip- 
tion states that the main factory, occupying a space of ground of two hun- 
dred and sixty-four and three-fourths English acres, has twenty-four thou- 
sand nine hundred and thirty feet in length of drying sheds, for the manu- 
facture of ordinary Bricks, and eight thousand three hundred and four feet 
of moulding sheds, for the manufacture of Tiles and facing and ornamental 
Bricks ; besides forty-three kilns, calculated to burn forty-five thousand to 
one hundred and ten thousand Bricks per kiln, or to burn at one time three 
millions five hundred thousand. There are in connection with this estab- 
lishment, infant schools for one hundred and twenty children, a hospital 
with fifty-two beds, a tool workshop, a wheelwright and carpenter shop, 
and great watering and kneading pits for red and white ornamental Bricks. 
Besides this, the proprietor, Mr. MIKSBACK, has six other factories in the 
immediate vicinity, and provided in the same proportion. In 1851, he 
supplied twenty millions of Bricks for the great tunnel through the Soni' 



BRICKS, FIRE-BRICKS, POTTERY. 199 

condition is sketched in the following report from a practical 
Brickmaker; and his conclusions, having been submitted to others 
familiar with the subject, are approved. 

" As aearly as I can ascertain, there are about fifty Brick Yards 
within the limits of the consolidated city say twenty-five in the south 
end, and the balance in the north end, including Germantown, and 
across the Schuylkill. Those in the southern part of the city will 
average two and a half millions of Bricks a year each ; but the fair 
average for the whole would be, I think, two millions per year. About 
thirty hands are employed in each yard the men's wages ranging from 
$26 to $60 per month ; and the boys' wages, of whom there are six to 
eight in each yard, are from $15 to $20 per month. The prices of 
common Bricks range from $6 to $10 per thousand, and pressed Brick 
from $13 to $18. It takes one third of a cord of wood to burn one 
thousand Bricks, and wood is worth from $5 to $6 per cord. The cap- 
ital invested in each yard is from $8,000 to $10,000. 

" There are few, if any, now made here by machinery. Our Clay ia 
not adapted for machinery. In Washington, where great quantities of 
Bricks are made by Brick machines, they do better ; but Bricks thus 
made are never equal in quality to hand-made Brick, which bring in 
the market $1 per thousand more, and this is about equal to the 
difference in cost. As to quality, Philadelphia Bricks rank as the 
best made in the country, and those of Baltimore next. Philadelphia 
has better Sand and Clay, which gives to the Bricks a better color than 
those produced elsewhere. Yet Baltimore Bricks bring in New York 
a little higher price than ours, because the Baltimore Clay being purer, 
and therefore stronger, stands more burning, which renders the Brick 
harder, and able to bear transportation with less breakage and damage. 
But they do not look near so well as those of Philadelphia." 

There are at least four yards in Philadelphia that produce five 
millions of Bricks per annum each, and I am therefore disposed to 

mering, on the Austrian railway; and filled another contract for forty nil- 
lions for public works in Viennn ; and these were merely additions to the or- 
dinary make. Number of persons employed in the establishment, two thott- 
ictnd eight hundred and ninety. 

The largest Brick-making establishment in the United States is supposed 
to be that located ia North Cambridge, Mass. When in full operation it 
produces, on an average, one hundred and eighty-seven thousand Bricks per 
day or about twenty-four millions during the season. The c\siy is taken from a 
pit which is about forty feet deep, and elevated in a car on an inclined 
plane by steam power. The shafting reaches a quarter of a mile- 



200 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

regard the average stated above as a low one ; but assuming it 
to be correct, the result is that about one hundred millions of 
common Bricks, worth about $700,000, are produced annually. 
In addition, there are about eight millions of fine-pressed Bricks 
made, worth say $14 per thousand, or $112,000 ; and the total 
product is $812,000. ' 

The pressed Bricks of Philadelphia have a deservedly high 
and extended reputation. One firm, during the last year, ex- 
ported to Cuba 200,000, and has now 150,000 on hand ready 
for shipment; and another maker sent, in 1856, one million three 
hundred thousand to New York city. 

2. FIRE-BRICKS, &c. The use of Fire-Clay is comparatively 
of recent date, but has greatly increased within the last few years. 
It is now employed, not merely for Fire-Brick, but for Chemical 
Ware, Drain Pipes, Gas-house Tiles, &c. 

Philadelphia has probably the first established Fire-Brick man- 
ufactory in the United States. The father of Mr. Abraham Mil- 
ler, whose establishment is on Callowhill street, commenced the 
business, we are informed, nearly one hundred years ago. 

The present Mr. Miller was the first manufacturer, we under- 
stand, of the Clay Furnace now so largely used in Summer. There 
are at least three establishments that use steam for grinding the 
Clay, viz., Messrs. GEORGE SWEENEY & Co., THE HAYWOOD 
FIRE BRICK and TILE COMPANY, and Messrs. NJSWKUMET & 
MELICK. Messrs. Sweenejr & Co., 1310 Ridge Avenue, are ex- 
tensively engaged in making Fire-Brick, Stove Linings, Cylin- 
ders, and Bakers' Tile. This is a reliable house, and well- 
known to the trade. The Hay wood Company have a very exten- 
sive establishment about two and a half miles north of Richmond, 
owning an extensive bed of superior Clay, and have machines 
that will produce five hundred pieces of drain pipe, two feet 
long and four inches in diameter, in an hour. The concern 
has produced some tubular or hollow Brick, which is now exten- 
sively manufactured, we are informed, in England, and by which 
it is said a saving in brick-work may be effected of twenty-five 
to thirty per cent, on the cost, with a reduction of twenty-five 
per cent, in the quantity of mortar, and a similar saving in labor; 
besides promoting ventilation and freedom from dampness. 

' . .. lo :>;,,._ A t>ifoadt vn'iii fit - i P jv : '..,,'.-,! 30ft fu 



BRICKS, FIRE-BRICKS, POTTERY. 201 

Messrs. NEWKUMET & MELICK, the other firm referred to, are 
extensive manufacturers of Fire-Brick, Gas-house Tiles, &c. 
This firm has peculiar advantages one of the partners, Mr. Mel- 
ick, being part owner of the celebrated Fire-Brick Clay deposit, 
at Woodbridge, New Jersey, whence the best material is obtained. 
They have two kilns, employ thirty men, and their works have a 
capacity for turning out a product of $50,000 per annum. Gas- 
house Tiles are made by them to suit all the different plans in 
use. and of a quality superior, as they claim, to any in the United 
States. Extra nine-inch Fire-Brick are also produced, equal to 
the best English Bricks. Though but recently established, they 
have supplied large orders from Cuba and different parts of the 
United States, and have every requisite facility for filling expedi- 
tionsly any special demand. 

The Pottery art is carried on by several in the city some- 
times in conjunction with the manufacture of Fire-Brick, and 
by others as a distinct business. Earthenware of all the ordi- 
nary description, including Chemical-ware, is made by Mono 
PHILLIPS, at his factory, in West Philadelphia ; and Stoneware 
Jars, Jugs, Beer Bottles, Ink Bottles, and Stone Pipe for heated 
air, &c., are made extensively by N. SPENCER THOMAS, at a fac- 
tory adjoining his Chemical works. 

The General Manufactures in Clay include, besides those above- 
mentioned, China-ware, Artificial Stone, Architectural Decora- 
tions, Cements, Plasters, Terra-Cotta, Scagliola, Mosaics, Paving 
Tiles, Roofing Tiles, Draining Tiles, and Drain Pipes, Smoking 
Pipes, <fec. All of these, with the exception perhaps of Mosaics, 
are made at least to some extent in Philadelphia ; Tiles, Pipes, 
&c., are generally made in connection with the manufacture of 
Fire-Bricks, and have been already referred to. Terra-Cotta 
ware, as Chimney Tops, Garden and Hanging Vases, Caps and 
Brackets for churches and private dwellings, glazed Heating Pipe, 
is made at several establishments, and to an amount exceeding 
in the aggregate $100,000 per annum. The manufacturers claim 
to make Terra-Cotta equal to the imported, and at much less 
cost.* 

* The manufacture of Terra-Cotta ware requires a Clay of great purity 
16 



202 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

The " Gloucester'China Company," having an authorized capi- 
tal of $200,000, has made ware possessing the qualities of being 
not only semi-transparent, but very strong. The articles are 
such as are required in every household, and the product com- 
pares favorably with the European. Decorating Porcelain and 
Chin a- ware, which had been imported plain, is done in one es- 
tablishment, to an amount exceeding $15,000 per annum. Of 
Calcined Plaster about sixteen thousand barrels are made yearly, 
and consumed principally in Stucco work, Architectural Decora- 
tions, and in the manufacture of figures, in which a large business 
is done by Italians. White Clay Smoking Pipes, of all lengths, 
are made here at least by one person, and of very good quality. 
He has recently sent to England to procure additional assistance, 
and this branch of fictilerraanufactures, now very small, will prob- 
ably soon be extended. 

The miscellaneous manufactures in Clay, of which we have any 
account, and including Fire Bricks, which amount to nearly one 
half the sum, furnish an aggregate product of $647,000. 

IX. 

Carriages. 

" Comparing the state of the art of Carriage building," say 
the London Jurors, in their report on Carriages exhibited at the 
World's Fair, " of former and not very distant times, with that 
of the present, we consider the principles of building in many 
respects greatly improved, and particularly with reference to 
lightness, and a due regard to strength, which is evident in Car- 
riages of British make ; and especially displayed in those con- 
tributed by the United States, where there is commonly employed 
in the construction of wheels, and other parts requiring strength 
and lightness combined, a native wood (upland hickory), which 
is admirably adapted to the purpose. The Carriages from the 

resembling that used for Pipe-making and Potter's-ware, containing but 
little iron, and made up with n quantity of crushed pottery and calcined 
flint; the whole being well mixed, and burnt to a very high heat. It thus 
approaches in its nature to what is called Stone- ware ; but the fusion of thtj 
material is not effected. 



CARRIAGES. 203 

Continental states do not exhibit this useful feature in an equal 
degree." 

Comparing the state of Carriage Building in various cities, 
states, and countries, it will be found by those who make the 
comparison, that in the art of constructing light Carriages, par- 
ticularly with reference to combining lightness with strength, and 
attaining durability in conjunction with beauty of appearance and 
high finish, no builders, either in this country or in Europe, have 
been so uniformly successful as some in Philadelphia. The qual- 
ity of Philadelphia Carriages is indisputably superior. It is 
true that here, as elsewhere, there are carriages made, like Peter 
Pindar's razors, to sell ; but we fearlessly claim that the general 
quality is above the ordinary average, and that those who desire 
a perfect vehicle, will be likely to attain a nearer approximation 
to perfection' in this city than they can anywhere else. The firsi- 
class builders have studied, and know to exactness, the proper 
proportions of every part of a vehicle, and never use more nor 
less material than is required. They risk nothing to make it 
light ; nor add any unnecessary weight to give it strength. All 
materials that are in the slightest defective, or that interfere 
in the least with the purposes of a good Carriage, are promptly 
rejected. The leading and important parts of a Carriage, as the 
wheels, axles, &c., are generally made on the same premises, and 
rigid supervision exercised over every part in the construction. 
The prominent builders have attained a high and wide-spread 
reputation, entirely too valuable to themselves to be risked lightly 
through carelessness, neglect, or indifference. In addition to 
unremitting vigilance, combined with long experience, their efforts 
are greatly aided and facilitated by having at hand the very best 
materials, and in being able at all times to command the very best 
workmen. The growth of hickory, and oak, and ash, in the vi- 
cinity of Philadelphia, is so superior for Carriage purposes, that 
we might say without exaggeration, that no first-class vehicle can 
be built without coming to this vicinity for the materials. 

There are now thirty establishments, great and small, within 
the limits of Philadelphia, that make pleasure Carriages. They 
have a capital invested of about $500,000 employ on an average 
eight hundred hands, all males, and turn out an average annual 



204 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

product of $900,000. About two thirds of the Carriages made 
are for use in the city, and its vicinity the remainder being ex- 
ported to the South and West, the West India Islands, some to 
New England, and a few light vehicles are sent every year to 
Europe. In many portions of Europe, Philadelphia Carriages 
have excited great attention, as wonderful specimens of combined 
strength and lightness; and orders from London, Paris, and 
other European capitals, are now far more frequent and import- 
ant than formerly, manifesting a growing appreciation of Amer- 
ican superiority in this branch of manufactures. It will be re- 
membered, that to a Philadelphia Carriage a prize-medal was 
awarded at the World's Fair. 

In the construction of Carriages, the builders of Philadelphia 
either adhere to what has received the sanction of experience, or 
originate improvements for themselves ; very few, if any, of the 
many hundreds of patent rights for improvements in Carriages, 
that are now on file in the Patent-office, being adopted by any, 
and none in general use. The designs of light Carriages have 
been made by Philadelphians, perhaps to a greater extent than 
by any others. The "Germantown Wagon," which satisfies the 
demand for a light, strong, convenient, yet cheap vehicle, had its 
origin here, and its advantages are every year becoming more 
generally appreciated. These vehicles are constructed to hold 
four, six, or eight persons, and lose nothing in elegance and style 
by increase in size. Trotting Wagons, weighing not more than 
eighty-five pounds, are probably an invention of our builders, for 
no one, we should think, would venture upon the experiment ex- 
cept those who could command the white hickory of Montgomery 

The prices of Carriages made in this city vary of course with 
the style, quality, and degree of ornamentation. Those for Pres- 
idents, Postmaster-Generals, and "such like folk," are costly in 
proportion to their elegance ; while those that are made for auc- 
tion sales are so cheap, that New England dealers frequently 
purchase large lots to resell, being able to obtain a better article 
at a less price than at Bridgeport or New Haven. One maker, 
whose product in 1856 was eighteen Coaches and one thousand 
one hundred and eighty-two light Carriages, sold about $10,000 
worth to New England. Economy in manufacturing is largely 



CARRIAGES. 205 

promoted in Philadelphia, by the fact, that the principal constit- 
uent parts of a Carriage, from the raw materials of which they are 
composed to the finished product the bolts, screws, springs, hubs, 
axles, as well as iron, steel, and wood are all made in this city, 
with every facility for making them economically, and on a large 
scale.* 

The extent of some of the establishments, and the method of 
construction, will be best illustrated by a detailed description of 
a first-class establishment. (See APPENDIX.) The varieties of 
Carriages made, include every description that purchasers may imag- 
ine or can desire, though light Carriages form the bulk of the man- 
ufacture. One firm make the construction of Private and Hackney 
Coaches a principal feature in their business, and hare been very 
successful in satisfying the requirements of good taste. Omni- 
busses are made by one or two of the 'Omnibus proprietors for 
their own use ; and by one maker for sale, who, however, in conse- 
quence of the introduction of Passenger Railways, apprehends that 
his " occupation's gone." It is manifest, however, that the manu- 
facture of public Carriages has not attained its proper develop- 
ment ; and upon inquiry as to the causes, we are informed, that 
our citizens have not given this branch that encouragement, pref- 
erence, and patronage to which its intrinsic importance entitles 
it. It should be remembered that the Carriage manufacture is 
an important interest, wide-reaching in its ramifications, affect- 
ing the prosperity of an immense number of trades : the vari- 
ous manufactures of iron rolled, wrought, and cast; of steel 
springs, nails, screws, bolts ; oil and other cloths, patent leath- 
ers, paints, varnishes, and glue ; of wheel-makers, painters, 
blacksmiths, trimmers, carvers, silver-platers, wood-turners, the 
makers of tools for all these, and others. Every purchase then 
of a Carriage abroad is a discouragement of industry at home 

For other vehicles, see WAGONS, CARTS, &c. 

* We are informed that Patent or Japanned Leather is not made to any 
extent in Philadelphia; and that a manufactory of the kind would be well 
supported, and could not fail to do a successful business, if properly 
managed. 

16* 



206 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

X. 

Chemicals, Paints, Glue, &c. 

The manufacture of Chemicals, in the United States, may be 
said to date from the war of 1812. The commercial restrictions 
which preceded that war caused such a scarcity and dearness of 
Chemicals, that the preparation of the more prominent articles 
offered an attractive field for enterprise. Previous to that period, 
however, a Philadelphian had established successfully a manufac- 
tory of Sulphuric acid. This was Mr. John Harrison, the first 
successful manufacturer of oil of vitriol in the United States, and 
the founder of the well-known house of Harrison Brothers. He 
had spent two years in Europe in acquainting himself, as far as 
he could gain access to them, with the processes used by the 
chemists ; and after his return to America devoted himself to the 
manufacturing of Chemicals. How much earlier he succeeded, 
we have no means of ascertaining, but in 1806, he was fully es- 
tablished as a manufacturer of oil of vitriol and other Chemicals, 
in Green street, above Third. His leaden chamber was a small 
one, and capable of making about forty-five thousand pounds, or 
three hundred carboys of oil of vitriol per annum. So successful 
were these operations, that in 1807 he had built a leaden 
chamber eighteen feet high and wide, and fifty feet long, capa- 
ble of making three thousand five hundred carboys per annum 
The price which the acid then brought was fifteen cents pei 
pound. 

The application of Platinum to the concentration of sulphuric 
acid, was also first attempted in Philadelphia by Dr. Erick Boll- 
man, who had distinguished himself by a gallant and all but suc- 
cessful attempt, in company with Francis K. Huger, of South 
Carolina, to rescue General Lafayette from his guards, during his 
imprisonment at Olmutz. Dr. Bollman was a Dane, a man of 
powerful and versatile mind, a physician, a chemist, a political 
economist, and a general scholar. Among other pursuits, he had 
turned his attention to the working of crude platinum, of which 
there was a considerable quantity in this country, and for which 
there was no demand. He had brought from France the method 
then lately discovered by Dr. Wollaston, for converting the crude 



CHEMICALS. 207 

grains into -u<l, in 1813, he had wrought it. 

masses, \i\ pounds, and into sheets more 

of the first uses to which 

be applic ing of a platinnm still for 

John Harrison of his oil of vitriol. This 

ined twenty-five gallons. 

M* 

the concentration of 
Lmerican manufacturer. 

fo? its use for this purpose vn -loyelty in Eu> 

Charles Lennig was the fir , M-.m who largely mann- 

ed oil of vitriol by putting iisive leaden chambers, 

the acid in platinum vessels so arranged as \to 
at work, while discharging a steady stream of 
'-..." : 

:ae Philadelphia contains the most extensive 
ries in the UY is A 

WJBKJBTWTAN'. for i; 

;-iaveW. 

. 

^lum, 

all on a large scviie. At iheii .rueut at ' of Ninth 

and Parrish streets, Philadelphia, they manufacture sulphate of 
quinine, which is their staple article ; mercurials, morphias, and 
Medicinal Chemicals generally, (See APPENDIX.) 

Their Chemicals have an enviable reputation for parity, exact- 
?!***, and beauty ;, and the firm is well-known for its liberality, 

:.I about forty years 
Abraham Konzi and John 
. vKU'/y.; fti them has been maintained, 

fttd. if i ' proprietors. 

re believed to be the n 

manufacturers of oil of vitriol in Philaileiphia. T : are 

at Brides upy over twelre acre- Their 

list of manufactni-'. TUS, aqua- 

fortis, nitric and muriatic acids .. us preparations of 

tin for the use of dyers, such H -, oxymuriate of tin. 

pink salt, &c. 



CHEMICALS. 207 

grains into bars and sheets ; and, in 1813, he had wrought it into 
masses, weighing upward of two pounds, and into sheets more 
than thirteen inches square. One of the first uses to which 
he applied these sheets was the making of a platinum still for 
John Harrison, for the concentration of his oil of vitriol. This 
still weighed seven hundred ounces, contained twenty-five gallons, 
and continued in use fifteen years. 

This early application of Platinum to the concentration of 
sulphuric acid is highly creditable to the American manufacturer, 
for its use for this purpose was then a novelty in Europe. 

Charles Lennig was the first Philadelphian who largely manu- 
factured oil of vitriol by putting up extensive leaden chambers, 
and concentrating the acid in platinum vessels so arranged as to 
be kept constantly at work, while discharging a steady stream of 
concentrated acid. 

At the present time Philadelphia contains the most extensive 
Chemical manufactories in the United States. Messrs. POWERS & 
WEIGHTMAN, for instance, are among the largest manufacturing 
Chemists in the world. They have two establishments one at the 
Palls of Schuylkill, where they make oil of vitriol, aquafortis, nitric 
and muriatic acids, Epsom salts, copperas, blue vitriol, and alum, 
all on a large scale. At their establishment at the corner of Ninth 
and Parrish streets, Philadelphia, they manufacture sulphate of 
quinine, which is their staple article ; mercurials, morphias, and 
Medicinal Chemicals generally. (See APPENDIX.) 

Their Chemicals have an enviable reputation for purity, exact- 
ness, and beaaty; and the firm is well-known for its liberality, 
fairness, and reliability. The house was founded about forty years 
ago by two intelligent foreigners, Abraham Kunzi and John 
Farr ; and the reputation acquired by them has been maintained, 
and, if possible, increased by the present proprietors. 

NICHOLAS LENNIG & Co. are believed to be the most extensive 
manufacturers of oil of vitriol in Philadelphia. Their works are 
at Bridesburg, and occupy over twelve acres of ground. Their 
list of manufactures includes soda-ash, alum, copperas, aqua- 
fortis, nitric and muriatic acids ; all the various preparations of 
tin for the use of dyers, such as tin crystals, oxymuriate of tin, 
pink salt, &c. 



208 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

HARRISON BROTHERS & Co. make white and red lead, litharge, 
and orange mineral, oxide of zinc, white and brown sugar of 
lead, alum, copperas, oil of vitriol, aquafortis, muriatic acid, iron 
liquor, red liquor, &c., &c. To the founder of this house we 
have already referred, the works being commenced and erected in 
1807. The productions of this house enjoy a high character for 
purity and genuineness. 

ROSENGARTEN & SONS, formerly Rosengarten & Denis, are 
largely engaged in the manufacture of sulphate of quinine, and other 
pharmaceutical preparations. This house was established in 1823 
and was among the first to manufacture the valuable vegetable 
alkaloids in this country. Their laboratory is well-known, and is 
one of the most important in the United States. 

BUCK, SIMONIN & Co. are the successors of Wm. Coffin & Co., 
in the manufacture of copperas, metallic nickel, and the oxide 
of cobalt, so highly prized in painting porcelain and queensware. 
They are also extensive manufacturers of Bichromate of Potash, 
by a superior process, patented both in this country and in En- 
gland. 

WETHERILL & BROTHER make White Lead, Red Lead, Lith- 
arge, Orange Mineral, Nitric and Muriatic Acids ; Calomel and 
other Mercurials; Sulphuric and Nitric Ethers, Hoffman's Ano- 
dyne, Aqua Ammonia, and other Pharmaceutical preparations. 

SAMUEL GRANT, JR., & Co. have extensive Chemical works at 
Manayunk, where they make muriatic, nitric, and numerous other 
acids ; aquafortis, bleaching salts in large quantities, sugar of 
lead, soda-ash, and various articles used by dyers and printers, to 
which we will subsequently refer. 

POTTS & KLETT manufacture oil of vitriol, muriatic and nitric 
acid, Paris, Prussian and soluble bines, pulp lakes and sienna, 
paper-makers' and paper-stainers' colors generally. 

BURGIN & SONS are extensive manufacturers of bicarbonate of 
soda, sal soda, soda saleratus, Rochelle salts, and Seidlitz mix- 
ture, &c. 

MORO PHILLIPS, at the "Aramingo Chemical Works," makes oil 
of vitriol, aquafortis, nitric and muriatic acids, copperas, &c. Mr. 
Phillips has the contract for supplying the United States Mint, and 
its branches, excepting those at New York and San Francisco, 



CHEMICALS. 209 

with nitric and sulphuric acids. His office in Philadelphia is at 
27 North Front street. 

SAVAGE & MARTIN, at their "Frankford Chemical Works," 
manufacture oil of vitriol, aquafortis, nitric and muriatic acids, 
aqua ammonia, nitrate of iron, muriate of tin, tin crystals, blue 
vitriol, &c. Their office is at 18 North Front street. 

There are several establishments in the city, engaged princi- 
pally in making various preparations for coloring purposes, 
and have been successful in attaining excellence in a manufacture 
where excellence is rare. The oldest Color establishment is that 
of CHARLES J. CREASE, who makes Prussian blues, chrome greens, 
chrome yellows and reds ; and besides these, he makes nitric acid, 
aquafortis, muriatic acid, &c. 

JOHN LUCAS & Co. also make Prussian and ultramarine blues, 
chrome yellows and reds, zinc greens, &c., both dry and in oil. 

BREINIQ, GATTMAN & BREINIG, at their works at Fairmount, 
make several of the chromes. 

GEORGE W. OSBORNE & Co., 104 North Sixth street, manufac- 
ture Osborne's American Water Colors. 

Daguerreotype and Photographic Chemicals are made exten- 
sively, and of a very superior quality, by GARRIGTIES & MAGEE, 
108 North Fifth street. This firm give especial attention to the 
manufacture of these Chemicals pure nitrate of silver, Becker's 
chloride of gold, collodion, gun cotton, also Becker's rotten- 
stone for polishing, &c., being leading productions. 

BENJAMIN J. CREW & Co., an enterprising and accommodating 
house, have recently very much enlarged their facilities for the 
manufacture of Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals. Their large and 
admirably-arranged establishment is located at the N. E. corner 
of Sixth and Oxford streets. 

They manufacture chloroform, acids, ethers, ammonia, cyanide 
of potassium, daguerreotype chemicals, Rochelle salts, Seidlitz 
mixture, and Medicinal and Artistic Chemicals generally. 

PASCOE & BRO., of, and successors to H. STEVENS & Co., give 
their attention particularly to the manufacture of fine and rare 
Chemicals, of undoubted purity. Their list comprises over two 
hundred different Chemicals ; many of them, they state, can be 
had of no other parties, and some of them they believe to be of 



210 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

great prospective importance. "Within the last few years this 
firm has diligently experimented on crude Glycerin from soap- 
waste, with a view of rendering this available, as well as of 
bringing Glycerin, by lowering the price, into more general 
use in the arts ; making it, for instance, a substitute for mo- 
lasses in the formation of printing rollers, and facilitating its 
incorporation in printing paper, thereby rendering the latter 
always soft and pliable, and requiring no wetting before use. 
They have succeeded, as we learn from the Journal of Phar- 
macy, January, 1858, in producing from the concentrated fetid 
liquids of the soap-makers, by apparatus involving its dis- 
tillation, Glycerin, almost tasteless and odorless, and equal to 
that of " Price's Candle Company," which, it is well-known, is 
made from pure Palm oil. A young firm, aiming, as Messrs. PAS- 
COE & BRO. do, to check the importation of rare Chemical prod- 
ucts, by manufacturing them of superior quality, is deserving of 
every possible encouragement. 

Yellow Prussiate of Potash, so largely used for dyeing pur- 
poses and making Prussian blue, is made by CARTER & SCATTER- 
GOOD, who are now the sole manufacturers. The annual produc- 
tion in Philadelphia was 400,000 Ibs. per annum, worth, say 30 
cents per pound. 

HENRY BOWER, on Gray's Ferry Road, makes sulphate of am- 
monia, and a variety of Chemical products. 

li '.'! ..o>', 

In these establishments, which represent a capital of two and 
half millions of dollars, much the larger proportion of the best 
Chemicals used in the United States are made. The factories, 
which are in many instances immense structures, are generally 
located out of the city proper at Tacony, Bridesburg, Frank- 
ford, the Falls of Schuylkill, and some in or near Camden ; but 
the capital belongs to the city, and their products centre here as 
a point for redistribution. Some idea of their extent and im- 
portance may be derived from the fact, that they consume 2,400 
tons of sulphur, 800,000 Ibs. of saltpetre, 1,500 tons of salt; and 
produce daily of sulphuric acid 45,000 Ibs., or over 16,000,000 Ibs. 
yearly ; of alum, 20,000 Ibs. daily ; of muriatic acid, 15,000 Ibs. ; 
of nitric acid, 8,000 Ibs.; of copperas, 15,000 Ibs. daily; of ui- 



CHEMICALS. 211 

trate of silver, 150,000 ounces annually ; besides the numerous 
preparations before enumerated, and used in the manufacturing 
arts and in medicine. The consumption of Quinine fluctuates of 
course with the state of health in the West ; but it is said, that 
in one year 250,000 ounces were made in Philadelphia. 

In addition to these, and probably other manufacturers of 
Chemicals, there are several manufacturing Chemists engaged in 
the preparation of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical preparations. 
N. SPENCER THOMAS, for instance, is extensively engaged in the 
manufacture of Medicinal extracts, conducting the evaporation 
in vacuo, by a very superior and perfect apparatus. His extracts, 
medical and fluid, are certainly remarkable for beauty, strength, 
and reliability ; and, as he claims, not equaled by any in this 
country or in Europe. His vacuum apparatus is capable of 
making 100,000 Ibs. of extracts per annum. In addition to these, 
he prepares also, in vacuo, the concentrated Eclectic medicines ; 
and manufactures blue mass, mercurial ointment, glycerin, &c. ; 
and prepares powdered drugs of very fine quality, by what is 
denominated the dusting process. His supply is always full and 
ample. E. H. HANCE is also engaged in the same business, and 
manufactures Extracts and Syrups to a considerable extent. 

Many of the Apothecaries carry on, in addition to their regu- 
lar business, the manufacture of a few select Chemicals. 

THOMAS J. HUSBAND has for some years prepared what is 
known as " Husband's Calcined Magnesia," which has obtained a 
very considerable reputation, and is extensively used. In the 
Twentieth Report of the Franklin Institute, the judges of Chemi- 
cals assert, that this magnesia " is believed to be the best in the 
United States ;" and some of the most distinguished professors 
and practitioners of medicine have pronounced it quite equal to 
the genuine Henry's magnesia. 

CHARLES ELLIS & Co., No. 124 Market street, and Sixth and 
Alorris streets, manufacture extensively blue pill, mercurial oint- 
ment, spread adhesive plasters, roll plasters, Ellis's Citrate of 
Magnesia ; the new remedies such as the Hypophosphites of 
Lime, Soda, Iron ; Chemical food, &c., together with a great variety 
of standard Chemical and Pharmaceutical products. 

Some of the Wholesale Druggists prepare, with or without the 
sanction of the Medical Faculty, one or more domestic remedies, 



212 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

the popularity of which, in some instances, establishes a consid- 
erable manufacturing business. GEORGE W. CARPENTER & Co. 
compound a list of domestic remedies which are widely known, and 
have received the approval and recommendation of the most emi- 
nent of the Medical Faculty, throughout the United States. This 
firm, however, are particularly distinguished for having provided a 
great depot of supplies for druggists and physicians; probably the 
greatest and most wonderful, for variety and comprehensiveness 
of stock, that this country affords. Every article pertaining to the 
business of a druggist or a physician, from the rarest Surgical in- 
strument, or the most complete collection of Anatomical prepara- 
tions, Chemical and Philosophical Implements and Apparatus fo" 
colleges, through the entire range of simple or prepared Drugs, 
Medicines, and Chemicals, to the minutest article required by 
either at the outset of their profession, not excepting shop-fur- 
niture, medicine chests, saddle-bags, medical text books, &c., may 
be found in this Chemical warehouse, which is a Drug emporium 
in itself. t 

The "Essence of Jamaica Ginger," prepared by FREDERICK 
BROWN, has almost entirely superseded the use of ginger-tea, and 
powder, so long regarded as popular remedies in domestic practice 
for various complaints of the stomach and digestive organs. This 
preparation is recognized and prescribed by the Medical Faculty, 
and has become a standard family medicine of the United States. 
The Chemists of late years have, in a great measure, overcome their 
professional aversion to prepared remedies, adapted to the various 
ills that flesh is heir to ; and as those of this city have every advan- 
tage for procuring the recipes of the most celebrated physicians and 
medical professors, it is safe to infer that every preparation of the 
kind announced by a reputable established pharmaceutist of Phil- 
adelphia, possesses some considerable merit. About one third of 
the Apothecaries of the city of Philadelphia are members or 
graduates of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy ; and we do 
not fear to say that, as a body of men, intelligent and skillful in 
their profession, they are unsurpassed in any community ; while we 
could name individuals among them who have few if any supe- 
riors in their profession, as regards scientific knowledge and prac- 
tical skill, in any metropolis in Europe. 



PATENT MEDICINES. 213 

The business that, in connection with prepared prescriptions, 
approaches more closely to a manufacturing pursuit, and there- 
fore, though denounced by the schools as irregular, is for our 
purposes the most regular is the manufacture of what has been 
denominated PATENT MEDICINES. The individuals and firms en- 
gaged in this business are both enterprising themselves, and the 
promoters of enterprise in others. How many paper-mills, glass 
factories, printing and engraving offices, lithographic establish- 
ments, paper-box manufactories, &c., would be tenantless how 
many journals that are now brilliant lights in the firmament of 
journalistic literature would have gone out, leaving the world in 
partial darkness, except for the material aid afforded through the 
popularity of Patent Medicines ! When to these benefits we add 
another, viz., that the preparations in many instances are bene- 
ficial, and as respects almost all, entirely harmless, the manufac- 
ture would seem to be entitled to a larger share of respectful con- 
sideration than it has hitherto received. 

Philadelphia, though it has not entirely escaped, has been pre- 
served in a great measure from the visitation of those whose sole 
aim is to speculate on human distress. The remedies of the 
established firms have much weighty testimony in favor of their 
excellence ; and the popularity, and consequent saleability of a few, 
are truly remarkable. The enterprise of at least one Philadel- 
phia firm has made their preparations known, not only throughout 
this country, but in the islands of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans ; 
in Burmah, Siam, India ; and almost every nationality in Europe. 
They expend annually over one hundred thousand dollars in ad- 
vertising alone. They keep eight double-medium, and two single- 
medium, and eight steel-plate presses in operation throughout the 
year. Their consumption of printing paper, during the last year, 
was 14,000 reams, costing $39,782 96 ; and during the present 
year, they will print 2,600,000 Almanacs for gratuitous distribution. 
The rooms in the upper stories of an immense structure are occu- 
pied one as a laboratory, another as a printing-office, a third as 
a binding and packing-room, and a fourth as a pill manufactory.* 

* In the last-mentioned room we saw pills arranged in pyramidical form, 
to dry, sufficient, one would think, to physic "all creation," with some to 
17 



214 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

About eighty persons are furnished constant employment iu that 
establishment. For eight months of the year the expenditure of 
the firm referred to, for postage, is $25 per day. Wherever a few 
backwoodsmen have reared their lonely cabins, an agency for these 
preparations is established ; and so remote and isolated are some 
of the frontier posts, that a box shipped hence cannot reach its 
destination in a year. 

The total annual sales of all the Patent Medicines bitters, 
syrups, cattle powders, &c., made in Philadelphia, cannot be as- 
certained ; but it is the opinion of half a dozen of the principal 
manufacturers, that they might safely be stated at one million of 
dollars, net prices. At " long prices," the basis on which statis- 
tical statements are made in neighboring cities the sum would be 
doubled. 

The preparation of Dye Stuffs is made a specialty, or at least a 
prominent branch of their general business, by several manufac- 
turers, viz. : BROWNING & BROTHERS, SAMUEL GRANT, JR. & Co., 
and J. M. SHARPLESS. 

BROWNING & BROTHERS are the proprietors of the well-known 
"Aroma Mills" a stamp which, on Extracts of Dye-Woods, is 
everywhere recognized as an assurance of excellence. This firm 
are also manufacturers of Paints, in the preparation of which they 
state they use only the pure linseed oil, and are careful to have 
them faithfully and finely ground. 

SAMUEL GRANT, JR., & Co. have very extensive Chemical 
Works at Manayunk, occupying seven acres, where they manufac- 
ture the Chemicals beforementioned ; and in addition, prepare 
Dye-Woods largely, ground, chipped, and extracts, and every ar- 
ticle used by dyers. They manufacture several products that are 
not made elsewhere, it is believed, in the country, and are con- 
spare, for the inhabitants of the planetary systems. Pill Machines, we are 
told, have not as yet been found to perform satisfactorily; and Pills aro 
made by passing the prepared material, which is in long strips, through 
grooved rollers, with much the same hand-motion as women roll dough into 
cakes. The motion, we presume, is precisely the same when Bread Pills 
are made. 





DYE-STUFFS WHITE LEAD PAINTS. 215 

tinually adding new ones to their list; as for instance, Gelp salts 
made from Indigo. 

They recently engaged iu the manufacture of liqnid chloride 
of lime, used by paper-makers and bleachers ; surrogate of al- 
kali, used in the place of soda-ash for cleansing wool ; silicate of 
soda, used by calico-printers; and muriate of manganese, a mor- 
dant, which is used in dyeing cotton and wool together, instead 
of separately, as previously done. For these preparations, as well 
as for the machinery for making them, a patent is applied for by 
Mr. Prentiss, one of the firm, who is known already as the pa- 
tentee of a lubricating oil. The store of Messrs. Grant & Co. is 
at 139 South Water street. 

J. M. SHARPLESS makes the usual Extracts of logwood, fustic, 
and quercitron ; and also grinds and chips the same, and other 
Dye- Woods. 

J. ANDREYKOVICZ, a Polish Chemist, located at 108 Arch 
street, makes Extracts of Indigo, distinguished as Indigo Paste 
and Carmine ; and is prepared to make a new dye-stuff known as 
Archill. 

There are other mills that, in addition to grinding Dye-Woods, 
or disconnected therefrom, are engaged in grinding, powdering, 
and refining Drugs. The oldest is that of Charles V. Hagner. 
The mills of CHARLES VANHORN& Co., one of the principal firms in 
this branch, were twice destroyed by fire in 1852, and again in 
1856 ; but since their last destruction they have been greatly ex- 
tended and improved. They have now a capacity for producing, 
and frequently do produce weekly, 6,000 Ibs. of Drugs, 36,000 Ibs. 
of Spices, 14,000 Ibs. of Founder's Facings, and 35 tons of Dye- 
Woods. 

WHITE -LEAD PAINTS. 

The production of Paints, particularly of the Salts of Lead, 
which enter so largely into their manufacture, has added greatly to 
the Chemical and Manufacturing reputation of Philadelphia. 

Of White Lead there are four manufactories, viz., those of WETH- 
ERILL & BROTHER, JOHN T. LEWIS & BROTHERS, HARRISON BRO- 
THERS & Co., and E. DAVIS & RIGGS. The works of Messrs. Weth- 
erill & Brother were established during or before the Revolution, 
by the grand-father of the present proprietors, who, it is said, intro- 



216 PHILADELPHIA AXD ITS MANUFACTURES. 

duced the manufacture into the United States. They are situated 
on the west side of the Schuylkill, employ a steam-engine of eighty- 
horse power, and consume daily 18,000 lb. of Pig Lead. The 
article manufactured by this firm has always maintained a high 
reputation ; and is sent to every part of the United States, and 
exported to the West Indies. JOHN T. LEWIS & BROTHERS are 
the successors of Mordecai Lewis & Co., who founded the works 
in 1819. At the period of their establishment Pig Lead cost 7^ 
cents per pound, and White Lead sold for 15 cents. During the 
last year the raw material cost within one cent of the price above- 
named, and the manufactured article sold for 8^ cents. The present 
firm have nearly a half million of dollars invested in the manu- 
facture, and produce annually about 4,500,000 Ibs. of White 
Lead, besides Oils, &c. Messrs. HARRISON, BROTHERS & Co.'s 
establishment dates from 1812 ; to them we previously referred. 
Messrs. E. DAVIS & RIGCJS are also a well-known firm. 

The capital invested in this business is nearly $1,000,000, and 
the annual product $960,000. It is to be regretted, that nearly 
all the raw material used is imported English and Spanish Lead 
being principally employed but it is gratifying to know that the 
American manufacturers, particularly those of Philadelphia, have 
effectually succeeded in stopping the importation of the finished 
product. No painter will use the foreign if he can obtain the 
Philadelphia White Lead.* (See APPENDIX.) 

*The process of manufacturing White Lead is described as follows: 
"The Pig Lead is melted and converted into sheets by a very simple proc- 
ess. Each workman is supplied with a flat piece of board, of about three 
feet in length and five inches in width, which has raised edges, to prevent 
the metal, in a melted state, from passing off at the sides. Standing by the 
side of the furnace with this board, held by the handle in one hand, and with 
a ladle in the other, the metal is poured over it. Being held at a consider- 
able inclination it passes rapidly off into the kettle, except what adheres to 
the bottom, which forms the sheet. This is not thicker than the fiftieth 
part of an inch. Being instantly cooled, it is turned over the edge of n 
board raised to a level with the hand, when the mould is returned at once 
to the edge of the kettle ; and the ladle, which the workman still holds, is 
again filled. Thus the operation goes on from morning till night. This is 
the first process in the manufacture of White Lead. The sheets are next 
rolled loosely together, in a sufficient number to fill a pot six inches in dinm 



WHITE LEAD. 217 

Another branch of the Paint manufacture consists in grinding 
White Lead and Colored Paints, and the Chromes and other col- 
ors in oil, in connection with the manufacture of Putty. The 
principal firms engaged in this business are, GEORGE D. WETHER- 
ILL & Co., JOHN LUCAS & Co., ROBERT SHOEMAKER & Co., 
BROWNING & BROTHERS, FRENCH, RICHARDS <fe Co., C. SCHRACK. 
& Co., and JOHN D. SPEAR & SON. Some of these Paint Mills are 
most complete establishments, and have every appliance for carry- 
ing on the processes successfully and advantageously. The an- 
nual product is at least $770,000. 

One of the firms mentioned, Messrs. JOHN LUCAS & Co., in ad- 
dition to grinding Paints, &c., at the Eagle Mills, in the city, are 
also the proprietors of the New Jersey Zinc and Color Works, 
Gibsboro', N. J., established for the manufacture of an Oxide of 

eter. Before being placed in the pot a pint of strong vinegar is put into 
it, which the metal is not permitted to touch. The pots are then stacked in 
the following manner: first a layer of manure is laid, then a row of pots. 
On the top of the pots, boards are laid, on which there is a covering of ma- 
nure ; then the pots again; and so on to the roof, about twenty feet in 
height. A stack usually comprises from twenty to thirty tons of the sheet 
lead, besides the weight of the pots, vinegar, boards, &c. 

" After being closed up, a stack is left undisturbed for about two weeks, 
during which period a somewhat complicated chemical process goes on. 
The manure throws off heat, which raises the general temperature to 180 
Fahrenheit, and the vinegar slowly evaporates. The acid vapor, acting 
upon the lead, it first becomes an oxide ; then an acetate, by combining with 
the acetic acid vapor; and this is transformed to a carbonate by carbonic 
acid arising from the manure. Very little of the lead remains when the 
stacks are taken down. The contents of the pots are now found to be a 
dry bluish mass, which crumbles at the touch. This is White Lead in its 
rough state. Before it leaves the hands of the manufacturer it goes 
through a variety of processes. First, it is passed through one or more 
sieves, to separate from it what little of the lead remains. It next under- 
goes a number of washings in troughs, to free it from impurities ; after 
which it is put into a kiln and dried. From this it is conveyed to a mill 
and ground, into which, at the same time, linseed oil is led by means of 
pipes. Out of the mill the White Lead comes forth in its pure state, not 
white at first, however, though it soon becomes so after exposure to the at- 
mosphere. It is then put into kegs and barrels, and is ready for home con- 
sumption or transportation. The smallest kegs hold twelve and a half pounds , 
the largest barrels fifteen hundred pounds." 
17* 



218 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Zinc, the introduction of which, as a White Paint, was pronounced 
by the London World's Fair Jurors, one of the most remarkable 
jvents in the recent history of the Chemical Arts. The works 
were considerably extended during the last year, and have now 
facilities for turning out annually upward of 2,000 tons of White 
Zinc and Colored Paints, Chrome Greens, Chrome Yellows, 
Chinese and Prussian Blues. The senior member of the firm 
now resides at the Works, and gives his whole attention to the 
Manufacturing and Grinding department. They have recently 
brought out a Zinc Green, fully equal to the article manufactured 
in France, and at a much less cost ; it has a body equal to the 
best Chrome Green, is less poisonous, more brilliant and durable. 
The members of this firm came to Philadelphia from England, in 
1849 ; since which time they have been unremitting in their en- 
deavors to establish, successfully, the manufacture of all the Euro- 
pean Painters' Colors. 

GLUE, CURLED HAIR, ETC. 

These manufactures are essentially, though not nominally Chem- 
ical. They subserve a peculiarly useful purpose, by converting 
substances that would otherwise be almost worthless, into products 
of commercial value. The refuse and offal from tanneries, mo- 
rocco factories, and slaughter-houses, used by Glue and Curled- 
hair manufacturers, are not generally available for other purposes; 
and without consumption in this way, would be troublesome to 
remove or prove nuisances to the community. 

In Philadelphia, the establishments of BAEDER, DELANEY & 
ADAMSON, and H. GERKER, SON & Co., are very extensive, and 
their productions have a high reputation throughout the Union. 
KESLER & SMITH, and MORGAN & WELBANK, are also well-known 
manufacturers in this branch of business. 

The product, as made up by us, is as follows : 

12,500 barrels Glue, at $22, $275,000 

Curled Hair, 300,000 

Raw-hide Whips, 50,000 

Miscellaneous, viz., Gelatine, Sand Paper, Isinglass, Plas- 
tering Hair, Bristles, Ac. - - - - - - 150,000 

Total, - ' $775,000 



& GLUE VARNISHES. 219 

The capital invested approximates $600,000, as extensive 
buildings and expensive fixtures are required ; and nearly four 
hundred persons are furnished constant employment, receiving 
about $85,000 annually, in wages. The consumption of coal by 
tho three establishments is about two thousand tons yearly, and 
of lime thirty thousand bushels. 

Philadelphia has peculiar advantages for these manufactures. 
The climate is favorable, and the Tanneries of Pennsylvania, of 
which there are an immense number, furnish an abundant supply 
of raw material ; while from South America, the importation is 
direct several hundred bales being imported annually. The 
articles produced are distributed throughout the country, from 
the East to the West ; and are exported to the West Indies, 
South America, and the Canadas. 

VARNISHES. 

Gum Copal, which is the chief article in the preparation of 
Copal Varnishes, is a singular kind of resin, that exudes naturally 
from different large trees in the East Indies and other places, and 
is imported in a crude state, principally to Salem, Mass., where 
it is cleaned and prepared for use. Of Varnishes there are four 
principal kinds, designated as Coach, Cabinet, Japan, and Spirit 
Varnish, though of each there are many qualities. There are 
also four principal manufacturers of Varnishes in Philadelphia 
C. SCHRACK & Co., B. C. HORNOR & Co., G. S. MAYER & Co., 
and H. R. WOOD & Co. The first-named firm are the oldest es- 
tablished in the manufacture in the United States, and now 
produce a Coach-body Varnish, which is pronounced by compe- 
tent judges to be in all respects equal to the best English Var- 
nish, for the same purpose. Since the decease of Mr. Schrack, 
the business is conducted by Mr. JOSEPH STULB, who has had 
twenty-two years experience in the profession. 

The prices of Varnish range from 90 cents for Japan or Iron 
Varnish, to $4, for Coach-body ; averaging $2 per gallon. The 
production in 1851 was 115,000 gallons, worth $230,000. 

Our statistical summary of Chemicals, and the products of 
Pharmaceutical processes, is as follows : 



220 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Chemicals, including Dye Stuffs, Chrome Colors, and Extracts, - $3,335,000 

Medicines prepared remedies of Druggists and Chemists, (estimated,) 300,000 

" Patent or Proprietary, " 1,000,000 

White Lead, .......... 960,000 

Zinc Paints, and products of Paint Mills, ..... 770,000 

Glue, Curled Hair, <fec. ........ 775,000 

Vwnishes, ------.... 230,000 

Total, - - $7,370,000 

XI. 

Clothing Ready-made. 

Within the last quarter of a century a most important and com- 
plete revolution has been effected in the Tailoring business, by 
the introduction of Ready-made Clothing. Some twenty-five 
years ago the only Clothing kept for sale was that which is known 
as " Slop Clothing," for seamen. But the inconvenience attend- 
ing delays and misfits on the part of tailors the advantages of 
procuring a wardrobe at a moment's notice the ability of mer- 
chants to manufacture and supply Clothing equally as good, but 
much cheaper, at wholesale than to order, led to the establishment 
of this as a distinct branch of business. In 1835, the wholesale 
manufacture of Clothing in the United States was first entered 
into, to any considerable extent, principally in the city of J^ew 
York ; but many of those who then engaged in it were prostrated 
by the commercial disasters of '37. In 1840 the trade was re-es- 
tablished and increased ; and since then has continued to enlarge 
and increase, until its present extent exceeds ordinary belief. 
We need, however, only point to the number of stores devoted to 
the business, to illustrate the popularity of the system. 

One great benefit to the community, resulting from the success 
of the Clothing manufacture, is the immense field of employment it 
opens for the poor, especially for females. The poor of our large 
cities are thus supplied with a never-failing source of occupation. 
Some of the other cities have a large portion of their stock man- 
ufactured in the rural districts ; but Philadelphia Clothiers deem 
it better policy to employ the population of their own city, and so 
far as possible to have the work done in their own establishments, 
being certain of having it better and more neatly done than in the 
country. The prices paid to employees, it is true, are not a very 



CLOTHING READY-MADE. 221 

munificent remuneration for labor ; bat by respectable Clothiers 
no advantage is taken of the necessities of the helpless. Excep- 
tional cases there undoubtedly are, in which the poor are op- 
pressed ; but we are convinced the business principles of our 
respectable Clothiers, accord with the principles of humanity } 
and that the females they employ are paid reasonably fair prices. 
To this conclusion we are not led by mere assertion of the man- 
ufacturers : we are convinced by an examination of their books. 
At the leading establishments we found that women earn from $3 
to $6 per week. Those who make but three dollars make the 
coarser articles, or are unexperienced in needle-work. Women 
of neatness, industry, and taste, can make $5 to $6, on fine vests. 
The average earnings are about $4. For making a silk vest, 
62^- cents to $1 is paid. For the commonest pants, which are 
thrown together, 25 to 3T cents are paid ; and two pairs a day 
is the average product. 

Coats, and finer kinds of work, except vests, are made during 
the dull seasons of the year by tailors, who at other times are em- 
ployed in fashionable shops at higher rates. This ensures good 
work at cheap rates. The wages earned by these vary from $6 
to $10 a week ; but as most of them have families, the earnings 
of their wives and children always amount to something in addi- 
tion. The cutting is a trade in itself, and requires talents of a pe- 
culiar kind. In the good Clothing warehouses, the men employed 
in this department are all of long experience and undoubted 
ability. 

One feature of the Ready-made Clothing manufacture, pecu- 
liarly deserving of commendation, is the thorough system with 
which the operations are conducted. In the large establishments 
every thing is carried on with the regularity of clock-work. As 
soon as a piece of cloth has been received into the store, it is 
carefully examined, and the blemished portions, if any, withdrawn. 
After this examination, each piece is taken to the superintendent, 
with a memorandum of the quantity it contains, its cost, of whom 
purchased, &c., all of which is entered in a book; also, the num- 
ber and description of garments to be made ; how trimmed ; name 
of cutter, price of making, &c. It is then passed to the cutter, 
who receives directions as to the kind, style, and size of the article 



222 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

to be made ; and after being cut, the pieces are handed over to 
the trimmer, who supplies buttons, thread, lining, &c. The goods 
are then received by one of the foremen, who gives them out to 
be sewed and finished ; and on their return they are examined by 
him. and forwarded to the sales department. 

The extent of the Dry-Goods manufacture, in the vicinity of 
Philadelphia, particularly of that class of goods which forms the 
raw material of the cheaper kinds of Clothing, gives the Clothiers 
great advantages in procuring materials on the most favorable 
terms, direct from the manufactory, without charges for transporta- 
tion. In several descriptions of Ready-made Clothing, therefore, 
the prices in this city are considerably below those in any other 
market. Between the respective dealers, however, no difference 
is said to exist.* 

The advertisements of the trade constitute a novelty in them- 
selves, and a new department of literature. History, Metaphys- 
ics, Poetry, and Science, are made to contribute to the sale of 
coats and trowsers. Milton becomes a salesman, Shakspeare can- 
vasses for Stokes, and Thomas Carlyle has buttoned up his pro- 
foundest philosophy in Clothing. The " Bard of Tower Hall" 

If we were a tourist find disposed to jump at conclusions, we would 
say there was less rivalry and jealousy existing among the manufacturers of 
Clothing than in any other branch of industry with which we are acquainted. 
In reply to our inquiry, at two of the leading establishments, Messrs. AR- 
NOLD, NOSBAUM & NIRULINGER, and A. T. LANE& Co., as to the distinctive 
features of their business, neither, to our great surprise, were willing to 
admit that they differed in any very important particulars from their neigh- 
bors. Messrs. LANE & Co. stated that they did not deal in piece goods, and 
that their facilities for procuring materials on favorable terms, perhaps 
through a connection with a leading Dry-Goods house, were undoubtedly 
unsurpassed; but their business, in its general features, was like that of 
their neighbors. Messrs. ARNOLD, NUSBAUM & NIRDLINGER, stated that prob- 
ably a larger proportion of their stock was made on their own premise?, 
under more immediate personal, careful, rigid supervision, than is customary ; 
and their connections with various portions of the country were quite ns 
extensive as any other; but they would not desire to be mentioned at all, 
except as representatives of the general trade. (See APPENDIX.) 

This language being so different from that which we are accustomed to 
hear, was as refreshing as a cup of cold water to a weary traveler, or a 
gleam of sunshine to the storm-tossed mariner. 



CLOTHING READY-MADE. 223 

is oiivj of the most popular of modern poets, and weekly exhibits 
the Muse in plaid pants, and a swallow-tailed coat. One method 
of advertising, which originated in this city, is the publication of 
a Bulletin of Fashion, which our principal establishments furnish 
gratuitously to their distant patrons. This is a large and beau- 
tiful lithograph, containing the latest styles of about twenty- 
four garments; and also the styles of the previous season for 
those who do not wish the very latest; each garment being num- 
bered to facilitate orders. We have been assured that country 
merchants have found this sheet of so much service, both in mak- 
ing their purchases and sales, that it may justly be considered an 
advertisement of as much benefit to the buyer as to the seller. 

Still another means adopted by Clothiers to attract public at- 
tention, is the production of novelties in Clothing. One has made 
up a coat of double pilot-cloth, adapted for wearing either side 
outward, of a different color. Another has manufactured a suit 
of clothes from black-dyed and prepared sheep-skins ; a third has 
produced an Alpaca coat, sufficiently light and portable to be 
carried in the pocket ; a fourth has attached a shirt-collar to a 
waistcoat ; and a fifth has imitated the richly-embroidered and 
fur-lined leather coats, in use in the northern parts of Europe. 
Notwithstanding all this exercise, the genius of invention, we 
have reason to believe, is not exhausted. 

The goods which form the bulk of the manufacture in Philadel- 
phia, are those styles, sizes, and qualities, peculiarly adapted to 
the wants of distant sections the West, and Southwest. To con- 
duct such a business successfully necessarily requires a large cap- 
ital, for the manufacturing must be commenced some four months 
before the selling season ; and as the term of credit usually 
given is six or eight months, the Clothier cannot realize from his 
investments in a less average time than a year. It is remarkable, 
therefore, and evidence of the general solvency of the trade, that 
so few succumbed to the late severe monetary pressure. 

The minor subdivisions of the Ready-made Clothing manu- 
facture, deserve some consideration. The principal are Boys' 
Clothing, Shirts, Collars and Bosoms ; and certain kinds of La- 
dies Clothing, as Mantillas, Corsets, &c. 

In several of the establishments, Youths' and Boys' Clothing 
I'vdi r.'csb ?,i ifoh.'w .!< ii rn (,cVJ yil; oJ griirm'Wr. ai'jl) -^ull'mtuu-j ,ir.'.\ ; 



224 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

is a department of the general business ; but it is also a manufac- 
ture in itself, with its own fashions, styles, stores, and customers. 
The fashions and styles are generally original with the makers ; 
and so highly are many of them appreciated abroad, that it is no 
uncommon thing for French Modistes to transfer them to their 
own fashion-plates, claiming them as of their own invention, and 
purely Parisian. This class of Clothing is well worthy the at- 
tention of Country merchants, who will not only find a ready 
sale for it, but have the satisfaction of introducing improved pat- 
terns to a whole neighborhood. 

The manufacture of Shirts and Shirt Collars, is now a distinct 
organized and extensive branch of industry. In Philadelphia it 
furnishes at least three thousand persons with constant employ- 
ment counting solely the wholesale establishments, and those 
retailers who do partly a wholesale business. The Shirts made 
include every variety, from the cheapest and it is claimed by 
disinterested persons, that the low-priced article is cheaper than 
that made in New England to the " Shoulder Seam" Shirts of 
WINCHESTER & Co., Chestnut street, of which the price ranges 
from $60 down to $12 per dozen. This firm also makes Cottars 
of the better qualities. 

The manufacture of Shirt Collars and Bosoms is often a busi- 
ness disconnected from that of Shirts, and has attained a rapid 
development since the introduction of Sewing and Stitching Ma- 
chines. Hand needle-work would be totally incapable of meet- 
ing the demand. Besides, the machines perform with more uni- 
formity and durability than is possible by hand, and relieve 
females of the most laborious, unhealthy, and least lucrative por- 
tion of the work. In enameling Collars and Bosoms, at least one 
house in this city adopts the method peculiar to Troy, N. Y., 
imparting a rare and distinctive gloss.* 

* The house alluded to is that of EDWIN A. KELLEY, 16 Bank street. In 
his establishment, which is one of the most complete in the country, sever- 
al hundred hands are employed throughout the year, and forty Sewing 
machines kept constantly running, manufacturing Shirts from $5 to $40 
per dozen. His attention, it will be perceived, is given mainly to the finer 
grades of goods, but prepared exclusively for the Wholesale Jobbing trade. 
He has also a large establishment in Troy, N. Y., where he manufactures 
Collars, euameling them according to the Troy method, which is described 



CLOTHING READY-MADE. 225 

Of Ladies Clothing, the two articles which can properly be said to 
form a department of the Ready-made Clothing trade, are Man- 
tillas and Corsets. The manufacture of the latter has, within a few 
years, become a considerable branch of industry. Large quantities 
are woven by machinery, and in some instances without seams. 
They are also combined with Anatomical Bandages or Supports; 
and generally it may be said, that the shape and make have been 
very much improved, while the price has been much reduced. 
The manufacture of Cloaks and Mantillas, as a wholesale business, 
dates its introduction into this country within the last ten years. 
So popular, however, has the system become that many Country 
merchants, instead of purchasing velvets as formerly, now pur- 
chase Cloaks, Talmas, and Mantillas, made in the latest styles in 
the centres of fashion. 

The statistics of the Ready-made Clothing manufacture, in 
Philadelphia, are stated approximately as follows: 

Capital invested, ....... $3,300,000 

Wages paid annually, ..-.-.. 2,800,000 

Product, as follows : 

Sixty-seven firms, or all whose annual manufacture of 
Clothing exceeds $40,000 per annum, make to the 
amount of -.-..... 6,040,000 

All others, (estimated by a leading manufacturer,) - - 3,600,000 



$9,640,000 

Shirts, Collars, and Bosoms, ..... 937,500 

Gentlemen's Furnishing Goods, ..... 250,000 

Mantillas and Corsets, ...... 330,000 



Total, $11,157,500 

as follows. The apparatus used for ironing consists first of a grooved roller, 
suited to the shape of the collar, and covered with flannel. The iron is 
beveled to fit the groove, and is warmed by a red-hot heater placed in a cav- 
ity ; this iron is secured to the short arm of a lever, which is attached to 
another lever or treddle, one end of which is fastened to the floor. The 
attendant, by pressing with her foot upon one end of the lower lever, is enabled 
to use grent power, while she turns the wooden roller on which the collar 
is placed. This great pressure aids in giving the gloss; though great care 
and skill, and materials of the best quality, are requisite to ensure the high- 
est polish. 

IS 



226 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

XII. 

Confectionery. 

The word Confectioner, and the terra Confectioneries, occur in 
the Scriptures in a form denoting, that the making of sweet prep- 
arations was an established art in the time of Samuel. (1 Sam- 
uel, viii. 13.) The business of preparing them, however, it seems, 
was then, and until within two centuries ago, confined to physi- 
cians and apothecaries, who used honey or sugar, principally for 
disguising disagreeable medicines, and pharraaceutically in making 
syrups, electuaries, &c. We presume that the separation which 
has taken place between the arts of preparing conserves and the 
compounding of drugs, was originally instigated by the ladies or 
the juveniles, both of whom, like saucy boarders, prefer their flies 
on a separate plate. 

The manufacture of Confectionery, in its modern development, 
as practiced in England and the United States, bears the distinc- 
tive artistic characteristics of French ingenuity and invention. 
In no other country does the preparation of sugar, as a luxury, 
absorb so much mental attention, and afford a livelihood to so 
many persons. It is a long established custom for French gen- 
tlemen to present the ladies of their acquaintance, on New Year's 
Day, with a box of sweetmeats ; and so faithfully and generally 
does the custom continue to be observed, that in Paris two thou- 
sand persons find regular employment in making Confectioner's 
fancy boxes, the most of which are distributed on that single day. 
The ingenuity and invention of the French manufacturer, says 
some one, are inexhaustible ; " Every season he produces some nov- 
elty, and for years this competition has continued between him- 
self and his rivals, and yet there is no abatement of his ardor or 
his success ; now his production consists of a new box; now of 
some intricate interlacing of fruits; now of some wonderful crys- 
tallizations, and now of some new mode of concealing the motto ; 
but in most cases, his art is exerted tastefully to introduce a look- 
ing-glass." But the competition that has existed between himself 
and his rivals, though it may not have abated his ardor, has in- 
duced him to resort to some very reprehensible practices. To 
give a more exquisite flavor to his essences, or to secure vivid- 



CONFECTIONERY. 227 

ness and durability of color to his confections, he has not hesi- 
tated to use the most noxious and poisonous substances as ver- 
digris and other poisons. An eminent English physician testifies 
that he detected, by post-mortem examination, the essential oil 
of bitter almonds in the stomach of one who had suddenly died 
after partaking of some French sweetmeats. To such an extent 
had the use of deleterious mineral substances been carried in 
the manufacture of Confectionery, particularly for exportation, 
that the French Government interfered, prescribing what colors 
the Confectioners might use. This list of permissible sub- 
stances, however, contains so many of suspicious origin, that 
henceforth we much prefer, and declare for, the more pure and 
safe, if less brilliant Confectionery made in Philadelphia. 

REPORT. 

" Permit first a word of explanation. When yon did me the honor 
to compliment my detective powers, by stating they were in demand 
to unravel the mysteries of the Confectionery business, I must confess 
that I had supposed there would be no difficulty in ascertaining who 
are manufacturing Confectioners. I was even verdant enough to 
suppose, that the advertisements in the newspapers would, at least, 
furnish some indication, whether there were many or few ; and I took 
up my evening paper, the Bulletin, with confident expectation of ac- 
quiring considerable information on the subject. I was delighted to 
observe at the first glance, well displayed, the announcement " NEW 
CONFECTIONS ; ORIENTAL NONGAT, (one dollar per pound) ; SHERBET 
DROPS ; BANANA DROPS, (fifty cents per pound). STEPHEN F. WHIT- 
MAN, Manufacturing Confectioner, 1210 Market st., West of Twelfth" 
I looked further, column after column, and would you believe it, fouud 
not another Confectioner's advertisement. Imagine my perplexity. 
Could it be possible that there was only one manufacturing Confectioner 
in Philadelphia. If so, what a nabob he must be. Thirty millions of 
people who consume each at least fifty cents worth of candy in a year 
that is, fifteen millions of dollars a year : and a fair proportion of the quan- 
tity purchased is known to be obtained in Philadelphia. Can it be pos- 
sible this Mr. Whitman supplies them all ? I called on Mr. Whitman, 
and he frankly told me that though lie did a fair share of business, as he 
deserves to do, and believed he was one of the largest manufacturers of 
fine Confectionery in Philadelphia, there were many others, mention- 
ing REN^ELS, RICHARDSON, MILLER, HENRION, and others. I called on 
them, and they informed me of others ; and these again of still more ; untij 



223 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

sick and surfeited, that night I saw in my dreams a delegation of Con- 
fectioners, with Whitman at their head, coming to souse me in a cal- 
dron of boiling candy. The results of my observations, continued, how- 
ever, for a long period subsequently, are as follows : 

" There arfl about two hundred Confectioners in Philadelphia, 
the most of whom manufacture to some extent the business being 
done not by a few very large concerns, but diffused among a number 
of small ones. The makers, in most instances, know who will proba- 
bly be the purchasers and consumers of their candy, and therefore take 
pains to have it pure and first-rate in quality. Sixteen of the whole- 
sale manufacturers used, in 1857, 1,400,000 Ibs. of sugar, costing, say 
$147,000, and which made 1,400,000 Ibs. of Candy, worth on an aver- 
age 18 cents per pound, or $252,000. A fair average product for the 
others some making much more, and some less, is $2,000 per year ; or 
for all $368,000. About one half of the Confectioners in Philadelphia 
operate in the finer branches of Ices, Jellies, Pieces Montees, &c., to 
the extent, on an average, of $4,000 each, or $400,000 for all ; and the 
number of persons employed in said one hundred establishments will 
average five each, or five hundred in all. In addition to the regular 
trade, there is an immense business done, during seven or eight months 
in the year, by the country people, who bring in Ice Creams by thou- 
sands of gallons, which they vend in the markets, or serve to the hun- 
dreds of cake-shops, and other occasional depots ; and thus diverting 
large quantities of material from the customary objects of milk, cream, 
butter, &c., causing a great increase in the prices of those articles. 
This however cannot be enumerated, and the product is stated as fol- 
lows : 

Sugar Confectionery, including Molasses Candy, $620,000 
Pieces Monties, &c., 400,000 



Total, $1,020,000 

" In point of Wholesale Candy Manufacture, New York, of course, 
is far in advance of Philadelphia ; but in the ornamental branches, 
Pieces Monties in particular, the quality of the Ices, Jellies, <fec., and 
Patisserie in general, Philadelphia is unquestionably superior to the 
former city, or any other in the Union. The French Confectionery, 
made in this city, is also of surpassing excellence and beauty. 

" Now, as a partial compensation for the trouble I have given the 
Confectioners, I desire to offer them a hint, borrowed from my Turkish 
experience. In Turkey, there is a preparation known as Rahatlocoum, 
in great favor with the Turkish ladies, from its alleged property of 
developing those proportions of figure which, in that enlightened 



CONFECTIONERY. 229 

country, are deemed a most essential attribute of female beauty. The 
preparation is of the most agreeable flavor, and composed of the fol- 
lowing innocent materials : one part of wheat starch, six parts of sugar, 
and twelve parts of water. These are boiled together for some time ; 
and when the mixture has lost so much of the water by evaporation 
that it will congeal to an elastic jujube-like mass, it is run into a flat 
tray and allowed to cool ; sometimes blanched almonds are mixed with 
it. About six hundred tons of Rahatlocoum are made annually in Tur- 
key. There is a fortune in the suggestion for some of our Confec- 
tioners. 

" Flavoring Extracts, for flavoring Pies, Puddings, Cakes, &c., are 
made to a considerable extent, and are said to possess all the freshness 
and delicacy of the fruits from which they are prepared. Artificial Es- 
sences for flavoring Syrups, &c., are also made, but from less agreeable 
and desirable materials, as the makers can testify." 

The branch of the conserve art, for which the TJnited States 
received the most credit at the World's Fair, in London, was 
the preservation of soft fruits in brandy. The Peach is the fa- 
vorite conserve ; and in this city, which has unsurpassed facilities 
for procuring the best fruits, the business is carried on largely 
and successfully, considerable quantities being exported every 
year to England and other countries. 

The London Fancy Cake Bakers occasionally make some very 
successful attempts to produce gigantic Bride cakes ; and exhibited 
at the World's Fair at least three, varying in valne from $150 to 
no less a sum than $750. One it is said possessed the advantage 
of movable ornaments; so that after the cake has disappeared, 
the sugar may be transmitted, like the silk dresses of our ances- 
tors, as an heir-loom from the grandmother to her grand-daughter. 
But the greatest achievement, in the way of large cakes, we think, 
was that made some years ago by Mr. Parkinson, of Philadelphia, 
for a Franklin Institute Exhibition. It was about the size of an 
ordinary cart-wheel, and weighed about 1,200 Ibs. The ingre- 
dients were as follows, viz. : 120 dozen eggs, 150 Ibs. butter, 150 
Ibs. flour, 150 Ibs. sugar, and 500 Ibs. of fruits ; besides the icing 
and ornamentation. 

Within the last few years, the demand for costly banquets has 
tested the inventive genius of our Confectioners, aud called forth 
18* 



230 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

some wonderful displays. Among the remarkable and expensive 
festivals, we recall to recollection the following : 

The dinner to Capt. Matthews, of the pioneer Steamship City of 

Glasgow, at the Chinese Museum, cost .... $4,900 

Kossuth banquet, at United States Hotel, .... 2,000 

Henry Clay ball supper, .---.__ 1,500 
Consolidation ball supper for 4,500 persons cost, exclusive of 

wines, Ac., - 3,500 

But the model festival of all, perhaps, ever got up in modern 
times, was one furnished by Mr. Parkinson, at his present estab- 
lishment, on Eighth St., in the spring of 1852, it being a return 
complimentary entertainment, given by fifteen gentlemen, " mer- 
chant princes" of Philadelphia, to a like number of "eminences" 
of New York, making thirty persons in all. No price was named, 
but a carte blanche given to the accomplished caterer, who set 
his wits to work procuring green peas and strawberries from 
the South, salmon and other rarities from the East, and every 
luxury and epicurean delicacy from the earth, air, and flood ; 
while a fourth element was scientifically employed to adapt the 
whole to the gratification of the human palate. The saloon was 
decorated in the most elegant manner; while gold, silver, china, 
and glass of the most costly and beautiful styles, flashed and glit- 
tered on the board. The feast was composed of twenty separate 
courses, each with its appropriate liquors, wines, and liqueurs, 
designated in a bill of fare, or rather programme, which of itself 
was a perfect curiosity of beauty and taste, comprising a highly 
ornamented and illuminated page for each course. The cost of 
this memorable entertainment was exactly $1,000 1 

XIII. 

Distilling and Rectifying. 

The consumption of Spirituous Liquors, both as a luxury and 
in the arts, is so vast that their* manufacture necessarily involves 
considerations of great commercial importance. According to 
the census of 1850, the manufacture of Malt and Spirituous 
Liquors employs a capital of $8,334,254; consumes 3,787,195 
bushels of barley, 11,067,761 bushels of corn, 2,143,927 bushels 
rye, 56,517 bushels oats, 526,840 bushels of apples, 61,675 hhds 



DISTILLING AND RECTIFYING. 231 

of molasses, 1,294 tons of hops ; furnishes employment to 5,487 
persons, and produces 1,177,924 barrels of Ale, &c., 42,133,955 
gallons of Whisky and High Wines, and 6,500,500 gallons of 
Rum. The centre of the Whisky manufacture is probably Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, for we notice that, in 1856, there were distilled in 
that city and vicinity, 19,260,245 gallons of proof Whisky; con 
siiming, if we allow one bushel of corn to every three gallons of 
Spirits, 6,420,082 bushels of corn. In Philadelphia there are 
but five concerns engaged in distilling Whisky from rye, corn, &c. 
They have a capital employed of nearly $500,000, and in 1857 
produced 2,100,000 gallons, worth on an average 30 cents per 
gallon, or $630,000. The Distillery of FREEMAN & SIMPSON, 
on the Schuylkill River, having a capacity of 400 barrels per 
week, is one of the largest and most complete in the country for 
the distillation of fine Rye Whiskies, to which they confine 
themselves almost exclusively. 

The leading business connected with the manufacture of Spirit- 
uous Liquors in Philadelphia, is Rectifying Whisky. There are 
at least eight firms very extensively engaged in this pursuit; and 
many others, who rectify from five to forty barrels per week. 
The capital invested is $1,250,000 ; and the product, in 1857, 
was 7,650,000 gallons, which, at 33 cents per gallon, amounted 
to $2,524,500. The principal firms are JOHN GIBSON, SONS & Co., 
KIRKPATRICK, DE HAVEN & Co., FREEMAN & SIMPSON, WHITE 
& HENTZ, B. F. & H. HUDDY, WM. WALLACE, COLLINS, ROCKA- 
FELLOW & Co., H. & H. W. CATHERWOOD, and A. J. CATHERWOOD. 
The first-named, Messrs. Gibson, Sons & Co., are the most exten- 
sive Rectifiers, having a capital exceeding $350,000 employed in 
this business, and in the manufacture of their well-known supe- 
rior Monongahela Whisky, at their extensive works recently 
erected on th Monongahela River. Their trade lies chiefly in 
the principal cities of the Sonthern States ; and perhaps no firm 
has been more active and liberal to extend trade in that section 
of the country than they. But al. the firms named control a large 
capital, and can keep their liquors in store until time imparts 
that flavor which it is said age alone can give. Besides Whisky 
and Spirits, Cordials and Baywater are made to the amount of 
nt least $200,000. The conversion of Whisky into Alcohol and 
Burning Fluid we previonsly considered. 



232 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

XIV. 

The Dry Goods Manufacture. 

The trade in Dry Goods, considered as a branch of commerce, 
is the most important of any now existing in this country. It 
controls a greater amount of capital, employs a larger number of 
persons, and distributes a greater value of commodities, than any 
other branch of mercantile pursuit. The list of Dry Goods mer- 
chants in our large towns is far longer than will be found engaged 
in the sale of merchandise under any other heading ; while 
throughout the interior the very name of " merchant" is asso- 
ciated with one who, whatever else he may sell, is a Dry Goods 
dealer. There are certainly " merchant princes" among those 
engaged in mercantile pursuits ; but in capacity, energy, and 
aggregate wealth, the dealers in Dry Goods, as a class, are em- 
phatically THE MERCHANTS of our day and country. 

The variety of articles embraced in the term Dry Goods, is 
seemingly exhaustless ; but the materials of which they are com- 
posed, are principally Cotton, Wool, Flax, and Silk. All of 
these, with the exception of the last, are natural, or at least lead- 
ing products of this country ; all of them, with perhaps the same 
exception, are bulky in their raw and unmanufactured state. Hence 
one would naturally suppose, that the mills for manufacturing 
them would be situated in the same country as the place of their 
production, if not in the same district. No one would certainly 
suppose, even hypothetically, that a free, civilized, and ingeni- 
ous people, would rely upon foreign countries for the supply of 
their necessities, or be persistently guilty of the gigantic folly of 
going four thousand miles to mill. It is indeed difficult to re- 
concile such a course of conduct with the traditionary notions of 
American independence and American sagacity ; but happily, the 
day is gradually passing away when any exposition of the anomaly 
will be necessary. 

The first regular Cotton Factory established in the United 
States, was located in Beverly, Mass., and went into operation 
in 1787. In 1789, it received a visit from President Washington, 
then on a tour through the Eastern States. At that time the 
British government, defeated in a war just closed, took its re- 



DRY GOODS. 233 

renge in the only manner possible, viz., by prohibiting, with se- 
vere penalties, any exportation of machinery, or even drawings of 
machinery, from that country. A handsome set of brass models 
of Arkwright's machine was secretly prepared for shipment, but 
was seized at the Custom House. Mr. Samuel Slater, who had 
served a regular apprenticeship to the business in England, came 
out in 1789 ; and although he was without models or drawings 
of the machinery needed, he succeeded in starting at Pawtucket. 
R. I., three cards and seventy-two spindles, on the 20th of De- 
cember, 1790. These were the first Arkwright machines oper- 
ated in this country. The first Cotton Factory started in Massa- 
chusetts, with the improved machinery, was located near Paw- 
tucket, on the other side of the river, and commenced operations 
about 1795. 

The first Cotton Mill established, as we are informed, in the 
county, now the city of Philadelphia, was situated at La Grange 
Place, near Holmesburg. The machinery was supplied by Al- 
fred Jenks, who had been a pupil and colaborer for many years 
with Samuel Slater, and who established his manufactory of cot- 
ton machinery in Holmesburg, in 1810. The oldest established 
Cotton Mill, now in operation, is the Keating Mill in Manayunk, 
owned by J. C. Kempton. 

The first Woolen Mill started in the State was at Consho- 
hocken, by Bethel Moore, a name that continues to be identified 
with the manufacture. It would be desirable to trace, chronolog- 
ically, the successive steps marking the progressive develop- 
ment of the manufacture of textile fabrics, in this city ; but, un- 
fortunately, there are no records within our knowledge containing 
sufficient and reliable data for the purpose. In 1824, we find a 
list showing there were thirty-three Cotton and Woolen factories 
in the city and vicinity, worked by water or steam-power ; and 
twenty of them had no less than 28,750 spindles in operation, and 
the number increasing. A few years subsequently, an English 
writer announced that Philadelphia was the great seat of hand- 
loom manufacturing and weaving. But beyond such isolated 
statements as these, the growth of this important interest seems 
t.o have attracted but little historical recognition ; and we can 
only conjecture that it was overwhelmed by the flourish of trum 



234 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

pets which attends the erection of a factory in New England, 
though it may produce less in a month than the hand-looms of 
Philadelphia produce in a week. 

Looking then at present circumstances only, without attempt- 
ing to account for their existence, we are astonished by the 
undeniable revelation, that Philadelphia is the centre of a greater 
number of factories for textile fabrics than any other city 
in the world. We do not desire to be understood as saying, 
greater number of looms, or greater value of production ; but 
simply what we state, a greater number of distinct, separate es- 
tablishments fairly entitled to be called factories. No other city 
in the world, within our knowledge, is the centre of two hundred 
and sixty Cotton and Woolen factories, and containing, besides, 
hand-looms in force and production equal to seventy additional 
factories of average size. Moreover, we claim that Philadelphia 
is the centre of a larger production of indispensable domestic 
goods, than any other city or place in the United States. In 
making this claim, we do not desire to be understood as saying 
all descriptions of goods, but of domestic goods, indispensable 
particularly in the South and West. If this be true, the inference 
is unavoidable, that Philadelphia is the cheapest market in which 
the merchants of the South and West can purchase such goods. 
These statements lead us to the consideration of two poinls ; first, 
the description of fabrics made here, and secondly, the extent of 
the production. 

The textile fabrics made in Philadelphia might be considered 
as of two classes one, designated "Philadelphia goods," and the 
other "imported" the former comprising a variety of heavy ar- 
ticles essential in domestic use, and the other, delicate, ornamental 
fabrics, sold in New York, and frequently in this city, as Parisian 
or German goods. We however shall adopt for convenience the 
usual subdivisions, viz. : Cotton goods, woolen and mixed, Ho- 
siery, Carpetings, Silks, &c. 

1. COTTON GOODS. 

The application of the wonderful natural product, which has 
been called by some vegetable wool, to the manufacture of arti- 
cles of utility and of ornament, is one of the most interesting 



DRY GOODS. 235 

records of industrial achievement. In Philadelphia, this appli- 
cation has principally been directed to the production of articles 
calculated to promote the comfort of the masses the artisan, the 
farmer, and the mechanic and very great credit is due to the 
fiibricants for having brought many unpretending articles of this 
description to a high degree of perfection. Tickings are made 
in large quantities, and of a far better quality than those made 
in New England. They are distinguished for having more stock, 
and less starch in them. Mr. Wallis, one of the English Commis- 
sioners to the American World's Fair, thus spenks of certain goods 
of this class that came under his notice. " They are 36 inches 
wide, 1100 reed, No. 30 warp, and No. 35 filling or weft, with 
140 picks to the inch. It is scarcely possible to conceive a 
firmer or better made article ; and the traditionary notion that 
really good Tickings can only be manufactured from flax receives 
a severe shock, when such Cotton goods as these are presented 
for examination." The varieties of Tickings made in Philadel- 
phia, and its vicinity, are far more numerous than elsewhere ; and 
the prices range from 7 to 24 cents those at the latter price 
being a most superior article. 

Of Apron and Furniture Checks, Philadelphia may be said 
to have the monopoly in the manufacture ; none being made else- 
where, as we are informed, to any extent. They are of various 
grades, ranging in price from 7 to 17 cents. These goods are 
well-known, and it is therefore needless to add that they are of 
the first class. A superior Check for miners' shirting is made, 
worth from 12 to 20 cents. 

Oinyhams are made of all qualities, ranging from 8^ to 16 
cents. These goods, for strength and durability of fabric and col- 
ors, and neatness and beauty of styles, are, at the low prices at 
which they are produced and sold, the cheapest article, probably, 
for women's and children's wear in the whole range of the Dry 
Goods manufacture. They are much preferable to the Scotch at 
the same prices, and are free from the dressing which adds so much 
to the apparent weight of the latter. 

Of Cotton goods classed as Pantaloonery, Cottonades, <fec. a great 
variety of kinds, qualities, and styles are made. The manufacture 
of these is conducted on a large scale, the production of one man- 



236 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

ufacturer alone having reached three and a half million of yards in 
a year. They are now made almost entirely of fast colors, as the 
demand for the very low priced (of fugitive colors) is yearly dimin- 
ishing. They are from 25 to 29 inches wide, and range in price 
from 8^ to 25 cents. Philadelphia Cottonades are favorites with 
Jobbers and Clothiers throughout the country. 

Heavy wide Brown Sheetings are made in the vicinity of the 
city, probably heavier than any other in this country ; some two 
yards wide, made of yarn, No. 14, count 50 by 56, has been 
specially recommended as adapted for the purpose for which they 
are designed. They are goods which, in consequence of the 
cheapness of cotton, can be produced cheaper in this country 
than English goods of the same quality. Heavy blue Mariners' 
Shirtings, formerly designated in the West as " Hickory Shirt- 
ings," are made largely; the prices ranging from 8 to 10^ cents. 
Denims are made to a large extent, specially adapted for planta- 
tion use, being heavier than any made elsewhere. Other goods, 
particularly adapted to the Southern trade, and known as Negro 
Plaids, Chambrays, or Crankies, are a prominent article of pro- 
duction with many. Nankeens, 28 inches wide, are made from the 
Nankeen cotton grown in Georgia and South Carolina ; price about 
10 cents for plain, and 13 for heavy twilled. Several mills also pro- 
duce Ducks, Osnaburgs, and Bagging, some of which is of ex- 
cellent quality. Prints are made of all grades, from the highest 
to the lowest, in Madder and Steam colors ; and some descrip- 
tions, as black and white, and half-mourning prints, are made 
here exclusively. The prices range from 4^ to 10 cents those 
at the latter price bear favorable comparison with the well-known 
Merrimacks. It is no exaggeration to say that our Calico Printers 
are unexcelled by any. Printing Cloths are made at two or three 
factories, and the production, although limited, is quite successful 
it is believed that this branch of manufacture will increase. 

Cotton Hosiery will be referred to subsequently ; and of the 
minor narrow textiles, as for instance, Stay Binding or Twilled 
Tape white, black, and in colors, the production could be ex- 
pressed only by millions of yards. 

For the production of Cotton Yarns there are several mills ; 
but a large quantity used by the manufacturers of Cotton goods 



DRY GOODS. 237 

is brought from Paterson, N. J., and also from Augusta, Georgia, 
and from other parts of the South. The production of this ar- 
ticle, in Philadelphia, should be at least equal to the wants of the 
manufacturers. 

2. WOOLEN AND MIXED GOODS. 

Wool is described by an eminent scientific authority, in the 
following lucid manner. It is a peculiar modification of hair, 
presenting, when viewed under the microscope, fine transverse or 
oblique lines, from 2,000 to 4,000 in the extent of an inch, indic- 
ative of an imbricated or scaly surface, on which, and upon its 
curved or twisted form, depends its remarkable felting quality and 
its consequent value in manufactures. The Woolen manufacture, 
in its narrow or restricted meaning, applies only to Cloths made of 
short wool, and such as possess the quality of felting together, 
and elasticity ; the other branch is called the Worsted manufac- 
ture, in which long wool, and such as possess no particular te- 
nacity of fabric, is used. The former term, however, is rarely 
used in the strict sense ; and in considering the leading manufac- 
tures of Philadelphia in this department, we shall apply it ac- 
cording to its popular signification. 

The principal varieties of Woolen goods made in Philadelphia, 
are Cassimeres, Satinets, Kentucky Jeans, Shawls, Flannels, and 
Linseys, or Woolen Plaids. 

Cassimeres are made to a considerable extent, both all Wool and 
Cotton and Wool, of various grades. The finest, in imitation of 
the French, are nearly equal in quality of wool and excellence of 
finish to any foreign goods, while they are much lower in price. 
The Satinets range from 30 to 75 cents, and are largely produced. 
Kentucky Jeans, of unsurpassed quality, and of great variety of 
colors, are a leading article of production. They are 27-inch 
goods, of various grades, from 13 to 40 cents. The better qual- 
ities have all wool filling. Twills and Tweeds, of various pat- 
terns and colors, and having a diversity of names, are also made 
in large quantities : prices from 20 to 33 cents. . Most of these 
have all wool filling. Philadelphia-made Jeans, Twills and Tweeds, 
are staple goods ; and like the Checks, Ginghams, and Cottonades, 
have a high and deserved reputation, especially at the West, where 
they are in great demand. 
19 



238 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Shawls, chiefly all wool both long and square, plain and fancy 
colors, greatly diversified in patterns, are made to considerable 
extent. The Medium-long Shawls bring from $2 up to $8 ; 
while the Square, are from 75 cents to $3^. 

Flannels, of various colors and qualities, both all wool and 
domet, are also largely produced. An article, all wool, termed 
Welsh Flannel, and used largely by miners, glass-blowers, and foun- 
dry men, for shirts, is made by several, and highly esteemed. 

Linseys, or Woolen Plaids, are made of various qualities ; 
some one half, others one third wool: prices, from 10 up to 33 
cents. Very large quantities are sold in the West, as far as the 
new Territories and the Rocky Mountains; the heaviest being 
used there for the clothing of laborers and backwoodsmen. They 
are also very extensively sold in the South for clothing for do- 
mestics ; while some are used for linings. The higher grades are 
very superior, and all are desirable goods and in constant de- 
mand. Many are woven in hand-looms. They are largely shipped 
to New York, Boston, and Baltimore. A superior article of 
6-4, all wool plaids, price about $1, is also made. 

Of Mixed Goods there is considerable variety, principally how- 
ever the product of hand-looms. Coverlets of cotton and wool, 
red and white, and other patterns, belong to this class, and are a 
favorite and serviceable article. 

Damask, Birdseye, and Huckaback Diapers, from 5-4 to 11-4, 
both brown and bleached, are largely made. They are heavy and 
very serviceable goods: prices from 10^ to 26 cents. Some linen 
Table Cloths and Toweling, of superior quality, are made on 
Jacquard machines. It is claimed that the Damask Table Cloths 
are equal to the very best patterns of the imported ; while they 
are superior in durability. One firm is making Marseilles of ex- 
cellent quality. Bed Spreads, both bleached and brown, Stair 
Crash, and a variety of similar goods, are also made in hand- 
looms. 

Union Checks, half linen and half cotton, are made of very su- 
perior quality : price from 14 to 20 cents. 

Worsted Braid, or "Ferreting," occupies many looms; and 
Carpet Bindings, of cotton and wool, are with many leading arti 



CARPETINGS. 239 

cles of production. Of men's, women's, and children's mixed 
blue-and- white Hose, and Half Hose, ten thousands of dozens 
are annually made. 

3. CARPETINGS. 

The production of Ingrain and Venitian Carpetings, in Phil- 
adelphia, is so important a branch of the general manufacture, 
that it deserves at our hands special and separate notice. It is 
also distinctive in its characteristics, both as respects the descrip- 
tion of goods made, and the mode of manufacture. The manufac- 
turers of Carpetings in Hartford and Lowell confine their oper- 
ations, we are told, to all wool and worsted goods, made in 
super and extra-fines ; while the manufacturers in Philadelphia 
not only make the better qualities, but go down to goods which 
are all cotton, and sell for about 20 cents per square yard. The 
fabrication of Cotton, and Cotton-and-Wool Carpetings, is said 
to be exclusively confined to Philadelphia. 

As respects the mode of manufacture the business is distinctive, 
inasmuch as it is distributed among a large number of weavers; 
there being but one mill that employs power-looms, and only to a 
very limited extent. The individual manufacturers number about 
one hundred, who furnish employment to at least fifteen hundred 
hand-looms, the largest manufacturer having one hundred and 
fifty looms at work on his fabrics. Each loom will turn out, 
monthly, three pieces of 120 yards each, or 4,320 yards Carpet- 
ings yearly; consequently, the annual production for 1,500 looms 
would be 6,480,000 yards. The prices of Ingrain Carpetings 
range from 20 to 85 cents a low average being 40 cents, which 
would give an annual value of $2,592,000.* The persons em- 
ployed are, weavers 1,500 ; and all others, winders, spoolers, warp- 
ers, assistants and dyers, say 1,000 more in all 2,500 persons. 
The average price for weaving Carpets is 9 cents ; and the 

* An excellent article of supers, worth 80 to 85, and extra-fines, 65 to 70 
cents per yard, is made for New York, and for Chestnut-street dealers, by 
J. BROMLEY & SON, who are celebrated for the weight and excellence of 
their extra-fines. They also make Damask Venitians, from $1.05 to $1.15, 
which are fully equal to the imported, and unequaled in this country. 
Other makers will be subsequently mentioned. 



240 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

average earnings of weavers $6 a week, or $300 a year. The 
whole amount paid to weavers and others, for labor, will read 
$695,000 per annum. 

The " Glen-Echo" Mills, at Germantown, A. McCallum & Co. 
proprietors, have one hundred looms in operation, a few being 
power-looms, employ two hundred hands, and produce an average 
annual product of over $200,000. This firm, and James Lord, 
spin and dye their own yarns, and are thus exceptional in con- 
ducting all the processes of manufacture from the raw material. 

Rag and List Carpets are also produced to the extent of 
1,680,000 yards annually, yielding, at 30 cents per yard, $504,000. 
The weavers employed in this branch have frequently but one 
loom each, and rarely over eight. The principal manufacturer 
has only about twenty looms. Weavers, when they supply the 
chain, receive about 20 cents a yard ; or for weaving alone, from 
6 to 10 cents, according to quality. The cotton chain for the 
better qualities is obtained of yarn dealers, costing about 20 cents 
per lb., dyed. Carpet balls, for filling, cost from 6 to T cents 
per lb. This description of Carpet sells from 25 to 50 cents per 
yard. 

The entire production of Carpetings, in Philadelphia, we state 
as follows : 

No. of Earnings of Production. 

Looms. Weavers, &c. Tarda. Value. 

Ingrain, 1,500 $695,000 6,480,000 $2,592,000 

Rag, 560 126,000 1,680,000 504,000 



Total, 2060 $821,000 8,160,000 $3,096,000 

The persons employed in the Carpet manufacture are English, 
Irish, Scotch, and German ; but very few Americans, as we are in- 
formed, are known to be engaged either in weaving or spinning. 
The economy in manufacturing would be greatly promoted, it is 
supposed, if there were larger mills in the city for spinning and 
dyeing yarns. 

4. WOOLEN HOSIERY FANCY KNIT WORK. 

The importance of this branch of industry, and the success of 
the Philadelphia manufacturers, entitle it to separate notice 



HOSIERY. 241 

For more than two hundred and fifty years Nottingham and Lei- 
cester were the chief seats of the Hosiery manufacture in Eu- 
rope and America. The Knitting trade had its origin in Not- 
tingham, through the invention of the Stocking-frame, by the 
Rev. Mr. Lee of that place, in 1589. At the present time, it is 
estimated that there are at least 50,000 Stocking-frames in oper- 
ation in Great Britain, employing 100,000 persons, and producing 
an annual value of $18,000,000. So diversified are the articles 
produced in color, shape, and adaptation to markets, that one 
Leicester manufacturer thought he could not fairly represent his 
production at the Great Exhibition, in 1851, except by sending 
12,500 specimens and prices. Until within the last fifteen or 
twenty years, America looked exclusively to foreign sources for 
her supply of the various articles designated as Fancy Woolen 
goods or Woolen Knitwork. Within that period, however, the 
manufacture has taken such deep root in Philadelphia particu- 
larly in Germantown and Kensington that the Nottingham arti- 
cles no longer find any considerable sale in the'Americau markets, 
or even in the Canadas. The term " Germantown Woolen 
Goods," is now as familiar to most dealers as Nottingham Hosiery ; 
while the quality of the American product is really far superior 
to that of the foreign. The Philadelphia manufacturers have such 
special and important advantages over the English in the price of 
wool being able, therefore, to use much finer grades in the pro- 
duction of articles costing the same price that they may reason- 
ably anticipate a period not remote when their goods of this class 
will find a sale, as they certainly will receive a preference, in the 
English market. A few large establishments, well managed, and 
combining all economies, it is the opinion of competent judges, 
could even now export these commodities to England with profit. 
The manufacture, as at present conducted, is essentially a do- 
mestic one. In Germantown, in which the production is so large 
as to give its name to the goods produced, there are a few exten- 
sive mills employing steam-power ; but the distinctive feature of 
the business is its hand-looms and domesticity. Fully one half of 
the persons engaged in the production have no practical concern 
with the ten-hour system, or the factory system, or even the solar 
system. They work at such hours as they choose in their own 
19* 



242 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

homes, and their industry is mainly regulated by the state of th 
larder. But the inherent, natural industry of this class of oper- 
atives, who are largely Leicester and Nottingham men, will be 
inferred from a visit to Germantown, and practical observation 
of the neatness of the dwellings, and the air of comfort that per- 
vades all its street and avenues. 

In the city proper, there is one large factory engaged in pro- 
ducing Hosiery, Opera-hoods, Comforters, Scarfs, &c., employing 
five hundred hands, and consuming annually upward of 250,000 
Ibs. of American wool.* The hand-frames and machines it is 

* The factory alluded to is that of MARTIN LANDENBERGER, and we ex- 
tract from the "Ledger" the following description: 

" The factory has a fine front of thirty-eight feet, is over two hundred 
feet deep, and with the basement is five stories high. It is an attractive 
brick structure, its external neatness vieing with its internal arrangements 
in every respect. 

" In the basement we find woolsacks upon which the Lord Chancellor of 
England never took his seat ; for they contain American wool, woolen yarn 
of every describable shade and color, and goods generally, which are 
packed and ready for dispatch. Here is also a steam-engine of fifteen 
horse power. Near the engine is a large Wool-Scouring Machine. The 
wool is then passed into a drying-room, heated by steam ; after drying, 
it is submitted to the services of the (devil) picker ; it then passes through 
two sets of cards, which may be termed breakers and finishers. This pro- 
cess of carding prepares the collected and straightened fibres for twisting. 
In the twisting department there are ten machines constantly at work, con- 
sisting of four hundred spindles. In the spinning department eight sets 
of mules are engaged, consisting of twenty-five hundred and sixty spindles. 
The yarn is then warped and reeled ; subsequently it is bleached, dyed, and 
printed according to certain designs. From the warps the yarn is then ar- 
ranged upon beams for the loom, and from the reeled yarn large spools are 
filled by a hand-winding process performed by small boys. The yarn is 
then ready for weaving, in which process upward of fifteen different kinds 
of looms are at work. We noticed particularly a new loom, the invention 
of the proprietor, for weaving neck-comforts. This loom, after much labor 
and thought expended in its construction, was started some months ago 
This loom weaves four neck-comforts of a double fabric, and each of a dif- 
ferent pattern. The Jacquard principle is about to be applied to this loom, 
BO that by control of the Jacquard index, almost any design will be pro- 
duced by it. There is another loom of a different construction now in prep- 
aration, and will soon be put to work. The other looms used are of vari> 



HOSIERY. 243 

almost impossible to ascertain with accuracy ; but they exceed 
seven hundred, of which about five hundred are employed on 
Woolen Hosiery. The average product for each frame exceeds 
$1,650 annually ; and the whole Hosiery and fancy Woolen goods 
production in Philadelphia, in 1857, was about as follows : 

500 Knitting Frames, averaging $1,657.50 each, - - $828,750 
7 Factories in Germantown and Kensington, - - 800,000 

Total value of Woolen Hosiery, ... $1,628,750 

200 Knitting Frames on Cotton Hosiery, $897 each, - 179,400 

Total, $1,808,150 

The foundations of the American Woolen Hosiery and Fancy 

ous kinds and calibre. All the new machinery used in the establishment is 
made on the premises, upon such a principle that it is impossible for out- 
siders to copy the construction or mode of operation. Every new style de- 
mands some action upon the machinery, which calls out some new demon- 
stration of inventive genius on the part of the proprietor. Here are man- 
ufactured hoods, talmas, opera-cloaks, neck-comforts, scarfs, and hosiery 
of every conceivable description and variety. Every room is set apart for 
some particular branch in the process of manufacture, and the regulations 
prevent any laxity of morals on the part of the employees; the males and 
females are not brought in contact with each other at all. Gladness and 
health seemed to beam from every countenance upon the occasion of our 
visit. The stairs and floors are kept thoroughly clean. In the winter sea- 
son the entire factory is heated by steam to a comfortable degree. This 
tends to promote the comfort of the workers, whilst it serves a good mission 
to the machinery. 

" Fifteen years ago Mr. Landenberger commenced operations with about 
twelve hands, and had then to compete with the foreign manufacturers, so 
that he had to work to get along ; but being determined to overcome the 
importation of woolen hosiery, he laid himself out for the task, and has 
succeeded admirably." He gives employment to nearly five hundred hands, 
and manufactures every year upward of 2f>0,000 Ibs. of American wool 
which, through his agent, Mr. L. purchases from the grower. He consumes 
about 2,500 gallons of lard oil, being one gallon to every hundred pounds of 
wool. He manufactures eight hundred different styles of goods, of all sizes, 
every season. The value of the business done is about $800.000 annually. 

"The majority of the men employed in the establishment are from Leices- 
ter, the principal seat of the hosiery manufacture in England. A consider- 
able number of Germans are also employed. For cleanliness and good ar- 
rangement, Mr. Landenberger's Kensington Woolen Hosiery manufactory 
cannot be exceeded, and a visit to it is a bona fide entertainment." 



244 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Goods manufacture, it is quite evident, are laid in Philadelphia 
Within ten years, by persevering and well-directed industry, 
Philadelphia manufacturers have succeeded in almost excluding 
the foreign articles from the American market; and they certainly 
have succeeded in enabling merchants, from all parts of the 
country, to obtain in Philadelphia superior goods at less than 
Nottingham or Leicester prices. 

5. NARROW TEXTILE FAB RI C S S I L K S, ETC. 

In England, the various manufactures included in the term 
Narrow Textile Fabrics, are known by the name of Small Wares ; 
and on the continent of Europe the manufacturers of them are 
designated Passamenteurs. In this country the term usually 
employed is Trimmings, which represents ladies' dress trimmings, 
carriage laces, curtain trimmings, cords, tassels, braids, fringes, 
ribbons, military trimmings, and numerous other manufactures 
assimilating in character. In England, France, Germany, Switz- 
erland, the chief seats of these manufactures, the establishments 
confine themselves each to a single class of goods one making 
fringes, another ribbons, and so on ; but here, two or more branches 
are often carried on by the same parties ; and in the case of one 
firm in this city, all the above branches are united in one estab- 
ment the largest of its kind, beyond all doubt, in the world. 

Philadelphia has long been known as the principal seat of the 
manufacture of Military Goods and Carriage Laces ; and now, 
probably, one half of the whole production of the United States 
originates here. The branch known as " Ladies Dress Trim- 
mings," is comparatively of modern date in this country. Up to 
1838, very little was made, being principally plain fringes, a few 
bindings, buttons, cords and tassels. The business, however, has 
become a very important item of our domestic manufactures ; and 
since the reduction of duties on raw silk, is rapidly expanding. 
Patterns the most complicated are executed with facility, from de- 
signs that are original with the manufacturers. The fabrics pro- 
duced here are acknowledged to be generally of better quality 
than the English and German ; and for several years have com- 
peted successfully with nearly all articles of French manufacture. 







f=i 

OJ 





TRIMMINGS. 245 

Philadelphia is now the chief seat of the general manufacture 
of Trimmings in the United States. There are now about thirty 
establishments in this city engaged in the various branches, in- 
cluding Carriage Laces, Regalia, and Upholstery. We shall here 
only allude to the most complete concern of the kind in the Union, 
and to one other house as a representative of the general trade. 

The establishment of WILLIAM H. HORSTMANN & SONS is the 
one alluded to, as undoubtedly the most extensive of its class iu 
the world. The business was established by Win. H. Horstmann, 
the father of the present proprietors, in 1815, and is consequently 
the oldest established of the kind in the city, if not in this country. 
In the infancy of its career, the manufacture was limited to a 
few patterns of coach laces and fringes ; at the present time, it 
embraces a wide circle of fabrics of silk, silk and worsted, mohair, 
cotton, gold and silver thread, and includes some not made else- 
where in this country, besides every variety of Military Trim- 
mings, including swords, drums, and metal ornaments. 

In 1 852, this firm exhibited a case of Silk Ribbons at the Ex- 
hibition of the Franklin Institute. We make the following ex- 
tract from the report of the Judges on Silk Goods. 

" By unanimous consent, the highest praise of the Committee is 
awarded to Wm. H. Horstmann & Sons, of this city, for their manufac- 
ture of Fancy Taffeta Bonnet Ribbons, case 1556. Indeed, your Com- 
mittee must confess to having been entirely taken by surprise, on wit- 
nessing these productions of American looms, and it required convinc- 
ing proof to satisfy the Committee that they were not examining the 
fabrics of Lyons or St. Etienne. Not only in brilliancy of coloring 
and weight of material, but in evenness of manufacture, they in all 
respects are equal to those which we have been so long accustomed to 
receive from France and Switzerland." * * * * " The merit of in- 
troducing and carrying forward to such a degree of perfection this new 
branch of manufacture, is due to the Messrs. Horstmann. The Com- 
mittee may be deemed partial in their feelings from the fact that all 
its members have for a long time been engaged in the importation and 
sale of Silk Goods ; but this very fact gives them additional oppor- 
tunity of forming a correct judgment. They are unanimous in con- 
sidering the production of the Messrs. Horstmann as one of the great- 
est novelty, as well as importance, in American manufacture, and are 
pleased to add, iu corroboration of their views, that these goods have 



246 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

been sold iu a neighboring city, through an importing house, indis- 
criminately with their foreign importations. Your Committee, under- 
standing that you have a reward still higher than the usual premiums, 
to be bestowed in cases of extraordinary merit, are unanimous iu the 
recommendation of its bestowal upon the Messrs. Horstmann. 

"The Committee on Exhibition, in accordance with the above re- 
port, unanimously resolved to recommend to the Institute to award 
Wm. H. Horstmann & Sons a gold medal." 

The manufactory of the Messrs. Horstraann is situated at the 
northeast corner of Fifth and Cherry streets, formerly the burying 
ground of the German Lutherans, and bought of the congrega- 
tion owning the old church, (built 1743), on the opposite side of 
Cherry street. The building forms an [_ having a front of 140 
feet on Fifth street, 100 feet on Cherry street, and 50 feet wide, 
containing six floors. The engine-house and machine-shops are 
in a detached building in the yard. The machinery in operation 
in the factory is new, much of it original, and includes 

130 Coach Lace Power Looms, 
60 Power Looms, making 650 stripes, or rows of goods, 

336 Silk Spindles and other complete silk machinery, 

100 Plaiting or Braiding machines, 
50 Hand Looms, 

using over 150 Jacquard machines, ranging from 40 to 800 
needles ; besides all the auxiliary machinery necessary in the 
business. 

Adjoining the manufactory on Cherry street, the firm own an 
additional lot, bought of the Friends, containing 75 feet on the 
street. The engraving on the opposite page exhibits the Fac- 
tory, the Old Meeting House, and the German Lutheran Church. 
The meeting-house has been converted into a spacious sales-room. 

Many of the most important machines, and applications of ma- 
chinery that are now in use in the manufacture, are indebted to 
the enterprise of this firm for introduction into this country, or to 
their genius for their invention. The Plaiting or Braiding ma- 
chines were first introduced into the United States from Germany, 
by Mr. W. H. Horstmann, in 1824. In the year 1825, the same 
gentleman introduced the Jacquard machines. Gold Laces were 
made by power in this city several years before attempting it in 



TRIMMINGS SEWING SILKS. 247 

the old world ; and the use of power for making Fringes may be 
said to have been first generally adopted here. In fact, it may 
be said that this firm was the first in any country to apply power 
to the general manufacture. From the report of the English 
Commissioners upon the industry of the United States we extract 
the following paragraph, in which, after stating that Messrs. Horst- 
mann have recently erected a very large and well-arranged fac- 
tory within the city of Philadelphia, it is remarked : 

" The whole establishment presents an example of system and neat- 
ness rarely to be found in manufactories in which handicrafts so varied 
are carried on. Female labor is, of course, largely employed in the 
weaving and making-up departments, and formerly in the cutting of 
fringes. This, however, is now performed by a machine with a circular 
knife, so arranged as to cut the thread on the diagonal. The double 
fringe, as it leaves the loom, being either run off the beam or placed 
upon a roller for that purpose, is divided much more exactly than it 
could be by hand, and at so rapid a speed as scarcely to admit of a com- 
parison with hand labor. Any width of fringe can be thus cut, the ma- 
chine being so constructed as to be easily adapted thereto." 

In another part of their report these Commissioners allude to 
the Clinton Company, located at Clinton, Massachusetts, long 
known as the largest manufacturers of Coach Lace in America. 
The looms are of the same construction as the Brussels Carpet 
Power Looms. During the last year (1857) the entire stock of 
goods, materials, looms, and patent rights of this Company were 
purchased by the Messrs. Horstmann, and thus another important 
link was added to the chain, securing pre-eminence to Philadel- 
phia as the greatest manufacturing city in the Union. 

The Messrs. Horstmann employ 400 hands, who receive $100,000 
annually in wages ; have a capital of $400,000 invested in the busi- 
ness ; and produce an average annual product of $600,000. 

The establishment that we would select as a fair and excellent 
representative of numerous other manufactories of Ladies Dress 
Trimmings in Philadelphia, is that of HENRY W. HENSEL. It 
employs about one hundred persons say thirty men and boys, 
whose average wages is $7 per week ; and seventy females, re- 
ceiving $2.75 per week; or in other words, $20,000 are paid an- 



248 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

nually in wages. The looms in operation comprise twenty Jac- 
quard looms, and twelve other looms, being thirty-two in all, and 
eousuming annually 5,000 Ibs. of silk ; worsted yarn, 500 Ibs, ; 
linen do., 200 Ibs. ; cotton do., 3,000 Ibs. ; fine wire, 200 Ibs. ; 
and the total amount of sales, of goods manufactured, is about 
$100,000. The proprietor has been very diligent and successful 
n originating saleable patterns, and has thus contributed mate- 
rially to elevate this class of American Textile Fabrics in the 
scale of popularity. It is his purpose shortly to visit Lyons, and 
other manufacturing districts of Europe, to examine and intro- 
duce such improved machinery as may be adapted to facilitate 
his general manufactures, which embrace all the usual varieties of 
Ladies' and Gentlemen's Silk Fringes, Bindings, Braids, Galloons, 
Cords, Tassels, &c. His general sales are limited, as we are 
informed, exclusively to jobbers. 

Fly Nets are extensively made in Philadelphia; and Regalias, 
&c., form nearly the exclusive business of one or two manufac- 
turers. 

The manufacture of Sewing Silks is carried on by five estab- 
lishments in Philadelphia, butnot as an exclusive business. It 
is usually conjoined with the production of what is known in 
commerce by the terms Singles, Tram, and Organzine.* A large 
proportion of the raw silk imported into the United States comes 
from China the Chinese silk being preferred for the pure white- 
ness of its color, and the strength and glossiness of its fibre. Its 
successful conversion into the various articles named depends 
largely upon the excellence of the machinery employed. In the 
production of Sewing Silks, our home manufacturers have been 
so successful, that it is supposed that the quantity now imported 
does not amount to five per cent, of the home production. 

Singles is formed of one of the reeled threads slightly twisted in order 
to give it strength and firmness. 

Tram consists of two or more threads thrown just sufficiently together to 
hold, by a twist of from one to one and a half turns to the inch. 

Orffanzine, or thrown silk, is formed of two or more singles, according 
to the thickness required, twisted together in a contrary direction to that 
of the Singles of which it is composed. 



PRINTING, DYEING, ETC. 249 

All varieties of Sewing Silk are made, spool silk, embroidery silk, 
saddlers' or three-corded silks ; and pat up in quarter and half pound 
packages, or in hundred skeins, of different colors. Hundred-skein 
silk is so termed, because it is made up of from one to one and a 
half ounces of silk to the hundred, measuring about ten yards in 
length to the skein. This article is generally sold to peddlers and 
jobbers. There is another description of skein made up for re- 
tailers, which measures from twelve to twenty yards in length. 
ft is principally used by clothing houses, who find it economical 
to employ the larger skeins. The capital employed in the pro- 
duction of Sewing and other Silks, in Philadelphia, is stated 
at $300,000, and the annual production at $312,000. The machi- 
nery employed for Spinning and Twisting Silk is equal to any in 
the world. 

The oldest established and leading concern in this business, 
in Philadelphia, is that of B. HOOLEY & SON. The house was estab- 
lished nearly 20 years ago by Messrs. B. & A. Hooley of Maccles- 
field. The present perfection attained in the manufacture of Sew- 
ing and Fringe Silks, in this city, is largely due to the enterprise 
of this firm. They are now making extensive improvements in, 
and enlarging their mills, with the view of improving the quality 
of their Silk and increasing their business ; and as their standing 
stock of goods of every color is always large, they are enabled 
by their facilities, the result of experience and a large cash capital, 
to furnish a superior article at the lowest market rates. 

6. PRINTING, DYEING, EMBOSSING, FINISHING, Ac. 

In the operation of Printing and Dyeing Textile Fabrics, the ma- 
nufacturers of the United States have, without doubt, been greatly 
aided by the emigration of artisans from Europe. The attractions 
of Philadelphia, as a place of residence, have drawn hither the 
most skillful of these artisans many of whom bring with them 
experience gained by almost unremitting attention to these de- 
partments of industry during the past half century, in England, 
France, and Germany. Moreover, the water and climate of Phil- 
adelphia are peculiarly favorable for success in dyeing. The 
influence of these natural agents has already been remarked upon ; 
but we may refer to the fact mentioned by the English Comtnis- 
20 



250 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

sioners, that in Lowell it is well-known the water of the Merrimack 
River, though reasonably well adapted for dyeing cottons, is not 
at all suited for woolens. They state, "this question of the selec- 
tion of a water site for Dyeing and Printing, is a most important 
one in the United States, since it is quite certain that in no coun- 
try is there so great a variation in this respect." 

The principal Dye Works for Cotton and Woolen goods, in 
Philadelphia, are located at Frankford. The water in that lo- 
cality is excellent for the purpose, and equally as well adapted for 
woolens as for cottons. The Messrs. Horrocks have the most 
extensive Dyeing Works, it is supposed, south of Providence, R. I. 

In the city proper there are many Silk Dyers and Refinishers, 
who have been very successful, and are deservedly celebrated. In 
the introductory we alluded to one of these a celebrated French 
dyer, who had experimented in various places, and found none so 
well adapted for producing desirable and brilliant results in dyeing 
as Philadelphia. De Laines, Merinos, and other French goods, 
are consequently now largely imported in an unfinished state, and 
we believe at a less rate of duty, and dyed in this city in fast and 
exquisite colors. 

The refinishing of Silks is made an almost exclusive business 
by a few, and so successfully performed, that old goods are made 
to wear the appearance of new. 

FACTORIES AND HAND-LOOMS. 

The factory system of Philadelphia, as will probably be in- 
ferred from what has been already stated, is the result and off- 
spring mainly of individual, unaided efforts. It owes but little, 
if any thing, to the advantages 'of associated capital ; and has 
grown to a vigorous maturity in spite of foreign competition and 
unfriendly home legislation. The manufacturers having, from the 
beginning, directed their energies mainly to the production of useful 
fabrics, necessary to the comfort of the masses, have steadily 
worked on, aiming at substantial excellence in an unpretending 
sphere without attempting, until recently, to compete with others 
-in the finer or more ornamental fabrics, or invoking the attention 
of the world by the erection of mammoth establishments. In 
the location of their factories, they have not generally been gov- 



FACTORIES. 251 

erned by any other than reasons of convenience and economy, 
peculiar to each proprietor ; hence the factories are scattered 
throughout the city and its vicinity, the operatives forming no 
distinct class, the buildings attracting but little notice. In Frank- 
ford, and particularly in Manayunk, some show of aggregation is 
manifest ; but in the latter place the exhibition is so unfavorable 
for a correct observation of the beauties of the system, that dis- 
persion would be preferable. 

The mills, though generally small, compare very favorably in 
machinery and amount of product with the medium establish- 
ments in New England. In Philadelphia, as in Lowell, several 
mills are often the property of one proprietor ; and if we were 
permitted to publish statistics of individual establishments, we 
could enumerate one having 900 looms, 27,000 spindles, 850 op- 
eratives, and producing an annual product of 3,500,000 yards, 
worth $600,000 ; another having 432 looms, 9,774 spindles, 38 
cards, 513 operatives, and producing annually $430,000 ; another, 
having 216 looms, 8,000 spindles, 50 cards, 320 operatives, produc- 
ing last year 3,27 2,510 yards duck, Osnaburgs, &c., worth $362,162 : 
another, having 240 looms, 300 operatives, producing yearly 
2,100,000 yards ginghams, pantaloonery, &c., worth $250,000; 
another, having 10,716 spindles, employing 200 operatives, and 
producing 750,000 Ibs. cotton yarn. The Washington Manufac- 
turing Company's Mills, at Gloucester, N. J., nearly opposite our 
city, and of which our esteemed townsman, DAVID S. BROWN, is 
President, contain 36,000 spindles and 800 looms, employ 209 
males and 445 females ; consume 130,000 Ibs. cotton per month, 
225 tons of coal, 280 gallons sperm oil, &c., and produce about 
6,220,000 yards per year, mostly fine printing cloths. The value, 
when printed, of the product of these mills, is over six hundred 
thousand dollars per annum. The goods are priuted by the 
Gloucester Manuufacturing Company, another corporation, whose 
works are situated near the above. This corporation employs 
about 100 hands, mostly males. It will thus be seeu, there 
are some factories in and near Philadelphia that will compare 
favorably with those of any other place ; but it would be highly 
desirable and good policy, to erect one or more calculated, from 
bize and arrangement, to give eclat to the manufacture. 



252 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

The majority of the operatives in the factories are English or 
Anglo-Americans. The hours for working are usually 10^ 
per day; but as operations cease early on the afternoon of Sat- 
urday, the average for the week is ten hours. In New England, 
and many other places, labor is extended to eleven hours or more, 
daily. The female operatives, though perhaps less literary than 
their Lowell sisters, are seemingly as attractive in appearance, 
skillful in manipulation, and correct in deportment. Their earn- 
ings, as weavers, are from $4 to $5 ; and as spinners and spool- 
ers, who are mostly young girls, from $2 to $3 per week. The 
identity of interests which exists between the employer and the 
employed is seemingly comprehended more clearly by both, and 
the relations between them exhibit, on the part of the former, more 
paternal characteristics than is evidenced where the employers 
are large corporations. Some of the manufacturers are men who 
are distinguished for benevolent effort ; and in some instances, 
where the factories are remote, schools and churches have been 
specially established by factory proprietors. The distinctive fea- 
ture, however, of the Dry Goods Manufacture in Philadelphia is 
HAND-LOOM WEAVING. 

It is a remarkable fact, that notwithstanding the rapid substi- 
tution of power for the production of textile fabrics, and the 
growth of large establishments from the results of accumulated 
capital, there is no actual decline in the number of hand-looms 
in operation. There are fewer looms devoted to certain classes 
of goods, and in certain localities, than formerly ; but the aggre- 
gate of such looms now in operation is probably fully equal to 
that in any former period. Philadelphia is truly the great seat 
of Hand-loom Manufacturing and Weaving in America. There 
are now, within our knowledge, 4,760 hand-looms in operation 
in the production of Checks and other Cotton goods; Carpetings, 
Hosiery, &c. ; and it is probable that the true number approxi- 
mates six thousand. 

The material is furnished by manufacturers, and the weavers 
are paid by the yard. The weaving is done in the houses of 
operatives ; or in some cases a manufacturer, as he may be 
termed, has ten or twelve looms in a wooden building attached 
to his dwelling, and employs journeymen weavers the em- 



.^ HAND-LOOM WEAVING. 253 

ployed in some instances boarding and lodging in the same house 
as their employer. Throughout parts of the city, especially 
that formerly known as Kensington, the sound of these looms may 
be heard at all hours in garrets, cellars, and out-houses, as well 
as in the weavers' apartments. Among the weavers there arc 
many very intelligent men, and some that have been employed in 
weaving those magnificent damasks, and other cloths, that Eu- 
rope occasionally produces to gratify the pride of her rulers. 
But the subject and statistics of Hand-loom Weaving are 
fully and well-considered by Mr. Edward Young, in the subjoined 
report, to which we invite the reader's attention. 

REPORT. 

" SIR : In my previous report on Hand-loom Weaving, I stated 
that in the city there are at least 2,000 hand-looms engaged on Checks, 
Ginghams, Linseys, and to a small extent on Diapers. As this esti- 
mate was larger than any previously stated, you desired such evidence 
as should prove conclusively the correctness of my assertion, if disputed. 
I have therefore given much attention to the subject, but regret that 
longer time could not be allowed in order to investigate the subject 
thoroughly. As I previously stated, the manufacturers do not own 
the looms. Each has in operation from 20 to 100, and one has 300 
looms. The greater part are situated in the Seventeenth and Nine- 
teenth Wards, (Kensington). The following twenty-five manufacturers 
altogether employ 1250 looms. Four of the largest employ, on an 
average, 100 each. 

William Beattie, Edw. Murray, 

James Beattie, James Nolan, 

John Dallas, John Quin, 

Robert Dallas, Patrick Quin, 

E. Devlin, Arthur Rodgers, 

John Elliott, W. Rowbotham, 

J. Dickey, E. Ryan, 

J. Donohoe, D. Murphy, 

James Irwin, William Steele, 

Alexander Jackson, W. Stevenson, 

James Long, Thomas Stiuson, 

A. <fe J. Mabin. John Whiteside. 

* John Scanlin, 1435 Howard street, (also diapers). 

All of these, with one exception, are engaged in making Checks in 
connection with Linseys, Cottonades, Ginghams, &a The exception is 
20* 



254 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Patrick Quin, Master and Cadwalader streets, who makes an excellent 
article of Damasks, Marseilles, figured Pantaloon Stuffs, &c. 

" Besides the above, there are at least 250 looms in the Northern part 
of the city 

" In the Southern and "Western parts of the city are the fol- 
lowing: Andrew Catherwood, James Dearie, Greer & McCreight, 
Thomas Dickson, James Lamb, Robert Little, Thomas Maxwell, An- 
drew Mitchell, Samuel Orr, Robert Paul, John Perry, and R. Selfridge. 
These twelve manufacturers employ altogether about 500 looms; but there 
are many others whom I have not seen. A very intelligent manufacturer, 
who has been long engaged in the business, assures me that there are 
one thousand looms in the South end alone. Anxious not to overstate the 
production, I place the number at 750 ; which is a low estimate, for Mr. 
Selfridge alone affords employment to 300 looms. The number of 
nand-looms employed on Checks, Ginghams, Linseys, Cottonades, Dia- 
pers, &c., I repeat, therefore, is as follows : In the Northern part of the 
city, 1,250 looms ; in the Southern and "Western part, 750 looms Total 
2,000 looms. 

" The daily production of hand-looms is as follows : On Linseys, 40 
yards ; Checks and Ginghams, 30 yards making allowance for dull 
seasons, the average is stated by manufacturers at 25 yards per diem. 
To show that this is a moderate estimate, I state the prices paid in 
1857, for weaving, viz. : Linsey, 2 to 2j cents per yard ; Checks, 2 to 
3 cents. During the late depression less than those prices was paid. 
At these rates, a weaver who makes 25 yards the year round, will earn 
from $3 to $4 a week ; a sum seemingly inadequate to support a family. 

" The production of 2,000 looms, at 25 yards, is 50,000 jards daily ; 
and counting 300 working days in a year, is 15,000,000 yards yearly 
which, at an average of 11 cents per yard, amounts to $1,650,000. 
The number of hands employed are weavers, 2,000 ; winders, spool- 
ers, &c., 1,000 Total, 3,000. The amount paid yearly to operatives, 
is $650,000. 

" Now as to Hosiery. With the reputation of Germantown Hosiery 
and Woolen goods, you no doubt are familiar. If you speak favorably 
of it, 'Uncle Sam' will confirm your remarks ; for not only has he the 
Shoes and Clothing, but the Stockings for his Army and Navy made in 
Philadelphia, where experience has shown the best articles are pro- 
duced. One manufacturer, T. Branson, made last year Jive thousand 
dozen pairs for the Government ; and is now completing a contract for 
5,000 dozen more, while others are making 2,500 dozen in addition.- 
The Hosiery business is of great economical interest, inasmuch as it 
affords employment to a large number of females, who sew and finish 



HAND-LOOM WEAVING. 



255 



the various articles after they leave the frame ; and thus at leisure 
hours add to the income and comforts of their families. 

" There are three kinds of Knitting-frames in use, viz. : the old hand- 
frame, such as has been so long in use in England, and which requires a 
great outlay of muscular power; the lever frame, which is much easier on 
the operative, and will turn out nearly double the work of the old frame ; 
and the Rotary Knitting machine, or round frame, which will do an 
ordinary day's work before breakfast, and at slight cost of manual labor. 
The last has been in use some ten or twelve years in this country. 
The average weekly production, either of Cotton or Woolen Hosiery on 
all these frames, good, bad, and indifferent, in dull and busy seasons, 
is 15 dozen per week, or 780 dozen per annum, which, at $1.15, the 
average price for Cotton Hosiery, amount to $897, the yearly production 
of each frame on cotton. On Woolen Hosiery the quantity is the 
same on the medium and larger sizes. The prices range from $1 for 
children's to $3 for ladies' ; while a few very superior are as high as $5. 
Assuming the average at $2.12, the annual production per frame on 
Woolen Hosiery is $1,657 50. Some manufacturers produce more of 
children's hose, and half-hose ; but while the number of dozens will be 
greater the price will be less, and the aggregate value remains the same. 
The total number of Knitting-frames and machines in the city proper, 
and Germantown, exceeds 700, besides the machines in use by Landen- 
berger and others, who have large factories. Few frames are devoted 
exclusively to making Cotton Hosiery ; all being used for cotton or 
woolen, according to the demand and remuneration. As Woolen Ho- 
siery pays better, the production, as estimated by intelligent manufac- 
turers, is nearly three fourths of the whole. 

" My summary of Hand-Loom production in Cotton and Woolen 
Goods, is as follows : 





Lo m s. 


Opera- 
tives. 


Annual 
Earnings. 


Prod 
Yards. 


ction. 
Value. 


Checks, Ginghams, Linseys, Diapers, &c.... 
Carpets Ingrain and Venitian 


2,000 
1,500 
560 
500 
200 


3,000 
2,500 
630 
750 
300 


$650,000 
695,000 
126,000 


15,000,000 
6,480,000 
1,680,000 


$1,650,000 
2,592,000 
504,000 
828,750 
179,400 












Total 






4,760 


7,180 






$5,754,150 



" The Hand-loom and Knitting-frame business in Kensington and 
Germantown, affording, as it does, full or partial employment to nearly 
ten thousand operatives, and support to upward of thirty-Jive thousand per- 
sons, is of vast importance to our city, and demands greater attention 
than it has ever received. A year could be profitably devoted to in 



256 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

vestigating it in all its operations, and in its relations to other branches 
of industry, and a folio volume filled with the record of such investiga- 
tions. The cursory examination which I have been able to make has 
awakened in my mind a deep interest in that part of our city which I 
denominate ' The Bee-hive,' and led me to feel more sympathy with its 
busy operatives. 

"EDWARD YOUNG. 

" P. S. A manufacturer stated to me that he counted the names of 2,200 In- 
grain Carpet Weavers appended to a ' strike' for higher wages, about two 
years ago, and that several hundred did not sign the document. He esti- 
mates them at 2,700, instead of 1,500, the number necessary to operate 
1,500 looms. It will be seen that the business is really more extensive than 
I have stated. A celebrated English manufacturer admitted the fact, that 
more yards of Ingrain Carpeting are annually made in Philadelphia than in 
all Great Britain." 

The following is a condensed summary of certain aggregates of 
production, based principally upon information derived from pro- 
prietors themselves ; but partly also from calculations of averages, 
and from information derived from commission-merchants and 
others possessing knowledge on the subject, viz. : 

Woolen and Cotton Goods, by power, ... ,<<;.') ju# $13,163,968 
" " " " " hand-looms, (exclusive of Hosiery,) 4,746,000 

Hosiery and Fancy Woolen Goods : hand power, - - 1,008,150 

factories, - - 800,000 

1,808,150 

Narrow Textile Fabrics, Sewing Silks, Ac., .... 1,600,000 

Total annual product in Philadelphia of Dry Goods, $21,318,118 

The hands employed, including hand-loom weavers, number 
over 15,000 ; and the total spindles in operation exceed two hun- 
dred thousand. The factories are less numerous than the pro- 
prietors, for often two or more conduct their operations in the 
same building, and use the same power but in other instances, 
one proprietor owns two or more factories. We shall not, there- 
fore, enumerate the factories merely, but herewith subjoin 

A List of the Principal Manufacturers of Textile Fabrics in the City 
of Philadelphia. 

Allen, William, Germantown, Hosiery. 
Arbuckle, Daniel, Eagle Mill, Mixed goods. 
Armstrong & Shaw, Satinets and other woolen goods. 
Armstrong, John, Germautown, Hosiery. 
Austin David, Globe Mill, Pantaloon stuffs. 



MANUFACTURERS OF TEXTILE FABRICS. 2.57 

Baird, William, Frankford, Apron checks. 

Barlow, James, Haddington, Shawls. 

Beattie, William, Ginghams, diapers, miners' flannels, &c. 

Bechmann, Q. F., Upholstery trimmings, cords and tassels. 

Beaux, J. P., & Co., Silk sewing thread. 

Birchell, Elias, Germantown, Hosiery. 

Black, William R., & Co., Fairmount Mill, Cotton spinners. 

Blundin, Richard, Cassimeres and other woolens. 

Branson, T., Woolen and cotton hosiery. 

Briggs' Print and Dye Works, Fraukford. 

Bromley, J., <fc Son, Fifth and Germantown Road, Carpets. 

Bronson & Co., Germantown, Hosiery, &c. 

Brown, David S., President Gloucester Manufacturing Company, 

Printing, Dyeing, Bleaching, and Finishing. 
Bruner, J. P., Shawls and other woolen goods. 
Burke, James, Print and Dye Works. 
Button, John, & Son, Germantown, Hosiery, &c. 
Callaghan, Robert, Cassimeres and jeans. 
Callaghan, George, Paschalville, Heavy cassimeres. 
Campbell, A. & Co., Schuylkill, Linden, and Crompton Steam 

Mills, Ginghams, checks, and cottonades. 
Carr, Joseph, Mount Airy, Cotton yarn, wioking, and laps. 
Carr, Edward, Webbing, braids, tapes. 
Champrony, J. B., Ladies' dress trimmings. 
Clegg, Joseph, opposite Manayunk, Woolen jeans, &c. 
Clendenning, John, Aramingo Mills, Table-cloths, stair crash, &c. 
Colladay & Bowers, Aramingo Mill, Checks. 
Conkle, Henry, Jr., Cotton cord. 
Craige, Thomas H. & Co., Star Mill, Cotton yarns. 
Craige, William, Print and Dye-house. 
Creagmile & Brother, Carpets. 

Crowson Brothers, Germantown, Fancy knit goods and hosiery. 
Dearie, J. & J., Yankee Mill, Shawls, colored checks, &c. 
Derbyshire, John, Kensington Mill, Osnaburgs. 
Dickson & Gans, Aramingo, Dyers and Finishers. 
Divine, Wm., & Son, Kennebeck Factory, Kentucky jeans, &c. 
Divine, Wm., & Son, Penn Factory, Kennebeck checks and print 

cloths. 
22* 



258 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Divine & Tomlinson, Hosiery and fancy woolen goods. 

Dobson & Co., Falls Mill, Woolen carpet yarn, &c. 

Drake, Thomas, Western Mill, Print cloths and cotton yarns. 

Drake, Thomas, Coaquanock Mill, Kentucky jeans. 

Dudley, John, 207 Quarry St., Webbings, bindings, and bed-lace. 

Erben, Peter C., Kin ggold Factory, Jeans and other mixed goods. 

Ervin, Alexander, Kensington, Dye-house. 

Evans, George P., Fancy cassimeres. 

Everett & Bohem, Sewing silk. 

Ferz, Jacob, Print and Dye Works. 

Finley, Thomas, Carpets. 

Finley, William, Carpets. 

Fleming, Joseph, Cottonades, Canton flannels, and apron checks 

Fling, Geo., & Brother, Germantown, Carpet and hosiery yarns. 

Foss, G. W. & Co., Sewing silks, tram and organzine. 

Foster, Israel, Filling's Mill, Satinets, &c. 

France, John & E., Germantown, Carpets. 

Frazer, John, Apron checks. 

Fryer, H. L., Fringes, tassels, &c. 

Fulforth & Lovelidge, Germantown, Hosiery. 

Gadsby, John, & Sons, Hosiery. 

Garsed, R. & Brother, Wingohocking Mills, Denims, ducks, Os- 

naburgs, bagging, &c. 

Garside, Joseph, Franklin Mill, Cassimeres and wool tweeds. 
Gorgas, Matthias, Wissahicon, Cotton wadding. 
Graham, John, James, and Walter, Carpets. 
Graham, John C., Ladies dress trimmings. 
Granlees & Norris, Columbia Factory, Ginghams, plaids, linseys, 

and linen checks. 

Greer & McCreight, Ginghams and tweeds. 
Greer, Johnson, Columbia Factory, Apron checks. 
Greenwood, John, Wissahicon, Carpets and carpet yarns. 
Greenwood & Co., McFadden's Mill, Manayurik, Carpet yarn. 
Greul, Godfrey, Coach laces. 
Guy, Robert & Co., Apron checks and tweeds. 
Haberstick, John J., Webbing, &c. 
Haly, Robert, Wissahicon, Jeans and dyed yarns. 
Harrop, Thomas, Sewing silks, &c. 



MANUFACTURERS OF TEXTILE FABRICS. 259 

Hawkyard & Whitaker, Falls Mill, Woolen yarn. 

Heft, Jacob D., Wissahicon, Dye-house. 

Hensel, H. W., Fringes and Ladies dress trimmings. 

Henson, William, Germantown, Hosiery. 

Hill, Joseph & George W., Germantowu, Cotton carpet yarns. 

Hill, John, Kensington, Dye Works. 

Hilton, James, Flat Rock Mill, Woolen carpet yarn. 

Hogg, William, Kensington, Carpets. 

Hogg, James, Kensington, Carpets. 

Holt, Richard, Globe Mills, Cotton yarns. 

Hooley, B., & Son, Sewing silks. 

Horn, Wm., & Brother, Woolen yarns. 

Horrocks, J. & W., Frankford, Dyers and Finishers of Cotton 

goods. 
Horstraann, Wm. H., & Sons, Military goods, and narrow textile 

fabrics of every kind. 

Howorth, Israel, Dark Run, above Frankford, Woolen cloths. 
Hunter, James & John, Hestonville, Print and Dye Works. 
Irwin & Stinson, Montgomery Mill, Kensington, Canton flannel 

carders. 

Jennings & Sons, Kensington, Woolen carpet yarns. 
Jones, George, Hestonville, Fine cassimeres. 
Jones, Thomas, Germantown, Hosiery. 
Jones, Aaron, Germantown, Hosiery. 
Jones & Duer, Upholstery and silk trimmings. 
Kemper, J. & A., Ladies dress trimmings. 

Kempton, Jas. C., Roxborough Fact'ry, Cotton checks and stripes. 
Kershaw's Mill, Satinets and wool tweeds. 
Kitchen, Wm. & Son, Wissahicon, Jeans and cassimeres. 
Lambert & Mast, Tassels and cord. 
Landenberger, Martin, Kensington, Hosiery and fancy woolen 

goods. 

Kolmer, P., Bed coverlets. 
Lafferty, M., Dyeing, &c. 
Large, John, Frankford, Dyeing and Finishing. 
Laycock & Holt, Pennsylvania Knitting Works, Woolen knit 

goods and hosiery. 
Leckey, John, Kensington, Carpets. 



200 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Ledward, James, Manayunk, Woolen and carpet yarn. 

Levine, A. T., Fringes, gimps, tassels, &c. 

lie vine, S., Girth- web fabrics. 

Lodge, Fleetwood, Cotton laps and carpet yarn. 

Lodge, Jonathan & Bro., Holmesburg, Cotton yarns and laps. 

Long, James, Star "Mill, Ginghams, checks, woolen plaids, Canton 

flannels, table diapers, &c. 

Lord, James, Wissahicon, Woolen yarns and carpets. 
Lord, Rushton, & Co., McFadden's Buildings, Fine woolen yarns. 
Lucas, James, Checks, pantaloon stuffs, &c. 
Marks, A. & Co., Cords, fringes, tassels, &c. 
Mary-aine, A. S. & Co., Steam Dye-house. 
Maxson, John, & Son, Lower Manayunk, Satinets, cassimeres, &c. 
Maxwell, Thomas, Dye Works. 
Maxwell, J. G. & Son, Dress trimmings. 
Maynard, Henry J., Gimps, &c. 

McBride, T., & Son, Franklin Mill, Checks, cottonades,linseys, &c. 
McClain, Edward, Apron checks. 
McCallum, A., & Co., Glen Echo Factory, Carpetings. 
McCune, Clement, & Co., Ringgold Fact'y, Plaids & cottonades 
McMullin, David, Kensington, Carpets. 
McNutt, Bernard, Cotton and mixed cloths. 
Meadowcraft & Winterbottom, Frankford, Checks, cottonades 
Meves, Charles, Fringes and tassels. 
Miller, James, & Son, Smith's Mill, Apron checks. 
Mills, John, Refinishing, pressing, &c. 
Milne, David, Ginghams, linseys, pantaloonery. 
Myers, Mrs. R., fly nets, &c. 
Mitchell, Andrew, Ginghams, &c. 

Moody, Paul R., Fairhill Mill, Osnaburg stripes and checks. 
Nugent, George, Falls Factory, Falls of Sclmylkill, Jeans and 

twills, Dye-house. 

Orange, W. B., Ashland Mill, Broad, bel. Coates, Sewing silks, Ac. 
Philadelphia Webbing Company, (J. <fc J. P. Steiner & Co. 

Agents, 9 Bank street,) Bindings, webbings, &c. 
Perry, John, Mixed goods and stripes. 
Preston, E. W. & J., Flat Rock Mill, Kentucky jeang. 
Baby, Samuel, Ginghams and checks. 



MANUFACTURERS OF TEXTILE FABRICS. 261 

Randall, Gould & Barr, Germantown, Cotton tie yarn and twint 

Reed, Thomas, Tottenham Mill, Manayunk, Kentucky-jeans. 

Riggs, C., Kensington, Dye Works. 

Ring & Bros., Flat Rock Mill, Manayunk, Woolen carpet yarn. 

Ripka, Joseph, & Co., Manayunk Mills, Cottonades, &c. 

Ripka, Joseph. & Co., City Mills, Satinets, Cassimeres, &c. 

Rockord, Philip, Winpenny's Mill, Jeans, &c. 

Rodgers, James B., Finishing silks and cloths. 

Sacriste, Lewis, & Son, West Philadelphia, Satinets and jeans 

Scholes, Wm., Kensington, Fancy woolen hosiery, &c. 

Schofield, Thos., Hill's Mill, Wissahicon, Woolen carpet yarn. 

Schofield, Benjamin, opposite Manayunk, Woolen carpet yarn 

Schofield, John, & Co., Manayunk, Cotton carpet yarn. 

Schofield, B. & M., Woolen yarns. 

Schofield, M., McFadden's Mill, Manayunk, Cotton carpet yarns 

Selfridge, Robert, Checks, ginghams, linseys, and miners' flannels. 

Shaw, John, & Son, Schuylkill, above Manayunk, Woolen goods. 

Scanlin, John, Checks, ginghams, linseys, diapers, and cottonades. 

Simons, William C., Manayunk, Cotton yarns. 

Simons, William C., Manayunk, Cotton yarns. 

Simpson, William, Thornton Works, opposite Falls of Schuylkill, 

Print and Dye-house. 
Simpson, Hood, Madison Mill, Plaids, stripes, ginghams, checks, 

prints, and cotton yarns. 
Solms, Sidney, Pekin Mills, Manaynnk, Jeans. 
Spencer, Charles, Leicester Knitting Mills, Germantown, Fancy 

knit woolens and hosiery. 

Spitz, Joseph, Webbings, bindings, and diamond bed-lace. 
Smith, Jesse E., Chatham Mill, Kensington, Cassimeres, &c. 
Smith, John D., Marion Print Works, Satinet printing, &c. 
Smith, Thomas, Belfield Print Works, above Frankford. 
Smith, Thomas, Philadelphia, Silk dyer. 
Smyth, James P., Washington Mill, Apron checks, &c. 
Sonneboyn, Lewis, Carpets. 
Stafford & Co., Manayunk, Woolen carpet yarn. 
Steele, Wm., Hope Mill, Checks, ginghams, and mariners' stripes. 
Stephens & Whitaker, Arkwright Mills, Manayunk, Shirtings, 

tickings, and denims. 

Stone, Amasa, Quarry st., Webbing, lamp-wick, &c. 
21 



262 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Steenson, Robert, Carpets and Dye-house. 

Sutton, Geo., & Son, Perseverance Mills, Lower Manayunk, Cas- 

simeres and twills. 

Taylor, Yates & Co., Checks and plain goods. 
Taylor, Robert & James, Haddington, Mixed goods. 
Thompson, Andrew, Craige's Mill, Apron checks. 
Thornton & Smith, Globe Mill, Kensington, Apron checks. 
Walker, R. J., Kensington, Girard Finishing Works. 
Watt, W. & J., Ginghams, checks, and pantaloon stuffs. 
Watt, John M., Nineteenth and Pine, Mixed goods. 
Watt, William, Jr., Globe Mill, Kensington, Checks. 
Waters, John, Haddington, Woolen jeans, &c. 
Wallace, David, Manayunk, Kentucky jeans. 
Wade, Edward, Germantown, Hosiery. 
Washington Manufacturing Company, (David S. Brown, Pres't.) 

Printing cloths, &c. 

Wakefield Mills, Fisher's Lane, Germantown, Hosiery, &c. 
Watson & Thorp, Chestnut Hill, Print and Dye Works. 
Whitaker & Waldron, Keystone Mill, braids, cords, &c. 
Whitaker, Wm., Cedar Grove, above Frankford, Cotton goods. 
Winpenny, James B., Manayunk, Cotton yarns. 
Wilde, Solomon, Frankford, Jeans, plaids, &c. 
Willian & Hartel, Holmesburg, Pennepack Print Works. 
Wilson, Charles, & Co., Suramerdale Dye and Print Works. 
Winterbottom & Co., Aramingo Mill, Frankford, Cotton yarns. 
Wood, Henry, Marshall street, Cotton laps. 
Wright, John, Craige's Mill, Checks, ginghams, and pant, stuffs. 

In addition to the factories located within the limits of the 
city, or so close to the borders as to be callod in the city, there 
are a great number in the adjacent counties some of them very 
fine and large establishments. In the counties of Chester and 
Delaware there are over fifty factories for the production of Cot- 
ton and Woolen goods ; in Montgomery County there are twenty- 
one factories not included in our statement one of which, located 
in Norristown, was the largest mill, it is believed, in the United 
States, previous to the erection of the Pacific Mill, at Lawrence ; 
the Harrisburg Mills ; the Reading Steam Manufacturing Com- 



DRY GOODS. 263 

pany; the celebrated Conestoga Mills, at Lancaster; five or six 
mills in and near Wilmington, Delaware ; three or four near New- 
ark, Delaware; the Exton Mill, at Extonville, New Jersey; 
the New Jersey Mill, at Millville; and others at Bordentown, 
Trenton, and other places, whose head- quarters are in Philadel- 
phia. The production of these mills, as published recently in the 
North American, from returns received from a portion only of 
those known to exist, was as follows : : 

Production of Delaware and Chester counties, ... $3,125,000 

" of exterior localities and mills in Delaware, 3,571,000 

$6,696,000 
Add for Philadelphia and Gloucester, as previously given, - 21,318,118 



Total, $28,014,118 

This simple statement has a significance, an interest, a value 
to every dealer in, we may say consumer of Dry Goods through- 
out the Union, even to the remotest frontiers of civilization. 
Nearly thirty millions probably over thirty millions of the most 
useful Textile Fabrics are made annually in Philadelphia and its 
vicinity ; and found in first hands in the warehouses of Phil- 
adelphia merchants. No comments can possibly add any thing 
to the force of a statement, the correctness of which all subsequent 
investigation will confirm, or if extended more minutely, will 
prove to be below the truth. We need deduce no inferences from 
it, for the eye of self-interest, quick in its perceptions, is generally 
quite as correct in its conclusions as political economy. When 
to the fact that thirty millions of Dry Goods are produced and 
controled, if not monopolized by the manufacturers and merchants 
of Philadelphia, we add another, viz., that the manufacturers of 
Old England and New England, consign every season their pro- 
ducts to be sold in this market for what they will bring, the 
conclusion is inevitable, that Philadelphia is the cheapest and best 
market in the Union for Dry Goods ; and fairly without a rival 
in those Staple Goods, the bulk of every stock, which, by their 
intrinsic value and low price, are SPECIALLY ADAPTED TO THE 
WANTS OF THE PEOPLE OF THE MlDDLE, SOUTHERN, AND WESTERN 
STATES. 



264 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

XV. 

Flour, and Substances used as Food. 

1. FLOUR. 

Twenty years ago it was very generally believed, that good Flour 
could not be made except by water power. The use of steam in 
Flour Mills was then a novelty. there being, at the time the 
first Steam Mill was erected in Philadelphia, say in 1838, but 
few, if any others, in this country. It was objected that the mill- 
stones, when propelled by steam, ran too fast, and that the steam 
heated the flour too much, and numerous other reasons were as- 
signed why the products of City Mills must necessarily be infe- 
rior. Since that period, however, and mainly within the last 
eight years, so great a revolution has been effected in popular opin- 
ion, that now City Steam Mill Flour is invariably preferred; and 
the products of at least one maker in this city, whose brands are 
designated as the " Premium" and " Red Stone," command in the 
Liverpool market two shillings per barrel more than any other 
Flour of the same grade. Not only has Genessee Flour been 
excluded from the Philadelphia market, and thus three quarters of 
a million of dollars kept at home annually, for the encourage- 
ment of Pennsylvania farmers ; but the Philadelphia brands are 
now popular in all parts of the world to which United States 
Flour is shipped ; while certain brands have the preference wherever 
they are known. The care and attention which are given by 
some of our manufacturers to the cleansing of the wheat, and the 
success attained in the production of Extra Family Flour, are un- 
equaled in any other place. 

There are now twenty-two Flour Mills in Philadelphia, with an 
aggregate of 90 run of stones, and having a capacity for pro- 
ducing 15,960 barrels of Flour per week. During the year end- 
ing July 1, 1857, the production of Flour in this city was over 
400,000 barrels ; averaging $7 each, or $3,000,000 for all, to 
which must be added at least $200,000 for Corn Meal, Mill Feed, 
Hulled Barley, &c. The Wheat consumed was 1,800,000 bush- 
els. The following are the Flour Mills in Philadelphia, with 
their power and weekly production, the list having been origin- 



BREAD, CRACKERS, ETC. 265 

ally prepared at the instance of the Corn Exchange Association, 

and now published with some additions and corrections : 

Horse Run of Bbls. Flour Bush. 

Power. Stone. weekly. Wheat. 

William B. Thomas, (2) - - 125 12 2000 9000 

Rowland & Ervein, .... 100 8 2400 10800 

Detwiler & Hartranft, ... 90 6 1800 8100 

Girard Mill, 50 4 700 3150 

S. Roberts' Mills, (2) - - - 45 5 500 2250 

J. C. Kern, 40 4 900 4050 

D. C. Gunckel, 40 5 900 4050 

C. Heebner, 40 6 750 3375 

Meyers & Ervein, .... 40 4 600 2700 

Twaddell & Smith, .... 40 4 500 2250 

J. K. Knorr. 40 3 400 1800 

A. Comstock, 40 4 800 3600 

James Watt. 30 4 500 2250 

E. W. Wilson, 30 3 450 2025 

Esson & Spencer, .... 30 3 500 2250 

Keystone State, - ... 30 3 500 2250 

A. 0. Boehm 25 4 500 2250 

A. Thorpe, 20 3 500 2250 

H. W. Marshall & Co., '- ,"' 20 2 400 1800 

M. B. & N. Rittenhouse, - - 20 3 360 1620 



895 90 15,960 71,820 

2. BREAD, CRACKERS, AND SHIP BISCUIT. 

The Baking of Domestic Bread, as at present conducted, can 
scarcely be called a manufacture. There are two or three of the 
bakers who work up daily about thirty barrels of flour each ; and 
may therefore be said to conduct the business in a wholesale way 
but the average does not probably exceed five barrels per day for 
each baker. The aggregate production, however, must amount 
to a large sum ; for 600,000 persons, supposing each to consume 
only five cents worth of bread in a day, would expend in a year 
for the purpose the sum of $10,950,000. 

Within the last year, however, a company was organized and 
incorporated as the "Pennsylvania Farina Company," having an 
authorized capital of $500,000, for the purpose of manufactur- 
21* 



266 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

ing Bread by Steam Power, on a large in- fact, a magnificent 
scale. A Bakery has been erected at the corner of Broad and 
Vine streets, provided with two of " Berdan's Automatic Ovens," 
and all the necessary equipments for the conversion into Bread, 
it is said, of eight hundred barrels of flour per diem. The theory 
of the construction is that all the processes, from the mixing of 
the dough to the final delivery of the bread, may be effected 
solely by mechanical agency. The kneading-machine will knead 
a batch of ten barrels of flour in less than twenty minutes. An- 
other machine cuts the dough into loaves, and a self-acting reg- 
ister records the number. Cars, of which there are twenty-six 
thirteen ascending and thirteen descending at the same time, con- 
vey the loaves into the oven, passing through the oven say in 
thirty minutes the time allowed when baking common-sized 
loaves but the speed varies according to the size of the loaf. 
The capacity of each baking-car is sixty loaves, weighing about a 
pound and a half each. The temperature of the ovens is regu- 
lated by self-adjusting dampers, and revealed by thermometrical 
indications. 

The flavor of the Bread, it is claimed, is superior, and its nu- 
tritive properties increased in consequence of the retention of an 
alcoholic vapor, arising from the fermented dough, which in com- 
mon ovens is lost. The peculiar odor observable also in home- 
made Bread, baked in a close oven, originates in the condensa- 
tion of this vapor into a fixed oil. Theoretically, the Mechanical 
Bakery is a very wonderful institution ; practically, it has not as 
yet effected any very marked revolution in the Baking business. 
Its present consumption of flour is about forty-six barrels per day. 

The Baking of Pies has gradually developed into a consider- 
able business a number of persons making it an exclusive occu- 
pation. The pies are sold wholesale, at prices ranging from three 
to ten cents each ; and the largest retailed again in the market- 
houses, or from wagons, at twelve cents ; and at Restaurants for 
twenty-five cents each. But the only branch of the general art, 
which can be said to have commercial importance, and which is 
properly a manufacture, is that of Baking Biscuits, Crackers, and 
Ship Bread. 

The Crackers produced in Philadelphia have long enjoyed a 



CURED MEATS. 267 

celebrity abroad, especially in the West Indies, South. America, 
and some of the British Provinces, to which places they are ex- 
ported in considerable quantities. " Wattson's Crackers" are 
regularly quoted in Jamaica prices current. 

There are nine establishments in the city engaged in this busi- 
ness, having a capital invested of $250,000 ; consuming annually 
50,000 barrels flour, 1,000,000 Ibs. lard and butter, 480,000 Ibs. 
sugar, employing 125 men, and producing about 120,000 barrels 
Crackers, of 80 Ibs. each, of the value of $600,000. 

Ship Bread is made by a few ; but the principal product is 
Crackers, known as Water, Soda, Butter, and Sugar Crackers 
three fourths of the whole being sold in the city and vicinity. 

To carry on the business successfully a large capital is neces- 
sary not only for the erection of the Ovens, Machinery, &c., but 
in the purchase of Flour and other materials, which are bought for 
cash ; while the Crackers are sold in this city on time, or shipped 
to distant ports to await returns. 

3. CURED MEATS. 

The capital constantly invested by citizens of Philadelphia in 
Beef, Pork, Lard, Hams, &c., or what is denominated Western 
Provisions, probably exceeds two millions of dollars. Some 
brands, having the highest reputation, though sold also in 
other markets, are controled by capitalists of Philadelphia. , 
This market derives an additional advantage from the circum- 
stance, that the facilities of transportation now established be- 
tween Philadelphia and the West are so great that the product 
of the hog, for instance, as we showed in the Introductory, can 
be transported from Cincinnati to Philadelphia, and shipped 
hence half way to Liverpool, for less than the cost of transport- 
ing them to New York or Boston. 

The bulk of the provisions sold in this, as in other markets, 
is prepared in the West, the merchants aiding with their capital ; 
but the determination to be satisfied with nothing less than the 
best characteristic of our citizens in this as in other pursuits, 
has impelled several firms to provide facilities for smoking Meats 
brought from the West and fitting them for market under their 
personal supervision. Establishments have been erected ex- 



268 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

pressly for the purpose some of them acknowledged to be the 
best arranged and most complete of their kind in the Union. 
Among the new constructions of this kind there are several en- 
tirely fire-proof, and capable of containing at a time 100.000 Ibs. 
of meats the capacity of one being 120,000 Ibs. or sixty tons. 
A large proportion of the Meats prepared in Philadelphia being 
of the first quality, is consumed in the city and its vicinity ; but 
of late years the demand from the South is regular and increas- 
ing. One firm does an extensive business in shipping to Cali- 
fornia " Clear Bacon" that is, Bacon from which the bones have 
been removed, and their brand has secured almost a monopoly of 
that market. A considerable export trade is done directly by 
butchers, in addition to the regular houses, in shipping "Sheer 
Bacon" to Cuba. 

The Curing and Packing of MESS BEEF are also largely and 
successfully carried on in Philadelphia. One firm has slaugh- 
tered for this purpose as many as 400 beeves per week, for several 
successive weeks ; and the abundant supply of ice always at com- 
mand, enables the packers to continue operations, without inter- 
ruption, throughout the year. The cattle are generally fattened in 
the counties adjacent to the city ; the pasturage being, it is well 
known, of the best description. 

There are upward of thirty firms in Philadelphia engaged in the 
Wholesale Provision business the annual sales of some houses 
amounting to $700,000 each. The value of the provisions Beef, 
Hams, Shoulders, Sides, Tongues, Lard, &c., cured and prepared 
in Philadelphia, is estimated at $4,000,000. The Philadelphia 
brands have, deservedly, a high reputation in Europe, South 
America, West Indies, California, and wherever known. Large 
quantities are shipped to the South. 

4. PRESERVED FOOD, SPICES, AND CONDIMENTS. 

The art of Preserving Animal and Vegetable Food, in a fresh 
and sweet state, for an indefinite period, is a result of modern 
skill and ingenuity. Its practical application dates back but 
twenty-five years, and is intimately connected with the attempt 
made to explore the Arctic regions. As soon as the value of these 
preparations became known in cold climates, their use was ex- 



PRESERVED FOOD, SPICES, ETC. 269 

tended to hot ones ; and so great is their present popularity, that 
thousands of tons are manufactured in England and America, 
and used in all hot countries, and on all long voyages. 

In Philadelphia, attention has been principally directed to the 
preservation of Fruits and Vegetables the abundance and ex- 
cellence of these articles in our markets affording superior oppor- 
tunities for selection. Some idea of the extent of this trade may 
be found from the fact, that in one establishment, that of MILLS 
B. ESPY, there were put np in a single year upward of 20,000 
pounds of cherries, 10,000 quarts of strawberries, 4,000 baskets 
of peaches, 6,000 baskets of tomatos, 3,000 bushel of plums, 100 
bushels of gages, 100 barrels of quinces, 30,000 pine-apples, 1,000 
bushels of gooseberries, 2,000 bushels each of corn, peas, and 
beans, besides 300 hogsheads of pickles, &c. Although a com- 
paratively small quantity of oysters are put up here, nearly 12,000 
cans were prepared in this house, as well as thousands of cans of 
fresh beef, mutton, veal, milk, and other articles. The sealing 
process adopted is so perfect that fruits will keep for years in any 
climate, without losing their natural flavor, or in any manner im- 
pairing their beauty of appearance. It is quite common for New 
England families to send to Philadelphia for these articles. 

The grinding of Spices and the preparation of Chocolate and 
Mustards, occupy the attention of several firms. The Messrs. 
Fell, who have the oldest and probably the best arranged Spice 
Mills in the country, have attained great celebrity in this manu- 
facture. * 

* THE FAULKLAND SPICE MILLS, C. J. Fell & Brothers, proprietors, were 
established more than three quarters of a century ago, by Jonathan Fell, 
and have since that time increased from a single-horse mill, to an estab- 
lishment possessing all the new improvements in mill machinery, and using 
a steam-engine and water power, equal to one hundred horses. The 
principal mill is located near Wilmington, and runs (speaking technically,) 
nine pairs of stones. These are devoted to the manufacture of Mustard, 
all the different preparations of Cocoa, the grinding of Spices, and the 
making of Hominy. The last is so prepared by a new process, that it resists 
the effects of any climate, and keeps sweet and good for years. The 
requirements in tin and wooden boxes, kegs, &c., for packing Spices, furnish 
employment to a large number of persons. For this purpose, the Messrs. 
Fell have also a machine, propelled by steam, which weighs accurately, and 



270 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Within the last few years, the extending popularity of the 
Essence of Coffee, in connection with the preparation of Ver- 
micelli, Maccaroni, Baking Powders, Turkish Coffee, Spices, &c., 
provides business for a half dozen firms. The oldest prepara- 
tion in the market is known as Hummels, made by BOHLER, 
TOMSON & WEIKEL ; but the original has been much improved 
upon since its introduction, and the demand is increasing. The 
Essence of Coffee is extensively used in private families, and first- 
class hotels and boarding-houses ; for besides being more econo- 
mical, it is said to make, in connection with a portion of real 
coffee, a decidedly finer flavored and more pleasant drink than the 
best Java. One firm in Philadelphia manufacture about forty 
thousand dollars worth yearly. Philadelphia doubtless exceeds 
any other place in the extent of the manufacture, as well as in 
the quality. New York makes very little ; New England, little 
or none at all. 

5. VINEGAR. 

The manufacture of Yinegar is carried on in this, and all our 
principal cities, as well as in the country, to a much greater extent 
than is generally supposed, or its apparently limited culinary use 
would seem to warrant. But in addition to consumption in 
this way, and in the preparation of preserved food, this article is 
indispensable in several branches of manufacture, as in the dress- 
ing of Morocco Leather an extensive business in Philadelphia 
and in Dye and Print Works. One manufacturer, Mr. J. G 
Peale, informs us that he has supplied one establishment in the 
latter business with about ten thousand gallons annually. One 

packs the Spices neatly in bundles. Its ingenuity and speed are remark- 
able. 

The Faulkland Mills are, we believe, the oldest Mustard, Chocolate, and 
Bpice Mills in the country ; and the advantages of long experience, the best 
machinery, together with the business integrity of the proprietors, are real- 
ized in the celebrity of these mills for the purity and extent of their produc- 
tion The motto of this house, for three generations, has been, "never to 
sell an article otherwise than as represented;" and by adhering to this 
rule, and avoiding all adulterations, they have given a high reputation to the 
Bpices prepared in the Philadelphia market, while they have attained a 
fortune for themselves. 



FURNITURE UPHOLSTERY. 271 

Vinegar maker alone, we are also informed, produces daily about 
ninety barrels, much of which he exports to other parts of this 
country, as well as to the West Indies and the British Provinces > 
There are some twelve or fifteen Vinegar manufacturers some 
of whom, as well as these referred to, make large quantities ; the 
whole business amounting to at least $300,000. 

The process of manufacture, as at present conducted in these 
establishments, is much more expeditious than that still in use in 
the country for making vinegar on a small scale. 

The latter method consists in placing the cider or other vinous 
liquid in casks, with open bung-holes, in the sun, and the slow 
action of the atmosphere upon their contents requires nearly two 
years to perfect the acidifying process. By the improved mode, 
the liquor employed, is, by the addition of saccharine or other 
matter, and a suitable temperature, so managed as to induce its 
fermentation ; after which, it is slowly filtered by a kind of per- 
colation, through tall cisterns or tubs packed with shavings, &c., 
which minutely divide the liquor, and thus expose nearly every 
drop separately to be acted upon by the air, which has free access 
from beneath. The liquor thus absorbs oxygen from the atmo- 
sphere, and being drawn off by a pipe near the bottom of the butt, 
and the same process repeated as often as may be necessary, the 
acetification is complete in a very short time. The Vinegar in 
this state is set away to clarify, a process which may also be arti- 
ficially hastened, and in one or two months is ready for use. 

This is a brief outline of the process, though other minor pre- 
cautions are taken to regulate it; and we believe that proper 
manipulation and care may even still more abridge the time, as 
well as modify the color and strength of the product. Cider, 
whisky, wme, infusions of malt and ale, liquids capable of the 
acetous fermentation, will make vinegar : but the first three are 
chiefly used here. 

XVI. 

Furniture, Chairs, and Upholstery. 

SIR : In compliance with your request, I furnish, as far as I am 
able, a brief abstract of the Furniture business in this city. 



272 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

In reply to your first question I can answer, that the Cabinet- 
making business has very much progressed, both in point of taste 
and extent of production, the last few years. In 1840 there 
were but few Furniture stores in Philadelphia, arid they mostly 
small ones ; keeping samples of the styles of goods, bat relying 
mainly on orders from their customers to supply work for their 
employees. A Spring-seat Sofa was then a luxury almost a 
novelty. The art of Yeneering was just beginning to be under- 
stood. Previous to this period a crotch of Mahogany wood, 
(which was then mostly used for furniture,) was cut into Yeneers 
by a narrow blade saw, drawn laterally by two men. They could 
not get more than four Yeneers out of an inch thickness. This 
was a great waste of the finest class of material, and the Yeneers 
conld only be applied to flat work or very slight curves. About this 
time Circular Saws, some of which were seven to eight feet diameter, 
were introduced, and gradually improvements were made, so that 
at the present time it is not uncommon to produce sixteen Ye- 
neers to the inch. Mahogany, Rosewood, Walnut, and all the finer 
woods, are now used in Veneering with such skill, that elliptic ogees, 
or oval surfaces of common wood, are covered with a thin coating 
of fine wood, thus reducing the consumption, comparatively, of 
the finer woods. In the course of time, Mahogany became scarce ; 
and growing in mountain fastnesses, it was procured only at a 
great expense. Rosewood has always been equally difficult to 
obtain. To supply the deficiency, the merits of American Walnut 
were examined, and on trial it was found equally suitable for fine 
Furniture. The grain of the wood, and the feathery character of 
the curl, (where two main branches separate from the trunk,) are 
similar to Mahogany, except in color ; the Walnut being of dark 
purple shade, though varying in color according to the latitude 
and nature of the soil. Walnut is now used more than all other 
woods combined. The supply on the rich bottom lands of 
Indiana, and the Western States generally, is enormous, and the 
quality so superior that some is shipped to Europe. 

All varieties of these woods Mahogany, Rosewood, Walnut, 
and others, are used by the Cabinet-makers of Philadelphia. 
There are nearly one hundred employers in the business, and at 
least ten large warehouses, where the most fastidious tastes mav 



FURNITURE UPHOLSTERY. 273 

be satisfied from goods already made. Philadelphia has a well- 
merited reputation for the production of fine Furniture ; the 
carved work is really superb; and the less elaborate, known as 
Cottage Furniture, is distinguished for excellent workmanship, 
high polish, tasteful painting, and moderate price. An oak 
Sideboard, carved by a Philadelphia sculptor, I notice, was re- 
cently regarded by the visitors to the American Institute, in the 
Xew York Crystal Palace, as one of the most remarkable speci- 
mens of skill in the exhibition. The Southern demand, which is 
proverbially fastidious and luxurious in the choice of Furniture, 
is almost entirely supplied from this city. With the increasing 
demand for fine Furniture, there has been a corresponding im- 
provement of taste in design ; and it may be well doubted whether 
France can, at this time, exhibit more magnificent displays than 
can be seen in the Cabinet Warehouses of Philadelphia. 

In respect to novelties, about which yon inquire, I had not 
the good fortune to discover any very remarkable. The trade 
are generally satisfied with substantial excellence, without aspir- 
ing to any very striking effects. In Mr. I. LUTZ'S establishment, on 
Eleventh street, my attention was attracted to an ingenious method 
adopted by him, to prevent the liability of carved Mahogany to 
break. In carved Chair work, for instance, he divides the Ma- 
hogany into several lateral parts, and joins them by glue in such 
a manner that the grain of the wood runs in different directions. 
The strength of the wood is, by this method, increased in pro- 
portion to the number of times it is divided ; and in the manu- 
facture of Sofas, large Arm-chairs, &c., its advantages are espe- 
cially apparent. Mr. Lutz employs fifty hands, and has supplied 
Furniture for some of the finest mansions in this city. Two 
Sofas, furnished to order, at a cost of $175 each, then on exhi- 
bition at his warerooms, were remarkable specimens of elegant 
workmanship. 

In GEORGE J. HENKEL'S establishment, I was particularly 
struck with the immense quantity of finished Furniture on hand 
as well as the richness and fine effect produced by its arrange- 
ment. The rooms then occupied by him were 175 feet long by 27 feet 
wide, four floors in number. The leading purpose of this estab- 
lishment is to supply a complete assortment of first-class Furni- 
22 



274 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

ture for an entire house ; by which all the articles from the attic 
to the kitchen correspond in style, modified, of course, by their 
situation. In the construction of Extension Tables, Mr. Henkels 
is deservedly pre-eminent the extension being formed by cross- 
arras working at right angles on metal hinges, which preserve i* 
from swelling or shrinking in a variable climate. 

In MOORE & CAMPION'S, WHITE'S, KLAUDER, DEGINTHER & 
Co.'s, W. & J. ALLEN'S, and other warerooms, the display of 
elegant carved Furniture is truly magnificent. 

Church and Library Furniture constitute a special depart 
ment of both the carving and furniture business. In Philadelphia 
there is at least one perhaps many others who has attained de 
served distinction in this branch. For nearly a quarter of a cen- 
tury, Mr. JOHN HARE OTTON has devoted a large share of his atten 
tion to Carving and making Pulpits, Lecturns, Book Cases, &c., 
and his collection of designs now embraces the best examples in 
every known style. In so long an experience, he has executed a 
large number of the most elaborate carvings ; and in all his recent 
work, especially, has manifested excellent taste, and an apprecia- 
tion of appropriateness in ornament that is rarely seen in Amer- 
ican decorative art. Mr. Otton has also executed some masterly 
patterns in Iron and in Stucco, which constitute a branch of his 
business. 

Besides those who are engaged in the wholesale manufacture 
of Furniture, there is a large number occupied in making 
special articles. At least twenty-five establishments in the city 
some of them of considerable extent make Cane-seat and Windsor 
Chairs. One manufacturer has substituted Whalebone for Cane, 
which is an evident improvement. Chair findings are largely 
supplied by Mr. McCullough, and a new establishment is about 
being opened solely for the supply of chair bottoms. 

There are several manufactories and warerooms of Office and 
Counting-house Furniture exclusively. Articles of this descrip- 
tion are both supplied to order, and kept on hand in large quan- 
tities. Several articles belonging to this category were remark- 
able as novelties ; but among those which seemed to me to com- 
bine novelty and usefulness in an eminent degree, I was particu- 
larly attracted by the Patent Elevating and Graduating Top 



~ FURNITURE UPHOLSTERY. 275 

Tables, which are truly a business luxury. The top can easily be 
raised or lowered to suit any attitude ; placed upon a horizontal 
plane or inclined as the lid of a desk. The construction is firm 
and all the appendages of drawers and boxes are complete. The 
Office Furniture manufacturers are entitled to very great credit 
for the specimens of workmanship that they exhibit. 

Billiard Tables have been made in Philadelphia since 1809 
the date when Mr. THOMAS DAVIS, still a leading manufacturer 
commenced business. These tables are now made at four or five 
establishments ; but the business in this line has been a good deal 
crippled by the preference given to the Patented Tables and Cush- 
ions, made in other cities. The deficiency in this respect, how- 
ever, is compensated for by superiority in another and more im- 
portant branch, viz. , the manufacture of VENITIAN BLINDS. It is 
believed, by persons professing knowledge on the subject, that 
this business is larger in this city than in all the rest of the 
United States. They are sent to almost every part of the Union, 
and to the British Provinces. The lightness and beauty of the 
work could not be too highly praised, and the cornices and trim- 
mings are adapted to the furniture of the room in which they are 
hung, with remarkable taste. 

Upholstering is carried on in connection with the manufacture 
of Furniture, and also as a separate business. It embraces the 
manufacture of Curtains, Pew and other Cushions, and the mak- 
ing up of Carpets, Hair Mattresses, Buff Window Shades, &c. 
There are about twenty principal concerns engaged exclusively in 
this business, besides a vast number of small ones. The fitting up 
of churches furnishes considerable employment for the Uphol- 
sterers ; an average bill for a modern fashionable church of medium 
size being $1,500, the pews alone costing $10 each. The West 
Arch Presbyterian Church paid $3,000 for Upholstery ; and the 
Academy of Music a much larger sum. The entire business of 
the city, in this branch, is about a half million of dollars annually. 

It is extremely difficult to arrive at the statistics of the Furni- 
ture manufactured in Philadelphia ; but my opinion, after labor- 
ious investigation is, that including all the above-named branches, 
the annual business will reach two and a half million of dollars. 
Some manufacturers state it at three and a half millions. S. 



276 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

XVII. 

Glass Manufactures. 

Intelligent foreigners have repeatedly complimented the manu- 
facturers of Glass in the United States not only for excellence 
in the production of useful articles, to which they have hitherto 
given their attention principally, but also for various successful 
attempts that have been made in producing those rich and deco- 
rative works which belong to luxury rather than to utility. 
The imitations of Bohemian Glass and Opal Glass, made in sev- 
eral establishments throughout the Union, are considered better 
than a great portion of those produced in Europe. In Philadel- 
phia, the Glass manufacture, though surpassed by many others in 
amount of production, is nevertheless sufficiently extensive to be 
called a leading pursuit. The locality, by reason of the facilities 
for procuring the raw materials, is one of the best in the Union. 
The finest qualities of sand are obtained from the adjacent State 
of New Jersey, and the alkali are supplied by the Chemical fac- 
tories in the city. 

There are at least thirteen manufacturers of Glass, whose head- 
quarters are in this city, though the factories of some are located 
in New Jersey, and outside of the city limits, viz. : WHITALL, 
TATEM & Co., WHITNEY & BROTHERS, BODINE & BROTHERS, 
BURGIN & SONS, PHILADELPHIA GLASS COMPANY, JOHN H. 
MOORE, BENNERS & BROTHERS, SHEETS & DUFFY, JOSEPH POR- 
TER & SONS, HAY & Co., RICHARDS & BROTHERS, JOHN CAPE- 
WELL, President of the United States Glass Company, and 
THOMAS MILLS. 

The leading business is the manufacture of Green and Crown 
Glass Bottles, including all kinds of Druggists' Vials, Jars, Demi- 
johns, Carboys, &c. This kind of Glass is made of ordinary 
materials generally sand with lime, and sometimes clay, and 
alkaline ashes of any kind ; but great care and considerable 
experience are required, particularly in making bottles that 
are to contain effervescing fluids. The materials must be 
carefully and thoroughly fused, and the thickness uniform 
throughout, to resist the pressure of the contained carbonic acid. 
The loss of bottles by bursting, in the Champagne trade, is 



GLASS MANUFACTURES. 277 

from twenty to thirty per cent. A machine has been contrived 
to test their strength, which should bear the pressure of from 
twenty-five to thirty-five "atmospheres." In bottles which are 
to contain acids, the alkali and the lime must be chemically 
united to prevent action of the acid. The green color is said to 
be owing to impurities in the ashes, generally to oxide of iron. 

Window Glass is made in several establishments ; and in addi- 
tion to the various sizes and qualities, most, if not all in this bu- 
siness, make double-thick and cylinder Plate Glass, suitable for 
coaches, pictures, and extra-large windows; some of which is quite 
equal in quality to the English and French Cylinder Plate Glass, 
At some establishments, white and colored, plain and figured 
Enameled Glass is made. 

One firm, Messrs. BURGIN & SONS, have, in addition to their 
furnaces for the manufacture of Black and Green Glassware, one 
devoted exclusively to the manufacture of a kind of Glass, new 
in this country, which they designate " German Flint Glass ;" and 
although not as beautiful in appearance as Flint Glass containing 
lead, it is preferable to it for many purposes, particularly for hold- 
ing acids and alkalies, as they have no effect upon it. It is a 
very strong variety of Glass-, and is much used by Chemists, 
Apothecaries, and Perfumers ; it can be colored, moulded, and 
pressed into all the various patterns and forms of Flint Glass, 
and is sold at intermediate prices between Green and Flint Glass. 

The Philadelphia Glass Company was established for the man- 
ufacture of Rough Plate Glass, particularly rolled or hammered 
Glass for green-houses, &c., and flooring Glass articles which 
previously had not been made in this country. The excellence 
of their product so effectually alarmed foreign manufacturers, 
that they reduced the price at once, from $2.25 per square foot 
to 75 cents, and are now actually losing money on their sales, in 
order to crush an American competitor. The advantages of this 
locality for this manufacture, however, are so great, that with 
proper encouragement, this Company believe they can continue 
business even at the reduced price. They are now manufacturing 
a Glass Furnace, which they consider equal to any in the world. 

Besides the manufacturers of Glass above enumerated, there are 
leveral whose attention is devoted to supplying orders for special 
22* 



278 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

kinds of Glass, particularly Tubes for Philosophical Apparatus, 
Syringes, &c., for druggists. Of Glass-cutters there are several 
in the city ; while the Glass mould and press makers are entitled 
to a compliment for their success in originating novel designs and 
skill in their profession, particularly for being able to make a 
glass bottle precisely similar to another in size and appearance, 
but which will contain considerably less in quantity 1 

STAINED GLASS. 

The origin of this beautiful art is lost in the dimness of an- 
tiquity. The process employed in modern times is described as 
follows. After the figure to be put upon the plate is drawn upon 
paper, and painted as desired, it is transferred to the glass, which 
has been prepared to receive it. This has to be done with artistic 
skill, equal to that employed upon an oil painting, and requires 
much more care in its execution. In transferring fruits and flower 
pieces, all the delicate tints of the objects must be copied with 
the greatest nicety. The glass is then put into a kiln, and sub- 
mitted to a heat almost sufficient to fuse it, which not only has the 
effect to add greatly to the beauty of the painting, but makes it 
a part of the glass itself, no power being able to remove it. 

There are two principal manufacturers of Stained Glass in 
Philadelphia, Messrs. J. & G. H. GIBSON, and FRANKLIN SMITH. 
The former firm has just completed the magnificent glass ceilings 
for the House of Representatives at Washington, composed of 
plates having the appearance of enameled work ; the Coats of 
Arms of the United States are done in rich colors, giving the 
effect of Mosaics set in silver. They have also been engaged to 
furnish the Senate ceiling in a similar manner. The Stained Glass 
made in this city is considered quite equal to that of European 
manufacture. 

XVIII. 
Hats, Caps, and Furs. 

The Hat, which is regarded by some as more indicative of the 
social position of its wearer than any other garment, affords a 
vride field for research, a theme for many speculations, and could 
be aptly used in illustrating the mutability and instability of 



HATS FURS. 279 

earthly things. We, however, have no leisure for any farther 
reflections than to express gratification that the heavy Fur and 
Wool Hats, whose heat and weight muddled the brains of our 
ancestors, are superseded by light and more handsome styles. 
Much of the progress that has been made, particularly in dimin- 
ishing the weight, it is proper to state, is due to American enter- 
prise, the most important improvement being that of " water- 
proofing" the bodies previous to their being napped. The elastic 
properties of the gums used in this process, when dissolved in 
pure alcohol or naphtha, impart a body to the materials which 
enables the maker to reduce a considerable proportion of 
their weight. As an illustration of the value of this improve- 
ment, we may mention that, about twenty years since, ninety-six 
ounces of stuff were worked up into one dozen ordinary-sized 
hats for gentlemen, while at present from thirty-three to thirty- 
four ounces only are required to complete the same quantity. 
It is therefore scarcely surprising, as we learn from a late trav- 
eler, that American Hats are superseding the use of the Turban 
in Turkey! 

In Philadelphia there are extensive concerns engaged in the Hat 
manufacture, though the number of those that make an entire Hat 
is quite limited. The furs and other materials used are for the most 
part prepared abroad, on the continent of Europe, where children 
are largely employed in the various operations ; but three fourths 
of the Hatters' materials used are imported direct by houses in 
this city. The mode of manufacturing is partly a domestic one, 
the materials being given out to workmen who shape them in 
their own houses, though the principal portion of the work is 
done in large manufactories, where several hundred hands are 
employed. In one establishment, which commenced operations 
within the last two years, machines are largely employed in all 
the various processes of making soft Fur Hats, and Hat bodies. 
By means of a machine, known as Wells' Patent, the shell or skel- 
eton body is made so expeditiously, that two men and a boy, with 
its aid, can form three hundred Hats in less time than ten Hats 
could be produced by the old method. In this manufactory there 
are seven machines in constant operation, capable of producing 
over two thousand Hat bodies per day. There are nine other 



280 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

machines for the separation of the hair from the fur. Pickers, 
propelled by steam, are employed for mixing the Furs ; and even 
the Hats are washed by machinery all these operations being per- 
formed better, and more cheaply, than they can be done by hand. 
The proprietor, Mr. WM. 0. BEARD, has an engine of sixty-horse 
power, and employs one hundred and eighty hands. 

The branch of the general business, in which Philadelphia Hat- 
ters claim to excel all others, is in the production of Silk and 
White Fur Hats. For producing the Pearl White and Light 
Colored Hats, it is claimed that, in the water of this city, the 
makers have peculiar advantages ; while for the manufacture of 
Silk Hats, they have an advantage in being able to command at 
all times the most skilled workmen.* The importance of this 
will be understood when we state, that the Silk Hat passes 
through six distinct departments before its completion ; each de- 
partment requiring hands who generally serve an apprenticeship 
but to one branch of the business. The fashions, as a general 
rule, are not imported, but originate with the leading houses, 
with only a slight reference to those prevailing in Paris. 

Journeymen Hat-makers may be said generally to command 
good wages ; though their earnings, inasmuch as they work by 

* The senior partner of one of the most extensive of the Hat manufactur- 
ing concerns of Philadelphia that of P. HERST & Co. was one of the pio- 
neers in the manufacture of Silk Hats. He commenced business here some 
fourteen years ago in a very small way, but has gone on increasing and ex- 
tending his operations, until now the firm employ one hundred and fifty per- 
sons in making Silk Hats, and supply to some extent nearly all the 
markets of the United States. Mr. Herst also claims to have been the in- 
ventor and introducer of*tbe Satin Under Brim, now so much admired for 
its beauty and durability. It was first presented to the public about five 
years ago, and 1ms superseded nearly every other material previously in use. 
The firm of P. HEBST & Co. are probably more extensively engaged in the 
manufacture of Silk Hats than any others, and are now annually producing 
many thousands, mostly of the first qualities, and specially adapted to the 
fine retail trade. They also make Beaver and Cassimere Hats, of all 
shades, for summer and winter wear. For softening the brim previous to 
shaping, this firm use Billing's Brim Heater, said to be an admirable in- 
vention. By taste in the modeling of styles, and fidelity in workmanship, 
they have secured a pre-eminence among the fashionable trade, creditable 
alike to themselves and to Philadelphia workmen. 



CAPS. 281 

the piece, depend very much upon the state and prosperity of the 
country. Body-makers often earn only six dollars a week ; but 
at other times they make thirty. Finishers make from ten to 
twenty ; and shapers and curlers, from fifteen to thirty dollars per 
week. It is a peculiarity of this trade, that a workman wishing 
employment in an establishment never applies to its proprietor, 
but to the foreman, who possesses the chief power to employ or 
to discharge men. 

STRAW HATS are made to a large extent to supply the South- 
ern demand, which continues throughout the year; and the North- 
ern market daring the spring and summer seasons. The work is 
done in work-rooms provided by the employers, or at the houses 
of the operatives; whose average weekly wages are, for men, 
$7.50 ; for women, $4.50. The Straw Braid is chiefly imported 
from England, Switzerland, and Tuscany. Panama Hats are ob- 
tained from Panama, Maracaibo, and other parts of South Amer- 
ica, while coarse Straw Hats are brought in large quantities from 
Canada. As these goods are generally imported ready-shaped, 
the principal preparation for the market is trimming, and adapt- 
ing the Hats to the prevailing fashion. The value of the labor per- 
formed on those imported, and the production of Straw Hats, will 
amount to $350,000. 

2. CAPS. 

The manufacture of Caps is a business distinct from that of 
Hats. There are a large number of concerns occupied exclusively 
in making Caps ; those of Cloth constituting the chief part of the 
business, though Plush, Silk, Glazed, and other Caps, are also 
made. The Caps made in Philadelphia are distinguished for du- 
rability and excellence of quality, rather than for fanciful decora- 
tion, and command the market wherever these qualities are ap- 
preciated. Some have been exported to Russia; and exports 
are made regularly to the West Indies, South America, and to 
California. 

The Cap manufacture furnishes employment to a large number 
of females, whose wages in the business will average abont $4 
per week. Sewing-machines are largely employed ; being, in fact, 
indispensable in consequence of the expansion of the trade. The 
annual production is about $400,000. 



282 



PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 



3. FURS. 

FURS are prepared by at least twenty establishments, either as a 
distinct business, or in connection with Hats. It is the object of 
the Furrier, by dyeing the inferior skins, to imitate the more perfect 
kinds ; and so successful are many, that the permanence of the color 
of the dyed Sable, for instance, is equally durable with the natural 
color. Philadelphia Furs are more tastefully made than those of 
New York ; and are considered equal to the Boston Furs, which 
have a very high reputation. A difference of opinion, wide as the 
Atlantic, exists as to the comparative value of Furs the Amer- 
icans preferring those of Europe, while Europe seems to prefer 
the American Furs. 

The following List will exhibit the demand for American Furs 
in Europe, and the kinds which this country principally contri- 
butes. 

Import into London of Furs and Skins from tho United States, and 
Hudson's Bay Company in British America, for one year, from 
Sept. 1856, to Sept. 1857. 



Totals. 


Names of Skins. 


Hudson's Bay 
Company. 


United States. 


1,164,461 
99,193 
15,941 
9,586 
1,543 
4,751 
65,086 
6,697 
11,142 
186,355 
123,601 
*55 
24,165 
10,796 
1,053 
769 
477,916 
9,872 
941 
7,949 
7,157 
62,672 


Musk rat 


302,131 
90,604 
11,573 
6,561 
7,071 
8,143 
10,493 
4,940 
6,776 
170,956 
45,091 
18S 
23,341 
7,483 
942 
769 
1,894 
9,831 
916 
7,740 
184 


862,aso 

8,594 
4,363 
4,025 
477 
1,608 
44,588 
1,657 
6,366 
15,399 
78,510 
167 
824 
3,313 
116 




Otter ; . 


Fisher 


Silver Fox 


Cross Fox 


Red Fox 


White Fox 


Kltt Fox 


Marten 


Mink 


Sea Otter 


Lynx : 


Black Bear 


Brown Bear 




Raccoon 


476,022 
41 
25 
209 
6,973 
62,672 


Wolf 


Wolverine 


Skunk 


Wild Cat 








2,271,916 



Besides these Furs of American origin, the principal ones are 
the Russian Sable, everywhere esteemed as the most beautiful, 
costly, and useful Fur the Arctic zone produces ; the Baum or 
Pine Marten ; the Stone Marten, more valuable for the excellent 
qualities of its skin than the beauty of its fur ; Ermine, a Sibe- 
rian and Norwegian Fur, the whitest known, though in summer 



IRON MANUFACTURES. 283 

the animal is a dingy brown ; the European Fitch, or Polecat, a 
Fur remarkable for durability, and smell, which it is difficult to 
counteract ; the Tartar Sable, of which the tail is used exclusively 
for artists' best pencils ; Nutria, a Fur used extensively in making 
hats, and having considerable resemblance to Beaver ; Hamster, 
a German Fur ; European Gray Hare, and the Chinchilla, a 
South American Rabbit. 

The Skin that is probably the most extensively used is that of the 
Siberian Squirrel. Of these little animals, not much larger than 
our common red squirrel, 15,000,000 are every year captured in 
Russia ; the color varies from a pearl gray to a dark blue gray. 

The business done in the preparation of Furs, in this city, is 
estimated by a principal manufacturer at $350,000 ; and when we 
remember that Capes alone are sometimes sold at $800 to $1,000, 
the amount is not probably overstated. 
Recapitulation : 

Silk and Soft Hats, $800,000 

Straw Hats, 350,000 

Caps, 400,000 

Furs, 350,000 

Total, $1,900,000 

An increased amount of capital could be profitably invested 
ir Philadelphia, in all branches of the Hat and Cap manufacture. 

XIX. 

Iron and its Manufactures. 

It is probable that in no branch of the general manufactures 
of Philadelphia, is her superiority so widely known and generally 
conceded as in the fabrication of Metals. The abundance of 
Iron produced in the vicinity of the city, and its consequent 
cheapness, have naturally concentrated attention upon its manu- 
factures, as well as extended its uses ; while the fame of our 
Engineers and Machinists attracts from abroad a large and con- 
stantly increasing patronage. It is not necessary, therefore, for us 
to prove what is already admitted, nor to exhibit in much detail 
and minuteness what is neither doubtful nor disputed, but the sub- 
ject is too important to be very summarily dismissed. In our intro- 
ductory remarks we gave some statistics of the Iron production of 
Pennsylvania, and stated, that of 782,958 tons of Iron produced 



284 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

in the United States in 1856, Pennsylvania furnished 448,515 
tons. We also showed that Philadelphia is situated in the dis- 
trict which is entitled to be called the centre of the Iron produc- 
tion in the United States. We shall therefore limit our present 
remarks to a brief outline of the processes employed in the man- 
ufacture of Iron, for the benefit of the general reader, besides exhib- 
iting, so far as we can in a limited space, the present develop- 
ment of its manufactures in Philadelphia, particularly with refer- 
ence to the manufacture of Hardware and Tools, and the con- 
struction of Machinery. 

Iron, we may remark, exists naturally as an ore in the form 
of a rusty, metallic stone. The ores are found both on the sur- 
face of the earth and in deep underground veins. Within the limits 
of Philadelphia we believe there are neither ore beds nor opened 
mines ; though just beyond the city limits, in Montgomery County, 
ore is dug in considerable quantities ; and near Phoenixville, Ches- 
ter County, there is an extensive Iron mine, which is supposed 
to be the oldest in the United States. It was opened a few years 
before the Revolution, and is yet worked with much success. It 
is 150 feet deep, and has been mined over sixteen acres of surface. 
The great Rail Mills of the Phoenix Iron Company, successors to 
Reeves, Buck & Co., obtain a considerable portion of the ore 
used by them from this mine, known as the Warick Mine. 

The ore, after being dug from or raised to the surface, is gene- 
rally broken and washed in water. It is then most commonly 
roasted, to drive out the sulphur which exists in many ores. The 
roasting is done in large kilns or stacks, heated with coal. Many 
Iron-works, however, do not practice roasting their ores. The 
great primary process the first step in the long course of the 
Iron manufacture is "smelting." This is the expulsion of the 
water and oxygen of the ore, the driving off, by heat, of the 
natural impurities which enclose and are mixed with the pure iron. 
Tins is effected by means of a "Blast Furnace," using as fuel 
tither Anthracite coal, coke or charcoal. The furnace is kept 
" in blast" night and day, until some vital part is destroyed by 
,he heat. The hearth is tapped at regular intervals, and the iron 
drawn off and run into " pigs," moulded in the sand-floor in front 
Df the furnace. Fresh materials are as regularly added at tho 



9 IRON MANUFACTURES. 285 

top. The largest class of furnaces produce from 120 to 160 tons 
weekly, and even as ranch as 200 tons have been produced, in a 
few cases, in a single week. The product of the Blast Furnace, 
or rather the Iron, after being drawn from the furnace and moulded, 
is called by the familiar term Pig Iron. 

Having passed the first stage of its manufacture or in other 
words, been separated from the clay, sand, and other impurities 
with which it was mixed in the ore, it is now fusible and ready 
for conversion into Wrought or into Cast Iron. The conversion 
into Wrought Iron is effected simply by an additional heating, 
which heat is prolonged for some time at just above the melting 
point, and during which the iron is stirred up until every particle 
has been brought under the cementing action of the heat. 

There are two kinds of furnaces in use, either of which pro- 
duce Wrought Iron from Pig. In either case the iron is only 
melted, and stirred stoutly for a considerable time in that condition. 
The forge fire is employed for converting pig into the better 
kinds of Wrought Iron. A large open forge fire, with the tweer 
in one corner, is used ; a trough or pit is hollowed out beneath 
the tweer, and the broken pig or coal brought together to a melt- 
ing heat. The action of the blast from the tweer drives the 
coarse and lighter impurities to the opposite side of the trough, 
leaving the melted metal to settle in the trough, to be stirred and 
turned until it becomes Wrought Iron. When the metal acquires 
a sufficient consistency to admit of being removed, it is taken 
out, and the impure end cut off. In this state it is called a 
" Bloom" or " Loop," and it is ready to be reheated in the heat- 
iug furnace, and to be brought under the hammer. 

The forge fire is used only for the best and choicest kinds of 
iron, as it is too expensive in coal and labor for making the 
cheaper kinds. 

The Puddling Furnace is the most common of all means of re- 
ducing Pig Iron to Wrought Iron. This is a covered furnace like 
an oven, a grate being placed at one end, and a pit or trough 
being made in the centre. The chimney or stack is at the oppo 
site side from the grate. The puddling furnace may be worked 
either with or without blast. Coal and wood are used alike for 
fuel. Mills in which rail-road iron is manufactured generally work 
23 



286 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

either Anthracite or raw Bituminous coal, with blast, for puddling 
furnaces. The pig iron is placed in the puddling furnace, and 
melted in about three quarters of an hour. It is then stirred 
with a suitable hook or poker, worked by a " puddler," having 
charge of the furnace. The stirring goes on until every particle 
of the puddle has been thoroughly exposed to the fire, and until 
the iron adheres in a spongy mass. It is then divided, while in 
the furnace, into four or five balls or lumps. These are taken 
successively to a stout hammer, called a shingling hammer, or else 
to a machine called a squeezer, either of which acts by compres- 
sion, to get rid of the coarse cinder contained in the iron. This 
runs off in a melted condition, leaving the bulk malleable, and 
possessing the distinctive qualities of Wrought Iron. 

It is then, while still retaining a great portion of its original 
heat, shaped, by rolling or hammering, into such forms as are 
found to be most saleable in the market. 

In the vicinity of Philadelphia, Forges and Rolling Mills are 
generally separate establishments the former considerably out- 
numbering the latter. In 1856 there were 116 Forges in Eastern 
Pennsylvania, and 63 Rolling Mills, including those in the city ; 
working about 1T5 hammers, and having about 500 forge fires, 
with the heating and puddling furnaces, and turning out an ag- 
gregate product, for the district tributary to the city, of about 
five millions of dollars annually. 

In Philadelphia, Forges are usually combined with Rolling 
Mills, there being but one exception, viz., the Fairhill Forge, of 
which Patterson, Morgan, and Caskey, are proprietors. The 
Rolling Mills are as follows : 

Kensington Iron Works and Rolling Mill, James Rowland & 
Co., proprietors. 

Penn Rolling Mill, Kensington, Yerree & Mitchell, proprietors. 

Treaty Rolling Mill, Kensington, Marshall, Griffin & Co. 

Robins' Rolling Mill, Kensington, Stevens Robins, proprietor. 

Oxford Rolling Mill, Twenty-third Ward, W. & H. Rowland. 

Fairmount Rolling Mill, Fairmount, Charles E. Smith & Co. 

Fountain Green Rolling Mill, two miles above Fairmount, Strick- 
land Kneass, proprietor. 



ROLLING MILLS FOUNDRIES. 287 

Pencoyd Rolling Mill, below Manayunk, west side of Schuyl 
kill, A. & P. Roberts, proprietor. 

Flatrock Rolling Mill, Manayunk, A. P. Buckley & Son, pro- 
prietors. 

Cheltenham Rolling Mill, one mile below Shoemakertown, 
Rowland & Hunt, proprietors. 

In these establishments, over 700 men are employed, and re- 
ceive annually in wages about $250,000. The aggregates of 
production were recently made up and published in the United 
Stales Gazette* as follows : 

Tons. Value. 

Spring and Cast Steel, ...... 2,100 $283,500 

Bar, Rod, and Band Iron, - - , - - , - - 13,310 880,500 

Boiler and other Plate, - ~i. n ; U^ ' - ' . -' - ; ' ; ; - " 1,660 1 50,000 
Aggregate, inclusive of other items, for the nine Rolling Mills of the 

city, ..... 4j tt^tri.'. 'lr.-: i^iti 1,455,000 

Distinctive production of Rolling Mills, simply, - ... 1,206,500 

Total for Forges and Rolling Mills within the city, ... 1,801,150 

The products, besides those above enumerated, include for the 
Pencoyd Rolling Mill, Rolled and Hammered Car and Locomotive 
Axles, and for the Fainnount Iron Works, Charles E. Smith & 
Co., proprietors, Rail-road Chair Iron, Marble and Stone Saws, 
and Bands and Bars of extra sizes. 

Passing from the manufacture of Wrought Iron and Steel to 
that of CASTINGS, we are led to the consideration of Foundries 
and Cupola Furnaces, in which the smelting is usually accom- 
plished by a process somewhat similar to that employed in the 
reduction of the ore in the blast furnace. The metal is mingled 
with coal in a capacious receptacle lined with fire-brick, and sub- 
jected to a furious blast of air from tweers beneath. The height 

* A very careful statistical investigation of the Manufactures of Iron was 
recently made by the present indefatigable Secretary of the Board of Trade, 
and published in the United States Gazette a leading commercial journal 
of this city. At the request of several Iron workers, who decline to furnish 
additional individual particulars, we shall, in many instances, adopt the re- 
sults as published in that journal. It will also be observed by those who are 
familiar with the volume edited by myself, and published two years ago, 
that several paragraphs in this article, descriptive of processes, are extracts 
from that work. 



288 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

of the cupola furnace, however, rarely exceeds ten or twelve feet, 
while that of the blast furnace approaches forty or even fifty, and 
the pressure required to force the air upward through the sinking 
mass of materials is of course proportionally less. No lime or 
other flux is employed in the cupola furnace ; and the tempera- 
ture required is presumed to be considerably less than in the 
blast furnace, the heat necessary to melt iron being generally as- 
sumed at 2300 to 2800 degrees of Fahrenheit's scale, or some 
fifteen times hotter than boiling water ; while the temperature, in 
the hottest portion of the blast furnace, is supposed to reach 5000 
degrees. 

When drawn from the cupola furnace, the iron is poured into 
moulds of tightly compacted earth, the varieties employed being 
clay or loam and fine sand carefully mixed ; the " moulding sand," 
as it is termed, being in most cases enclosed in boxes called flasks 
If the desired casting is a column, an exact model or pattern is 
embedded, one half in each of two flasks of sand. The sand 
having sufficient cohesion to retain any impression given it, 
the pattern is then withdrawn, and the flasks fitted accurately 
together, as before, leaving a cavity to give just the required 
shape to the metal, which is afterward poured in. If the casting 
is to be made hollow in any part, a "core," or solid mass of sand, 
is previously baked in a suitable box, of the shape of the desired 
cavity. This core of sand, being placed in the flask, and ad- 
justed suitably to the mould, leaves a cavity of its own shape in 
the casting. For, while the core assists in confining the melted 
iron to the desired limits of size and form, it can be punctured 
and removed, after the casting has cooled, with the same ease tha* 
the mould itself may be broken up, and the sand be again used 
for another mould. 

The interior surface of the moulds is generally dusted or rubbed 
with finely-powdered coal or other material, technically termed 
"blackening," the object of which is to induce a smooth, perfec* 
surface on the casting. The astonishing smoothness and delicacy 
of the small statuettes, known as "Berlin Castings," it is be 
lieved, are the result of some secret with regard to blackening 
the moulds. 

The exterior of a large casting is invariably harder than the 



CASTINGS. 289 

interior. This effect is probably due to the rapid cooling of the 
parts in contact with the sand, as the hardness is found to depend 
very much upon the rapidity of cooling. This fact has induced 
many experiments, and the quite general adoptiou of several dif- 
ferent processes, according to the quality of the work required. 

Iron required to withstand wear, as hammer faces, car-wheels, 
gudgeons, &c., is cast in close contact with a large mass of cold 
iron ; and iron in which a great uniformity of strength and a 
general softness is required, as small portions of machinery which 
are to be drilled, planed, &c., is cast in moulds previously heated 
to a tolerably high temperature. The former are called " chilled," 
and the second " dry-sand castings," as distinguished from the 
first described, or "green-sand castings." Very large moulds are 
built up with brickwork and lined with clay ; and the products are 
termed " loam castings." There are other processes for rapid cool- 
ing besides that above mentioned, one of which consists in a rapid 
circulation of water through pipes in the vicinity of the part to 
be chilled, but all act in a substantially similar manner, and with 
the same result. 

There is a process of " annealing" metals, by heating, and 
then gradually cooling under favorable circumstances, which we 
will refer to when we come to speak of Car wheels. A species 
of cast iron, produced by a modification of this process, is called 
" Malleable Iron," and combines in a high degree the tenacity of 
wrought with the cheapness of cast-iron shapes. An immense 
number of Locks, and other articles in the Hardware trade, is 
produced by this process, which may again be alluded to in a 
separate division of our subject. 

During the last few years the demand for Castings of great size 
has severely tested the skill of founders, but they have invariably 
responded to the calls by producing specimens more remarkable 
than any heretofore attempted. Cylinders, in which the tallest 
man could stand upright, have repeatedly been cast at Foundries 
in Philadelphia ; and those of the "Erricson," cast at I. P. Morris 
& Co.'s Foundry, were eleven feet five inches in diameter. The 
boring was executed by their great Yertical Boring Mill, which 
was in use in this city before introduced into New York. The 
cylinders for the blowing machinery of the Lackawanna Iron 
23* 



290 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Works, at Scranton, Penna., cast at the same establishment, are 
one hundred and ten inches in diameter, and ten feet stroke. 
But the heaviest casting ever made in this country, and probably 
in the world, was the bed-plate for the Baltic, which weighed 
130,148 pounds. The bed-plate for the Arctic weighed forty-five 
tons, and that for the Atlantic thirty-seven tons. 

The products of Foundries, disconnected from Machine-shops, 
consist principally of Stoves, Hollow-ware, Iron Building work, 
and Railings, Safes, &c., to each of which we shall briefly refer. 

1. STOVES AND HOLLOW-WARE. 

Five large Foundries in this city are devoted exclusively to the 
manufacture of Stoves ; while two others make Stoves, together 
with miscellaneous castings. The capital invested in the manu- 
facture is about $600,000, and the annual product about 12,500 
tons, worth $1,250,000. The designs, in many instances, are re- 
markable for their elegance, and the establishments are not sur- 
passed in facilities or in extent by any others. The moulding- 
room of one firm is three hundred and sixty feet long and sixty 
feet wide, being the largest moulding-room, with the exception 
of one also in Philadelphia, in the United States. The Foundry 
of another firm has facilities and capacity for turning out 30,000 
Stoves per annum. The cheapness of the raw material, and mild- 
ness of the winters, enabling the manufacturers to continue oper- 
ations without cessation throughout the year, are marked advan- 
tages, and the fineness of the castings induces professed manufac- 
turers in other places to obtain their supplies from this city. The 
varieties made here embrace almost every description, from the 
old Franklin Stove, and the Ten-plate Wood Stove, down to the 
most modern styles and patterns, including Gas Cooking Stoves. 
In originating patterns and beautiful styles, the Philadelphia man- 
ufacturers and Stove pattern-makers have been remarkably suc- 
cessful ; and Stoves from this city have been shipped to Oregon^ 
California, Australia, and Europe ; while in our own markets no 
others can compete with them. 

In addition to the establishments devoted, either entirely or in 
part, to the production of Stoves, there are about fifty Stove- 



STOVES AND HOLLOW-WARE. 291 

makers who get their castings from founders, and finish them in 
their own shops. As some Cooking Stoves have sheet-iron ovens, 
and many Parlor and Office Stoves are chiefly composed of Russia 
Sheet Iron, the value of the castings, in some instances, is in- 
creased from two to three times. About nineteen establishments, 
besides the above, are engaged in the manufacture of Hot-air 
Furnaces, (or Heaters,) and Cooking Ranges. They usually orig- 
inate or purchase the patterns, and get the castings executed at 
the regular foundries. The varieties made, embrace the most 
complete, convenient, and economical, as well as a fac-simile of 
the article so long used in New York ; and the Summer Range 
or Gas Oven, which originated here, and is said to be unknown 
elsewhere. The above establishments furnish employment to at 
least six hundred metal workers, and consume a large amount of 
Russia, English, and American Sheet Iron, besides Tin-plate, 
Fire-brick, &c., &c. Ornamental Iron Parlor Grates, for which 
we have long been dependent upon New York, are now made 
here of great elegance, and in various styles, by at least one firm, 
who has recently erected ovens for baking on the enamel. 

Three of the Foundries in Philadelphia are occupied almost 
exclusively in casting Hollow-ware and Hardware Goods, which 
are subsequently enameled or tinned. The establishment of one 
of these, that of Messrs. STUART & PETERSON, is probably more 
extensive than any other of the kind in the Union. In this manu- 
facture great care is necessary in the selection and commixing of 
the different brands of Iron, in order to obtain castings of proper 
tenacity ; and after such are obtained, the inside surface of the 
ware must be made smooth and bright to protect the enamel. 
In England this is effected by turning the article in an ordinary 
foot-lathe, the tool being guided by hand ; but the inhalation of 
particles of Iron proved most destructive to the lives of the opera- 
tives. The firm above alluded to, employ for this purpose self- 
acting tools or lathes, the invention of their master-machinist ; 
and so admirably do they conform to the irregularities of the sur- 
face to be turned, that they seem to be endowed with almost human 
intelligence. 

The products of this establishment embrace a great variety of 



292 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Culinary and Household articles Pots, Kettles, Stew-Pans, and 
other articles, from the smallest to the largest, as Caldrons, &c.* 
The other Hollow-ware Foundries in the branch, are those of 
Messrs. SAVERY & Co., and LEIBRANDT, MCDOWELL & Co., late 
Finley & Co. The former has been established about twenty years, 
and has produced an immense number of Pots, Pans, Kettles, &c., 
besides Plows, and other agricultural implements of great va- 
riety and acknowledged excellence. This firm employ about one 
hundred hands, and have been very successful in producing cast- 
ings remarkable for their size, as Caldrons, Sugar Boilers, &c. , 
capable of holding hundreds of gallons. The establishment of 
FINLEY & Co. is new, and has recently changed owners. In its 
present hands it will no doubt soon take rank with the others. 

2. BUILDING AND ORNAMENTAL IRON-WORK. 

The use of Iron, as a material for building purposes, must be 
ranked among the modern applications of this wonderful metal. 
The gentleman who erected the first Iron Building in the United 
States is, we believe, still prepared to receive orders. The 
oldest Foundry in Philadelphia, devoted to the production of 
Building castings, was erected in 1804 ; and its proprietor, Mr. 

* We extract the following remarks from a circular of Messrs. STUART & 
PETERSON, who are certainly entitled to very great credit for their success- 
ful efforts in competing with foreign manufacturers. 

" We now anneal and turn out bright the inside surface of all the ware we 
enamel or tin, the annealing making it less liable to break by sudden exposure 
to heat, and turning off the casting surface makes it retain the enamel more 
perfectly ; and even after long use, if the enamel should come off, the sur- 
face left will be smooth and easily kept clean, altogether making it more 
serviceable than the ware of those manufacturers who do not prepare their 
ware thus. We wish it to be known particularly that we do not put into the 
mixture, or use in any way in the preparation of our enamel, any lead or other 
metallic oxides. 

" We desire to call particular attention to our Tinned (usually called 
PATENT METAL) Ware. We prepare it for tinning in the same way, use the 
same quality and quantity of tin on each piece, use the same quality of 
iron, and finish it in the same way, making it in all respects the same qual- 
ity as English Patent Metal Ware. It will stand ns much heat and use, and 
many of our customers have been pleased to say, is more bright and perfect 
than nny they have ever seen imported." 



BUILDING AND ORNAMENTAL IRON-WORK. 293 

James Yocoin, was one of the first in this country to make Iron 
fronts for buildings. The business now employs six Foundries, 
almost exclusively ; and as the advantages of Iron for this pur- 
pose, combining as it does strength and durability, with cheapness 
and facility of elaborate ornamentation, become more manifest, 
the architectural popularity of the metal will extend. 

At the present time, the firms engaged in producing Building 
Castings, may be said to execute work for the whole country. 
During the last year, Messrs. H. C. ORAM & Co., made and put 
up a five-story Iron front in New Orleans ; an Iron front in Sa- 
vannah ; another in Nashville; supplied Ornamental Castings for 
the Town Hall in Wilmington, N. C. ; a Cast Iron frame for the 
New Orleans Gas Company ; besides putting up a large number 
of fronts in Philadelphia and its vicinity ; casting thirty-six bow- 
string girders from sixteen to forty-three feet long, six hundred 
and fourteen columns from eight to twenty-two feet, and the mag- 
nificent Cast Iron dome and ceiling of the Bank of Pennsylvania. 
Another firm, Messrs. HAQAR, SANSON & FARRAND, has executed 
extensive orders for Galveston, Texas; and supplied numerous 
places in the South and West. This firm make a Revolving Iron 
Shutter, which is extensively used and highly appreciated. 
Its ability alike to resist the assaults of fire and of burglars, 
as well as its durability and convenience, has increased its 
popularity and induced an extensive demand. These Shutters 
are known as Mettam's Patent, and are corrugated, which gives 
the slats increased strength. Mr. Sanson has invented a machine 
which cuts and corrugates the slats at the same time. This 
cheapens the production, and enables this firm to supply Shutters 
at a reduced price. 

It may be safely said that the firms now engaged in producing 
Building work have a most complete and extensive stock of pat- 
terns, and every facility for the execution of orders, however dif- 
ficult may be the design or configuration desired. 

The manufacture of Hoofing is made a distinct branch of the 
Iron Building work, in this city. One firm, Messrs. R. S. HAR- 
RIS & Co., is very extensively engaged in the manufacture of 
Corrugated Iron Roofing, an article introduced here some years 
ago by Asa Whitney, and found peculiarly well adapted for cov 



294 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

ering buildings of great size or span, as Rail-road Depots, Foun- 
dries, Banks, &c., while also well adapted for smaller buildings 
It is well-known that a wooden roof, if the span be great, say 
sixty or eighty feet, requires a very heavy frame ; but by the pro 
cess adopted by this firm, a roof superior in durability is obtained 
with less weight. The material used is generally American Gal- 
vanized Iron, (unless common iron painted, of which the first 
cost is less, be preferred ;) and is supported on a peculiar Patent 
Independent Truss, supplied by this firm. The corrugating so 
strengthens the material, that Iron No. 22, possesses all requisite 
strength for the largest building. The works of this firm, situ- 
ated at Prime and Eleventh streets, are well provided with ma- 
chinery for making every part of a roof on their premises ; but 
probably the most remarkable of their machines is one for punch- 
ing, by which the sheets of a roof are so accurately and uni- 
formly punched, that the proper place of each can be known, and 
the entire roof put up by others than the manufacturers.* 

Messrs. Harris & Co. also make Patent Galvanized Cornices, 
which are cheaper and lighter, and more ornamental than stone, 
and more durable than wood. Specimens can be seen at the 
Academy of Music, in Philadelphia, and at Nassau Hall, Prince- 
ton, N. J. It is hoped that Hoofing and Cornices, of the descrip- 
tion which this firm manufacture, will come into more extensive 
use than heretofore ; for, being entirely fire-proof, they are a pro- 
tection to a city. 

Ornamental Iron Work, and especially the manufacture of 
Iron Sailings, constitute to some extent a distinct business, 
though generally associated with Architectural Iron-work in some 
of its forms. The Iron Railings made in this city are of a very 
superior character, both as regards the construction and decora- 
tive arrangement of the parts ; no expense being spared by the 

Among the numerous buildings covered with Corrugated Iron Roofing, we 
might mention the United States Mint, the Masonic Hall, John Grigg's Fire- 
proof building, the Depot of the West Philadelphia Passenger Railway, the 
Phoenixville Iron Works, the Gas Works in Cincinnati, the Custom House in 
Mobile, the Charlotte Branch Mint, the very extensive buildings of the Geor- 
gia Central Rail-road Company at Savannah, the Gas Works at Richmond, 
and at Winchester, Va., and many others in the chief cities of the South 
and West ; besides several in Havana, Cuba. 



RAILINGS AND ORNAMENTAL IRON-WORK. 295 

leading manufacturers to obtain beautiful and tasteful designs. 
Most of the Cemeteries and Public Squares throughout the whole 
country are adorned by work executed iu Philadelphia ; and every 
city, probably every town in the Union, contains some specimen 
of our manufacturers' skill and taste. The English Commission- 
ers, in their report on the Industry of the United States, refer, in 
terms of high commendation, to the Ornamental Cast Iron-work 
of Philadelphia, as will be perceived from the following extract : 

" Ornamental Castings for architectural purposes, such as balus- 
trades, railings, etc., are produced in large quantities in New 
York, Boston, Philadelphia, and other large cities, and these are 
usually copies or adaptations of similar work made in this country. 

" At Philadelphia, the garden decorations, ornamental cast 
iron-work for cemeteries, monuments, etc., manufactured at the 
foundry of Mr. ROBERT WOOD, are good examples of their class. 
One or two verandahs and garden fountains were superior in 
design, being well adapted both to the material and the purpose 
for which they were intended. Mr. Wood is engaged in the 
production of a cast-iron statue of Henry Clay, fifteen feet high, 
to be placed upon a Doric column of the same material, about to 
be erected by the citizens of Pottsville, Schuylkill County, Penn- 
sylvania."* 

In the manufacture of Railings, though Cast Iron is princi- 
pally employed, Wrought Iron is used in considerable quantities. 
The latter is considered superior to Cast Iron in the power of 
resisting strains or concussions ; and since the discovery of the 
process of weaving bars of any size, recently introduced into 
Philadelphia, it is possible to attain equal strength in the con- 
struction of Window Guards, Gratings, Railings, &c., with much 
less weight of material than formerly. 

Within the last few years the applications of Cast Iron-work 
have been greatly extended. Iron Bedsteads, of all sizes, are 
made largely by at least two firms, Messrs. WALKER & SONS, and 
MACFERRAN & YOUNG. The Ornamental Iron Bedstead of Mr. 

* For a full description of this interesting establishment, (now WOOD & 
PEROT'S,) see APPENDIX. 



296 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Macferran is highly recommended by the Franklin Institute, as 
an article combining neatness, and light weight, with sufficient 
strengh. His manufactures include a great variety of Ornamental 
Iron Castings, Hat Racks, Umbrella Stands, Water Coolers, 
Washstands, Sinks, Fountains, Settees, Dogs, Lions, Tables, 
Chairs, Towel Racks, with a great variety of Brackets, Hitching 
Posts, Spout Castings, &c., &c. 

This gentleman is noted for his taste in designs, and ingenuity 
in originating desirable patterns. He also manufactures the cele- 
brated Champion Hot-air Furnace, and Ranges, Gas Ovens, &c. 

3. SAFES. 

The manufacturers of these articles, almost indispensable among 
a mercantile people, have so effectually "cried aloud and spared 
not," that the public are probably more familiar with their rela- 
tive merits than we are. The metal portion of the Safes consists 
of stout and tough Wrought Bar and Plate Iron ; and the space 
between the outer and inner surfaces is filled with a chemical 
preparation, which is a good non-conductor of heat. The inte- 
rior is rendered wholly impervious to damp ; and books, papers, 
and jewelry, may be preserved in them any length of time with- 
out blemish from mould or mildew. Rival makers have mani- 
fested a very determined disposition to burn up each other's Safes ; 
and if none have succeeded in doing this, we must infer that all 
are equally proof against fire. The annual production in this 
city is about $180,000. (See APPENDIX.) 

The principal restriction hitherto to the more extended use of 
Iron has been its tendency to oxdyation or rust, but happily me- 
chanical ingenuity has overcome this difficulty. Iron is now 
coated with another metal, forming a combination impervious to 
atmospherical influences, and known as GALVANIZED IRON. 

The process of effecting this great change in this useful material, 
and forming Galvanized Sheet Iron, is described to us by a leading 
firm in the business, as follows : The Iron is first rolled into sheets 
as ordinary Sheet Iron ; but for the purpose of galvanizing, a selec- 
tion is necessary, for experience has proved that Iron, though of 
good quality, will not in all cases combine with the zinc which is 
used in coating. The sheets selected are rolled very smooth and 
well trimmed to the size required, and cleansed from all irapuri- 



GALVANIZED IRON. 297 

ties by a weak acid. The effects of the acid are in turn removed 
by immersion in a tank of clear water, and then the sheets are 
dried in an oven. The iron thus prepared is placed in contact 
with the zinc, and the two metals being brought to the same 
temperature combine and fuse, and form a material impervious 
to rust, and requiring neither paint nor any preservative agent. 
The proper regulation of the temperature of the zinc and the 
iron is a point of great nicety, requiring in the manufacturer 
much previous experience. 

The firm to whom this material is indebted for much of its present 
popularity and even intrinsic value, and who, we understand, were 
the first to introduce the manufacture of Galvanized Sheet Iron 
into the United States, are Messrs. McCuLLOUGH & Co., of Phila- 
delphia. Their works, it is believed, are the most extensive of the 
kind in the Union. Their mills for rolling Sheet Iron, of which 
they own three, are located in Cecil County, Maryland two at 
North East, and one at Rowlandsville. They are driven by water- 
power the former by the feeders of the North East Creek, and 
the latter by the waters of the Octorara ; and are capable of pro- 
ducing from 1,500 to 2,000 tons of Sheet and Flue Iron annually. 
The firm employ at their various works from 200 to 250 men 
use 2,000 to 2,500 tons of Pig Iron and Blooms, and consume 
about 1,500 tons of Anthracite, and some 2,000 tons Bituminous 
coals. The works for Galvanizing are located in the city, at the 
corner of Eleventh and Prime streets, and all the Iron made is 
brought from the mills, by way of the Philadelphia, Wilmington 
and Baltimore Rail-road and the River, and delivered at the 
warehouse in connection with these works. 

The Galvanized Iron of this firm has been tested by the emi- 
nent chemist of the Mint, Professor Booth, who pronounced it 
equal to that of English manufacture ; and in certain tests by 
sulphuric and other acids, it proved superior. Its applications 
are necessarily almost as numerous as Iron itself, being available 
wherever exposed to corrosive influences, and specially adapted 
for Roofing, Iron-work for ships, Water and Gas Tubing, Win 
dow Shutters, Telegraph Wire, &c. 

In the northern part of the city there is another establishment 
for Galvanizing Sheet Iron, Wire, &c., MARSHALL, GRIFFIN & Co 
24 



298 



PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 



proprietors. At these works sixty men are employed, and twelve 
miles of Telegraphic Wire are galvanized in a day, at a cost of 
about $10 per mile. 

We have thus briefly traced and narrated the processes em- 
ployed in the production of the various kinds of Iron Pig, 
Wrought, and Cast, from the period of its extraction from the 
earth in the form of Ore, down to its introduction to the market. 
A more comprehensive and connected view of the whole, however, 
may be obtained from an examination of the subjoined table, 

Or ANALYTICAL VIEW OF THE MANUFACTURE AND USE OF IRON 



bd 
feja|f 



Natural 
Iron Minet 

and 

Iron Beds 
contain 



I! 



53 
-P- 3 



pa 



Sfc 

o ^ 

e s 



"> o 

M 



- **/ 

S3 
S-S 
5 's? 

<3 P* 



&: 



o 2, 
,_, 3' 

3 o 



!f- B -" 

M -H 

a Q ~ 



srl 



These undergo in the 
Blast Furnace 



Digging or Mining, 
Roasting,* 

SMELTING. 



White Iron, Mottled Iron, Bright Iron, Gray Iron. 



and assume the 

form of 

Pig Iron, 

rated 



They next in 
Iron Work* 

and 
Foundriet 

undergo 



And are put 

in use 



b^ ^ h^ 


*: 


1 *4 




*4 


V ta Bto *0 )-> 




<*a ff 


3 < 


<3 


2 w 2 " ** SS" ^ 


^03 


> 





o 5 


^ <s ^ o ^ o 


~* a 


o a. r 


3-<< 


a. 


o o ^ o o *~^ o o *^ 
Bim <!t S>^^ il^*' 


(j ^ 


"* M <5 


P- 


>< 


.S-O Pc0 PS-O 






" x 




CPjj B"_a P"^p 


** ^ 1- 


** ^ M 


CO g 




S? 1 ? 1 P 5 


' S-l 


P S 3 
5? 


<" 
1 >. 


il 


Refining* 




Melting, 






PUDDLING, 

Squeezing or Hammering, 




MOULDING, 






Rolling. 




Cleaning. 








And when 
torn out become 



Wrought Scrap Iron. Cast Scrap Iron. 

* Those processes marked by a Star are sometimes omitted. 



COTTON AND WOOLEN MACHINERY. 299 

XX. 

Iron and its Manufactures Continued. Machinery. 

The manufacturers of Machinery, considered with reference to 
the nature of their occupation, are divided into two classes, who 
may be styled special and general Machinists the former being 
u hose who confine their operations to a special and particular 
class of Machines and Tools, and the latter being those who have 
the disposition and facilities to execute orders for almost all kinds 
of Machinery, heavy and light. The Machine-makers of Phila- 
delphia are, in this view, principally general Machinists ; but each 
of the following classes Cotton and Woolen Machinery; Railway 
Machinery; Machinists' Tools; Paper-makers 1 , Printers', and 
Bookbinders' Machines; Fire Engines; Gas and Water Apparatus, 
and probably some others, has extensive establishments devoted 
expressly to its production. We shall briefly advert to the most 
important of these special classes, commencing with 

1. COTTON AND WOOLEN MACHINERY. 

It is stated, in apparently authentic records, that the manufac- 
ture of some parts of the machinery necessary in the production 
of Textile fabrics, was carried on in Philadelphia in the time of 
the Revolution. As early as 1778, we learn from Scott's Gazet- 
teer of the United States, published in 1805, that the eminent 
Philadelphia machinist, OLIVER EVANS, manufactured 

"Wire from American Bar-iron, which he made of excellent quality, 
on the most improved plan carried on iu this country ; also wrought it 
into wire for cards, in the way described by those who had seen them 
made in Europe. But thinking the process too tedious, he invented a 
machine by which he could work the wire into card teeth, at the rate 
of nearly three thousand per minute, by the simple motion of turning a 
winch, or wrench, by hand ; also, a machine for punching the holes in 
the leather for the teeth, by which he could prick by the motion of his 
hand one hundred and fifty pair of cards per day. He also planned a 
wire mill, with machinery to make the wire into card teeth as fast as 
drawn. This he has often declared was one of the greatest produc- 
tions of his mind. He applied to the Legislature of Pennsylvania for 
aid to carry it into effect ; but this was not granted, and this was lost. 
When peace was established he declined this business, and in the year 



300 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

1783 commenced the building of a merchant flour mill, which led him 
to the study of the improvement of the art of manufacturing flonr ; 
and invented the machines which he has denominated the Elevator, the 
Hopper-boy, the Conveyor, and Drill, by means of which, when properly 
applied, the greatest part of the manufacture and labor which were 
oefore necessary is now saved." 

But the first regular manufactory of Cotton Machinery was 
established at Holmesburg, in 1810, by ALFKED JENKS, who had 
oeen a pupil and colaborer with the celebrated Samuel Slater, 
and who brought with him from New England drawings of every 
variety of Cotton Machinery, as far as it had then advanced in 
the line of improvement. He supplied the first mill started in 
this portion of the State of Pennsylvania, with the requisite ma- 
chinery ; and subsequently the Keating Mill, at Manayunk, now 
owned by J. G-. Kempton. In 1816 he built for Joseph Ripka, 
a number of Looms for weaving Cottonades. A record now 
before us states : 

" Under the universal impetus given to home manufactures 
during the last war, Mr. Jenks greatly extended his business 
operations, and in 1819 or 1820 removed to his present desirable 
location in Bridesburg, the increased growth of which is owing in 
no small degree to the personal efforts and enterprise of himself and 
the importance of his establishment. Here, where he possessed 
the necessary facilities for shipping to his more distant patrons, 
he conveyed his old frame building from Holmesburg on rollers, 
which yet stands amid the more substantial and excellent struc- 
tures beside it. This, however, was found too small for his in- 
creased business, and was extended by the erection of a stone 
building thirty feet long, now forming the north end of the pres- 
ent main building, which is four hundred feet in length. When 
the demand first arose for Woolen Machinery in Pennsylvania, 
Mr. Jenks answered it, and at once commenced its manufacture, 
and furnished the first Woolen Mill erected in the State, by Bethel 
Moore, at Conshohocken, with all the machinery necessary for this 
manufacture. 

"In 1830, Mr. Jenks, impressed with the idea that the labor of 
manipulation was insufficient to supply the wants of the popula- 
tion, or to meet the commercial demands, invented a Power-loom 



COTTON AND WOOLEN MACHINERY. 301 

for Weaving Checks, and introduced it into the Kempton Mill at 
Manayunk, where its success produced such excitement among 
hand-weavers, and others opposed to labor-saving machinery, as 
to cause a large number of them to go to the mill, with the 
avowed purpose of destroying it, from doing which they were 
only prevented by the presence of an armed force. This, and 
other improved machinery made by Mr. Jenks, soon acquired an 
extended reputation, and induced the erection of larger buildings 
and the introduction of increased facilities. The numerous valu- 
able improvements made by Mr. Jenks, from 1819, when he ob- 
tained his first patent, to the present time, and those of his equally 
ingenious and skillful son, are embraced in such a vast number of 
patents, and are so various in their nature and construction, as to 
prevent us from even enumerating their titles and objects in this 
limited notice. They are, however, well-known to manufac- 
turers." 

The present works of Messrs. ALFRED JENKS & SON are un- 
questionably among the most extensive and important for the 
manufacture of Cotton and Woolen Machinery in the Union. 
The present sole manager, BARTON H. JENKS, Esq., has been 
untiring in his efforts to improve and perfect the general system 
of manufacturing; and so successful in this, and in originating 
improvements with reference to special articles, that, at the pres- 
ent time, we do not believe there are any other works in the 
entire Union that can be compared with these for the purposes for 
which they are designed. The development which we have shown 
has been attained in the manufacture of Textile fabrics in Phila- 
delphia, and its vicinity, is no doubt in part due to the excellence 
of the machinery supplied from this establishment; but its ben- 
efits are by no means local, for its products are as regularly 
shipped to New England as to Manayunk, and to the South as to 
Gloucester. We, however, shall reserve a description of these 
Works for the APPENDIX. 

Cotton and Woolen Machinery is made at several other 
establishments in Philadelphia; but in these the scope of opera- 
tions is either restricted to certain particular Machines, or is so 
extended as to embrace general Machinery. J. & T. WOOD, 
proprietors of the Ftxirmount Machine Works, for instance, do 
24* 



302 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

an extensive business in the construction of LOOMS, for which 
they are provided with all the requisite facilities ; and in 1856> 
they turned out four hundred and eighty Power Looms, or forty 
per month. Their Looms, we believe, are so constructed as to be 
adapted for use either in Cotton or Woolen Factories. But the 
business of this firm takes a much more comprehensive range, 
embracing the construction of Embossed Calenders, Lard Oil 
Presses, of which they can make twenty per month, and all kinds 
of Shafting, Pulleys, Hangers, Couplings, &c., and machine 
work in general. They employ regularly about seventy hands. 
The Messrs. Wood have an excellent reputation for doing thor- 
oughly and well whatever they undertake. 

Messrs. HINDLE & SONS, in West Philadelphia, employ about 
fifty hands, principally in the manufacture of Woolen Machinery ; 
and Messrs. ECCLES & SON make Looms, and a variety of Machi- 
nery for Cotton Factories. 

Hepworth's picking stop-motion for Drop-box Power Looms 
is made by J. J. Hepworth ; and Lead Wire for Looms is made 
at the Lead Pipe Works of Tathem & Brothers, which are be- 
lieved to be the most extensive of the kind in the world. 

Card Clothing is made very extensively at one establishment, 
where fifty-three of those wonderful and ingenious machines, which 
Webster is reported to have said seemed to be endowed with human 
intelligence, are in constant operation. The original Machine 
was patented in 1810, by Thomas Whittemore, though the real in- 
ventor was Elizur Smith, of Walpole, Mass. Various improve- 
menta have been made from time to time ; and now so perfect 
and automatic are its operations, that only three men are re- 
quired to tend fifty-three machines. It seizes the wire in its iron 
fingers, bends it, punches holes for it in the leather, then inserts 
it ; and if the slightest derangement take place, or the least im- 
perfection is manifested in the manufactured product, it stops and 
waits until the difficulty is remedied. 

The proprietors of this establishment, Messrs. JAMES SMITH 
& Co., are experimenting with reference to the substitution of 
Cloth for Leather in their manufacture. The average price of 
the Card Clothing made in Philadelphia, is $1 per square foot, 
and the quality superior to that made elsewhere in the country. 



COTTON AND WOOLEN MACHINERY. 303 

One firm, Messrs. W. P. UHLINGER & Co., are extensively en- 
gaged in the manufacture of Ribbon Looms, Jacquard Machines, 
and Rotary Knitting Machines. This excellent establishment 
employs from forty to seventy mechanics, and does an annual 
business of over $50,000. The most ingenious and compli- 
cated Machinery is made here Ribbon Looms, for instance, 
being self-acting, and combined with the Jacquard Machine, to be 
propelled by power or hand. These are supplied largely to 
New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts the extensive Man- 
ufactory of Ribbons and Trimmings, at West Newton, in the 
last-named State, being wholly supplied with Machines by this 
firm. 

Hotary Knitting Machines for Stockings, Jackets, Shirts, &c., 
are made at this establishment. For this Machine, Mr. Uh- 
linger received a first-class premium from the Franklin Insti- 
tute ; and its practical value is shown in the patronage bestowed 
upon it, both by power and by hand-loom weavers. 

Mr. Uhlinger's establishment was founded in 1850; and though 
its transition from insignificance to importance has been rapid, its 
present equipments, perfection in machinery,' and quality of its 
manufactures, entitle it to rank among the important ones of Phil- 
adelphia. The demand for Sewing Machines has induced the pro- 
prietor to provide himself with superior facilities for their manu- 
facture ; and hereafter these important Machines, so largely sold 
in this market, will also be extensively made here. 

The common Knitting Frames are made by two persons in 
Germantown ; and Looms, &c., by several manufacturers in a 
small way throughout the city. 

Shuttles are an exclusive article of manufacture in at least two 
concerns those of Mr. H. SERGESON, and E. JACKSON, each of 
whom make annually 20,000 Shuttles of all sizes, from the small 
ones for Silk or Lace, and Hand-looms, to the largest sized ones, 
with wheels, used in weaving Broad-cloth. The prices range 
from $4.50 to $22 per dozen. Philadelphia has peculiar advan- 
tages for the production of an excellent Shuttle, at a moderate 
cost, from the fact that a better quality of wood, used for 
this purpose, is here attainable than elsewhere. This is a fine 
quality of Dog-wood, which grows upon the Isthmus, between 



304 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays, and for this manufacture it 
is nearly equal to the best Turkey Box-wood. The varieties grown 
further South, or more inland, are softer, and of inferior quality, 
the sea air apparently conducing to the perfection of the wood. 

Small Bone and Ivory Shuttles, for ladies' use, are also made ; 
and both common and fancy Shuttles are sent from Philadelphia 
to all parts of the Union. 

Seeds and Neddies constitute a distinct business for several 
parties. One firm has employed as many as sixty hands ; and the 
annual product has attained a value of $150,000. 

2. RAILWAY MACHINERY. 

The activity of the American people in constructing Railways, 
already extending, as they do, to more than 24,000 miles, or a dis- 
tance as great as the circumference of the globe, has necessarily 
called into existence immense establishments, exclusively devoted to 
supplying a demand for Railway equipments. Four years ago, 
it was estimated that the capital then invested in Locomotive 
building was $3,000,000, employing over 6,000 hands, who re- 
ceived $2,700,000 yearly for labor, and turned out $8,000,000 in 
value of manufactured products. 

Twenty years ago, it is believed, there were not six Locomotive 
establishments in the Union. A story is told of a gentleman 
who, about that time, received an offer from a capitalist of New 
York to furnish him the necessary capital to engage in the manu- 
facture of Locomotives, if he thought it would pay, and, as such 
offers were rare, was quite desirous to accept of it ; but, after 
visiting the principal shops, reported to the capitalist that the 
business would not pay, "for with three hundred men and Bald- 
win's shop, in Philadelphia, he could build all the Locomotives 
the country would need for twenty years." This gentleman is 
probably now a wiser, as well as an older man ; for, by examining 
the late report of the Pennsylvania Central Hail-road, he could 
learn that this Company alone has in use 2,16 Locomotives. 

The concentration of Rail-roads, and the advantages for eco- 
nomical construction, and especially the experience and eminence 
of her Engineers, have made Philadelphia a great centre for the 
construction of Railway Machinery. The establishments which 



LOCOMOTIVE WORKS. 305 

are principally occupied in this pursuit, are among the most ex- 
tensive, important, and interesting in the city ; and this remark 
applies not merely to those which are employed in producing 
complete Machinery, but also those occupied in making parts, as 
Wheels, Axles, Tubes, Turn-Tables, &c. We shall advert to the 
more prominent of these, commencing with LOCOMOTIVES. 

It is a somewhat singular fact, that the same eminent Philadel- 
phia Engineer, to whom we referred as a pioneer in the construc- 
tion of Cotton Machinery, is also credited with having built the 
first Locomotive Steam Engine, taking the word locomotive in 
its derivative signification as "self-acting."* 

It may also be claimed, that the first entirely successful Amer- 
ican Locomotive was built by a Philadelphia mechanic ; while it 
is conceded that here many of the most important improvements 
in its construction and capabilities had their origin. The work- 
shops of this city have sent forth nearly 1,800 Locomotives to 
perform their part in extending civilization, some of which are 
now thundering up mountain grades, on the long lines of the 
Pennsylvania Central and Baltimore and Ohio roads, while 
others are extending the fame of American genius in Continental 
Europe. The establishments, of which there are two in this city, 
date from the organization of the manufacture into a distinct 
business, and a brief outline of their history will not be deemed 
inappropriate. 

* Scott's Gazetteer, published in 1805, speaking of Oliver Evans, says : 
" He is now just finishing a machine called the Orukter Amphibolis, or Am- 
phibious Digger, for the purpose of digging either by land or water, and 
deepening the docks of the city of Philadelphia. It consists of a steam- 
engine on board of a flat-bottomed boat, to work a chain of hooks to break 
up the ground, with buckets to raise it above water, and deposit it in an- 
other boat to be carried off. This principle he can no doubt apply to dig 
canals to make great dispatch. Orukter Amphibolis is built a mile from 
the water; and although very heavy, he means to move it to the water by 
the power of the engine. Its first state will then be, a Land Carriage moved 
by steam." 



306 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

M. W. BALDWIN & CO.'S LOCOMOTIVE WORKS. 

The founder of these works, Mr. M. W. Baldwin, is a native 
of New Jersey, but has been a resident of Philadelphia for over 
forty years. He commenced his mechanical career as an appren- 
tice to the Jewelry manufacture ; but, on attaining his majority, 
saw proper to apply the knowledge so obtained to the production 
and improvement of Bookbinders' Tools, which at that time 
thirty or thirty-five years ago were generally imported. In part- 
nership with David H. Mason, he prosecuted this manufacture 
with success ; and, by the introduction of new designs, largely 
extended and improved Ornamental Bookbinding. To this busi- 
ness was added in 1822, that of engraving rolls for printing 
cotton goods, which became the source of large profits. They 
were the originators of this business in this country, and pursued 
it without competition until they had brought it to a degree of 
perfection that defied foreign competition. Subsequently, Bank- 
note engraving was attempted with fair success. These pur- 
suits required the invention and manufacture of a variety of tools 
and machinery adapted to particular uses, the getting up of which 
gradually introduced the Machine business, and the manufacture 
of Hydraulic Presses, Rolls for Calendering Paper, Stationary En- 
gines, and finally the Locomotive. In 1830, at the request of Mr. 
Peale, the proprietor of the Philadelphia Museum, Mr. Baldwin 
constructed a model Locomotive Engine for exhibition, which was 
put in use in 1831, hauling five or six passengers in a train of cars, 
and attracting crowds to the then novel sight. This led to an 
order for an engine from the Philadelphia and Germantown Rail- 
road Company ; it was completed in 1832, and placed on the road 
in January, 1833. This was, undoubtedly, the first successful 
American Locomotive Engine ; and, from the records in the 
newspapers of that day, its performance was not exceeded for 
years after, having made a mile in less than a minute. The busi- 
ness was now commenced, and extended as rapidly as. the neces- 
sary tools, patterns, and fixtures, could be obtained. During the 
years 1833-34, five engines were built, and the large shops on 
Broad, above Callowhill street, now occupied as their works, were 
commenced and completed. In 1835, fourteen Locomotives were 



LOCOMOTIVE WORKS. 307 

manufactured; in 1836, forty; and in 1837, between forty-five 
and fifty. The financial revulsions of the period reduced the 
number, in 1838, to twenty-four. The leading features of the 
engines built by Mr. Baldwin, and which established his reputa- 
tion upon a permanent basis, were their simplicity, strength, and 
durability. The greater portion are yet in use ; and, within the 
limit of their power, are still doing duty profitably to their owners, 
and creditably to the skill of the builder. The plan of attaching 
the cylinders to the outside of the smoke-box, now almost uni- 
versally adopted, originated with Mr. Baldwin ; and also the me- 
tallic ground joints, and various minor improvements, upon which 
the present perfection of the Locomotive Engine depends. 

In 1842, Mr. Baldwin introduced the six and eight-wheel con- 
nected engine, with an arrangement of truck for adaptation to 
the curves and undulations of the road. The superintendent of 
the largest coal freighting road in the United States says of these : 
" They are saving us thirty per cent, in every trip on the former 
cost of Motive or Engine Power." 

In 1854, Mr. MATTHEW BATRD became associated with Mr. 
Baldwin, under the present firm style of M. W. Baldwin & Co. 
Mr. Baird is a practical mechanic, who is familiar both with the 
details of the Locomotive business since its commencement, and 
with other mechanical pursuits, and is a gentleman of much and 
deserved popularity. Contributing to the concern capital, en- 
ergy, and practical knowledge, it has, with his accession, taken a 
new lease of prosperous activity. 

The proprietors of these works have for years been engaged in 
perfecting a system of engines, by means of which they could be 
adapted to economical working on almost any grade or curve. 
Several distinct kinds, and numerous sizes of each kind, from 
three to thirty-five tons weight, are manufactured with from two 
to eight driving-wheels. The system of adaptation, and its ad- 
vantages, are seen in its results. On the Pennsylvania Rail-road, 
Eastern Division, where the grades are moderate, a passenger 
engine, has been running over eighteen months 133 miles per day 
without the loss of a trip for repairs. 

The success with which difficulties are overcome by engines of 
this firm's construction, is specially illustrated in a pamphlet pub- 



308 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

lished by Charles Ellet, Civil Engineer, describing their working 
on a mountain top, over the Blue Ridge. He says : 

" We should not regard mountainous regions as necessarily excluded 
from participation in all the comforts and conveniences due to the rail- 
road, because they can only be reached by lines of very steep grade or 
very abrupt curvature. The American Locomotive can penetrate into 
the most retired valleys of Switzerland, and bring forth the products 
of their industry. Wherever men can go to cultivate the earth with 
profit, there the locomotive can follow to take away the produce of 
their soil. In fact, the engines daily running on this road, and draw- 
ing after them regular trains of forty or fifty tons of freight and pas- 
sengers up grades rising at the rate of 296 feet per mile, and swinging 
their trains of eight- wheel cars around curves of less than 300 feet 
radii, are capable of carrying the artillery and supplies of an army up 
the steepest slopes of the present road over the Simplon, and offering 
facilities to an invader that would have been deemed impossible a very 
short time ago. 

"This road was opened to the public in the spring of 1854, and it 
has now, in the autumn of 1857, been in constant use for a period of 
more than three and a half years. In all that time the admirable en- 
gines relied on to perform the extraordinary duties imposed upon them 
in the passage of this summit, have failed but once to make their regu- 
lar passage. 

" The locomotives for this severe duty were designed and constructed 
by the firm of M. W. Baldwin and Company, of Philadelphia. The 
slight modifications introduced at the instance of the writer, to adapt 
< hem better to the particular service to be performed in crossing the 
Blue Ridge, did not touch the working proportions or principles of the 
engines, the merits of which are due to the patentee, M. W. Baldwin, 
Esq. During the severe winter of 1855-56, when the travel upon all 
the Railways of Virginia, and the Northern and Western States, was 
interrupted, and on many lines for days in succession, the engines upon 
this mountain track, with the exception of the single day already spe- 
cified, moved regularly forward and did their appointed work. In fact, 
during the space of three and a half years that the road has been in 
use, they have only failed to take the mail through in a single instance, 
when the train was caught in a snow-drift near the summit of the moun- 
tain. 

" These results are due, in a great degree, certainly, to the admir- 
able adaptation of the engines employed to the service to be per- 
'orrned ; * * * the difficulties overcome in the location and work- 



LOCOMOTIVE WORKS. 309 

ing of the line, very much exceed those which have made the Austrian 
road over the Soemmering famous throughout Europe, while they have 
confirmed the claim of the American Locomotive, in climbing steep 
grades, to unrivaled pre-eminence." 

The present extent of the works of M. W. Baldwin & Co., 
will be best illustrated by the following items of materials con- 
sumed during the year 1857, viz. : 

r Iron 1,294,237 pounds. Sheet Copper 103,692 pounds. 



Boiler and Flue Iron $46,177 

Sheet Iron 35,831 

Tire Iron. 292,235 

Pig Iron 1,901,536 

Axles and Forginga 315,981 



Ingot Copper 55,492 

Banca Tin 14,536 

Springs and Steel 114,868 " 

Anthracite Coal 2,000 tons. 

Bituminous Coal 25,300 bushels. 



Value $223,766 69. 

Iron Flues value $17,027 Lumber value $9,017 

Files and Hardware " 11,745 Oil, Paints, Glass, &c " 7,322 

In addition to the above, Sheet Brass, Spelter, Charcoal, Belts, 
Hose, Locomotive Lamps, Steam Gauges, Moulding Sand, Fire- 
Brick, Clay, Boiler Rivets, &c., &c., were purchased to the amount 
of $30,000. Over 600 hands were employed, producing machinery 
equal to seventy-two Locomotive Engines, during the year. 

THE NORRIS LOCOMOTIVE WORKS. 

The Norris Locomotive Works originated in 1834, in a small 
shop, employing but six men, whose united wages was but thirty- 
six dollars per week. The power was furnished from an adjoining 
wheelwright shop, by a connecting shaft through a hole in the 
wall. Previous to this, in 1831, Mr. "Wm. Norris, in connection 
with Colonel Stephen H. Long, General Parker, George D. Weth- 
erell, and Dr. Richard Harlan, had formed a company for build- 
ing " Locomotors," (as they were then called.) intended for the 
use of Anthracite coal as fuel. The first Engine was built under 
the immediate supervision of Colonel Long, at the Phoenix Foun- 
dry, Kensington. On the 4th of July, 1832, steam was raised, 
ind it was tested on the New Castle and Frenchtown Rail-road. 
The trial proved their first attempt a failure, in consequence of 
the limited grate and fire surface. The Locomotive would run a 
mile at fair speed ; but would then stop short, until a fresh supply 
of steam was generated. 

At these works it is said an Engine was first constructed, ca- 
pable of ascending heavy grades with loaded cars. This feat was 
25 



810 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

performed by the "George Washington," in 1836. This success 
excited attention everywhere to the superiority of Philadel- 
phia Locomotives, and orders from Europe were received. In 
183*7, the Gloucester and Birmingham Railway, England, was 
supplied with seventeen Locomotives from these works, some of 
which are still in use. 

The present works are very extensive, embracing numerous 
buildings situated on Hamilton, Fairview, Morris, and Seven- 
teenth streets, on the locality formerly known as Bush Hill. In 
the year 1853 over one thousand hands were employed in them ; 
and with the improvements in buildings, tools, &c., made since 
1853, they can now accommodate over fifteen hundred hands. 

There are several leading principles observed in the adminis- 
tration of these works, which appear calculated to insure their 
highest efficiency, and the best quality in their productions. One 
is the manufacture, upon the spot, not only of the Engines, but as 
far as possible, of the materials also of which they are composed. 
All the forged work Tires, Tubes, Springs, Brass and Iron Cast- 
ings, Chilled Wheels, and other parts, are here made in the best 
manner, and with the aid of every fixture to be found in es- 
tablishments supplying separately each of these items. Another 
is the greatest possible substitution of machinery for manual labor. 
The tools are adapted, in a special manner, to the execution of 
each portion of the work ; and each class of tools is specially ap- 
propriated to distinct portions of the work. Another is the en- 
tire independence of the different departments of the works from 
each other. Hardly any two distinct branches of labor are car- 
ried on together in the same apartment ; but, at the same time, 
there is the utmost facility for all necessary communication be- 
tween the separate departments. In the materials used for the 
Engines, wrought iron is used wherever practicable, and to the 
exclusion of cast iron. Hammered charcoal iron is used for the 
boilers ; thick brazier's copper is used exclusively for the tubes ; 
and tough scrap is used for all important forgings. 

Up to the present period nine hundred and thirty-seven Loco- 
motives have been constructed at the Norris Works ; the average 
for the last ten years being about forty Locomotives per year. 
Of this number, one hundred and fifty-six were on foreign ac- 



CARS AND CAR WHEELS. 311 

count, having been shipped to England, France, Austria, Prussia, 
Italy, South America, Cuba, &c. 

The cost of a Locomotive, complete, varies between $6,000 and 
$12,000, although the price is somewhat confused, from the prac- 
tice of taking stock or bonds of a road in total or part payment, 
and often at some nominal price, without reference to their real 
value. The weight of a large first-class Locomotive, whether for 
freight or passengers, reaches as high as from twenty to thirty tons, 
exclusive of the tender. It is expedient in practice to use large 
Locomotives and haul heavy trains, in preference to the reverse, 
as the expense of attendance, and, to a certain extent, of repairs, 
is no greater for a large than for a small engine. 

The workmen employed in the Locomotive establishments of 
Philadelphia are a very superior order of mechanics, of whom the 
citizens of Philadelphia may justly be proud. The greatness of 
their mechanical creation is, in some respects, a prototype of 
their physical and mental characteristics. 

CARS are made in Philadelphia at two establishments, which in 
excellence of production, if not in extent, rank among the first in 
the country. The Philadelphia builders have constructed Cars 
for more than fifty of the Rail-roads in the United States ; and 
for beauty of finish, thorough workmanship, strength, and dura- 
bility, their Cars have no superiors. Nearly all the Passenger 
and Freight Cars of the Pennsylvania Central, and all for the 
North Pennsylvania Rail-road were built by them, as well as large 
numbers for Rail-roads in the Southern and Western States, and 
in Cuba and the British Provinces. (See APPENDIX.) 

The locality is one of the best for this manufacture in the 
country ; for, connected as Philadelphia is by Rail-roads with 
every part of the United States, and being on tide-water, build- 
ers have every facility for convenient and cheap transportation 
to any part of the world ; and, with iron and coal the two heavi- 
est items in their business cheaper here than in any other ship- 
ping port in the Union, they necessarily possess unrivaled advan- 
tages for manufacturing Cars with the greatest economy. 

For the manufacture of CAR WHEELS, A. WHITNEY & SONS 
have an immense establishment, the buildings of which cover 8,000 



312 PHILADELPHIA AXD ITS MANUFACTURES. 

square feet of ground. The moulding room is four hundred feet 
by sixty feet probably the largest in this country ; having two 
Railways extending its entire length, on which carriage Cranes 
are propelled, and used for removing the molten iron from the 
furnaces to the moulds, and the wheels from the moulds to the 
cooling pits. There are five large furnaces in all three of which 
communicate by tubes with an immense caldron for containing 
melted iron. There are thirty-six cooling pits, having a capacity 
for holding at a time two hundred and fifty wheels. 

The wheels are taken from the moulds as soon after they are 
cast as they have become cool enough to bear moving without 
changing their form. In this state they are put into a circular 
furnace or chamber, whicli has been previously heated to a dark 
red heat. As soon as they are deposited in this furnace or 
chamber, the opening through which they have been passed is 
closed, and the temperature of the furnace and its contents is 
gradually raised about as high as that of the hottest part of the 
wheel when taken from the mould. All the avenues to and from 
the interior of the furnace are then closed, and the whole mass is 
left to cool as slowly as the heat will pass off by permeating 
through the exterior wall of the furnace, composed of brick four 
and a half inches thick, enclosed in a sheet-iron case one-eighth 
of an inch thick. 

By this process every part of each wheel is raised to the same 
temperature before cooling iu the furnace commences, and as the 
heat can only pass off through the medium of the wall and case 
enclosing it, all parts of the wheel cool and contract simulta- 
neously. The time required to cool wheels in this way is three 
days. In this manner wheels of any form can be made with a 
solid hub, free from all inherent strain, and without the hardness 
of the chill being in the least impaired. 

The furnaces used in performing this process of prolonged cool- 
ing are so constructed that the combustion of fuel used in heating 
them may be rendered more or less active at pleasure. 

The proprietors commenced making wheels in this way in 1847. 
Their works are now capable of turning out 75,000 wheels per 
annum. The process of prolonged cooling employed by them 
was invented by the senior partner of the firm, and secured by 
Patent, April 25th, 1848. 



AXLES, SPRINGS, AND TURN-TABLES. 313 

The manufacture of the minor parts of Railway Machinery 
constitutes in the aggregate an important business, but it is car- 
ried on usually in combination with other machinery. 

CAR AXLES are made at several establishments, but principally 
at the Pencoyd Rolling Mill, of which A. & P. ROBERTS are pro- 
prietors. These works are almost exclusively engaged in the 
manufacture of both Rolled and Hammered Car aud Locomotive 
Axles. Their products are in use on most of the leading Rail- 
roads of the United States, Canada, Cuba, and South America, 
and deservedly enjoy a high reputation for quality and finish. 
Since they have been in operation, until January 1, 1858, they 
produced 12,982 Hammered Car and Locomotive Axles, and 
16,410 Rolled Car Axles, of various diameters and lengths. 
Their Axles are all stamped in the " centre 1 ' with the name of 
the works, year and day of mouth on which made, aud are all 
centered ready for the lathe before leaving the works. 

They have three Heating Furnaces, and one Trip and one 
Steam Hammer, and one train of Rollers ; and employ, when in 
full operation, about seventy-five hands. 

CAR SPRINGS, of every description, are made in the city ; and 
large quantities, of sizes and patterns most in demand, are usually 
stored in anticipation of orders. The best of material and work 
are availed of, and much pains are taken to secure the best form 
and construction of every detail appertaining to the business. 
About four hundred tons of Springs are manufactured annually 
in a single establishment. 

Railway Turning and Sliding Tables and Pivot Bridges are 
made upon a new and economical plan, and of any required 
length. Messrs. WILLIAM SELLERS & Co., who, by the engineer- 
ing ability they have displayed, are entitled to a rank among the 
most eminent of European and American Engineers, make a 
Turn-Table of peculiar construction the largest size being fifty- 
four feet in diameter. It consists of a quadrangular centre-piece 
or box, upon which the arms for carrying the rails are keyed in a 
very substantial manner. At the outer end of the arms are placed 
two cross-girths, carrying four truck wheels, which are intended 
to take the weight when the load is going on or off. The centre 
rests upon Parry's Patent Anti-Friction Box; and the power of 
25* 



314 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

one man is sufficient to turn the table and its load, easily, without 
the intervention of any gearing. They are so constructed, that 
water in the pit, within eighteen inches of the top of the rail on 
the road, will not impair their efficiency or durability. 

Lap-welded Boiler Flues, for Locomotives and other Engines, 
are made by Messrs. MORRIS, TASKER & Co., and of various sizes, 
from one and a quarter to eight inches, outside diameter, cut to a 
specific length. The reputation of this firm will be esteemed, by 
those who know them, as a guarantee for the excellence of every 
article they produce. 

Car and Locomotive Lamps are made in several establish- 
ments ; and Mr. H. W. HOOK, to whom we referred in connection 
with type-metal, makes a very superior Anti-Friction Metal for 
bearings, which is apparently indestructible. 

3. MACHINE TOOLS. 

The excellence of the Machine Tools, made in Philadelphia, 
was referred to at some length in our Introductory, as contribut- 
ing to the manufacturing advantages of this city. Since those 
remarks were written, a gentleman, who has a practical and tech- 
nical acquaintance with the subject, has testified that Philadelphia 
Tools unquestionably surpass those made elsewhere in this coun- 
try, in strength, proportion, and workmanship, and assigns prac- 
tical, satisfactory, and technical reasons for this superiority. Their 
strength, he says, is insured both by the amount and quality of 
their material. Machine Tools require great solidity of parts 
much inertia, to prevent injurious vibration under work any jar 
being incompatible with accurate work, besides injuring the tool 
itself. The Beds and other important parts of the Tools, made 
by Bement & Dougherty, and by Wm. Sellers & Co., average 
nearly or quite double the weight allowed by other American 
builders. The distribution of cast iron is extremely stiff. The 
iron itself is selected from the best qualities known in the manu- 
facture ; very little used in Philadelphia Tools having a tensile 
strength of less than 22,000 pounds, while much of it stands 
28,000 pounds per square inch. The Castings, especially, are of 
a quality peculiar to this city, being of singular perfection. The 
lathe-spindles are made of cast steel, hammered to shape in Shef- 



MACHINE TOOLS. 315 

field, and costing no less than sixteen cents per pound. The 
Boxes are of gun-brass, nine parts copper to one of tin, a most 
expensive combination, worth forty-four cents a pound. The 
Wrooght-iron work is made from best Pennsylvania Charcoal 
Iron, or other equally good bar ; and all parts which can be pro- 
perly so treated are carefully case-hardened. 

The strength and quality of material are applied to the best 
advantage through good proportion. In this point, the Tools 
under notice have everywhere met the highest approval. The 
excellent distribution of metal relieves the castings from any ap- 
pearance of clumsiness. The bearings are of ample sizes, the 
cone-pulleys of such width as will bear a belt equal in power to 
the strength of the machine ; and the gearing, screws, and all 
other parts, are in corresponding proportion. 

While the finish of Philadelphia Tools, though chaste, is se- 
verely plain, the entire workmanship is of the best character. All 
parts are made to standard gauges, whereby each will fit its 
corresponding parts in a hundred tools. The wearing surfaces are 
scraped together, a slow and patient process, which insures the 
highest accuracy of fit, absolute contact at every point. The 
bolt-holes are all reamed and the bolts turned and driven home. 
The gearing is cut to a perfect form of tooth in each case. The 
screw-cutting cannot be surpassed. 

A Lathe or Planing Machine, made with such care and accu- 
racy, will accomplish double the work of a tool of ordinary con- 
struction, of the same nominal capacity. This has been fully 
proved in the various manufactories and rail-rood shops where 
both have been tested in comparison with each other. The Phil- 
adelphia Car Wheel Works has lathes which can turn regularly 
ten ordinary axles in a day of ten hours. The same Works has 
Boring Mills, in which seventy car wheels can be bored and 
squared up in the same time. The Pencoyd Works has Lathes 
which, by doing double the work of ordinary Lathes formerly used, 
have saved in attendance, in one year, the extra amount of their 
first cost. The Camden and Amboy Company has a Lathe at 
Bordentown, which has turned off four flanged locomotive-tires 
in six and a half hours ! Commercially, a tool that will "stand 
up to the work," in this manner, is worth more than double the 



316 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

pnce of an ordinary machine of the same nominal capacity, for it 
does double the work with the same attendance, saving hands 
and shop room, while the work is also much better done. This 
saving and advantage are so great that the leading rail-roads, 
when securing new equipments, cannot hesitate in their selection 
of Tools. The Pennsylvania, the Camden and Amboy, Virginia 
Central, North Carolina, Georgia Central, Memphis and Charles- 
ton, and many others, have stocked their shops chiefly with Phil- 
adelphia Tools. The United States Government has purchased, 
and is still purchasing them for the Navy Yards ; and large quan- 
tities have been furnished the Russian government. 

The two principal Machine Tool-making firms in Philadelphia 
are WILLIAM SELLERS & Co., and BEMENT & DOUGHERTY. They 
employ about three hundred hands, and turn out an average an- 
nual product of $350,000. Both of these firms have produced 
machines that may fairly be regarded as mechanical triumphs ; 
and have given a permanent reputation to the manufacture which 
will make Philadelphia, if not already fairly entitled to be so 
called, the great seat of this business in the United States. 

4. STEAM AND FIRE ENGINES. 

Steam Engines are a leading article of manufacture in nearly 
all the machine shops of Philadelphia. There are more than a 
dozen establishments in the city, provided with facilities for con- 
structing any size or description of Stationary and Portable 
Engines ; but there are none in which the Steam Engine is an 
exclusive article of manufacture, or none which keep a large stock 
of finished Engines constantly on hand. The necessity for antic- 
ipating orders has not hitherto been felt by the makers, their 
facilities being such as enable them to meet the demand, as it 
arises, with sufficient expedition. 

Within the last few years the attention of ingenious men in 
this, as well as in other places, has been directed largely to sim- 
plifying the Steam Engine, removing all essentially unneces- 
sary parts, cheapening its price, and diminishing its size. At 
least one firm in Philadelphia has been remarkably successful in 
all these points, and now construct a Portable Engine, with a 
vertical cylinder, peculiarly adapted for confined situations 



STEAM AND FIRE ENGINES. 317 

Messrs. LIST & DAVIS, of West Philadelphia, the firm referred 
to, are now constructing a Ten-horse power Engine for a Pill 
Manufacturer, that will not occupy more space than six feet square. 
The water, before entering the boiler, passes through heated 
tubes, and consequently no cold water is at any time admitted into 
the boiler. The cost of an Engine and boiler of this description, 
of ten-horse power, will not exceed $1,050. 

One Engine builder and machinist, Mr. A. L. ARCHAMBAULT, 
devotes a large part of his attention to the manufacture of a pe- 
culiar Portable Steam Hoisting and Pumping Engine. This 
Machine requires, but one man to keep up steam and attend to 
the brakes ; and by its aid pig iron can be discharged from a vessel 
at the rate of twenty-five tons per hour, and still more expeditiously 
if it can be got ready. This Engine is also arranged for driving 
Portable Saw Mills ; and wherever it has been tested, it has ex- 
cited attention, given entire satisfaction, and elicited much com- 
mendation. First premiums have been awarded the manufacturer, 
on several occasions, by the Franklin Institute, and by Agricul- 
tural Societies in various States ; and there is no doubt whatever 
that both labor and time can be greatly economized in Hoisting, 
Pumping, &c., by the use of Archarabault's Portable Engine. 

Mr. JOHN L. KITE also makes Portable Engines for Planta- 
tions, Hoisting, Pile-driving, &c. 

Propeller Engines are a leading article of manufacture in the 
great establishment of REANEY, NEAFIE & Co., who have built 
and put in successful operation a greater number than any other 
firm in the United States. For the last fourteen years they have 
made this subject almost their entire study ; and, with an experi- 
ence derived from having built over two hundred Engines of this 
class, may be not inaptly called "the Propeller builders." It 
would be tedious to name a fractional part of the vessels con- 
structed by them; but the "Pampero," whose stanchness de- 
served a better service than her Cuban expedition, the " Granite 
State," "Martin White," "Mount Yernon," the "Baltimore," 
" J. K Hammitt," " Lancaster," and others, are worthy and 
lasting monuments to the fame of their eminent builders.* 

The firm of Reaney, Neafie & Co., is composed of Thomas Reaney, 
Jacob G. Neafie, and John P. Levy. Both Mr. Reaney and Mr. Neafie have 



318 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Messrs. Reaney, Neafie & Co. are also proprietors of the 
patent right for the " Curved Propeller," which has attained 
deserved popularity ; and the demand for their peculiar wheel 
has been so great from the Canadas and on the Lakes, that 
they have found it necessary to connect themselves with several 
extensive establishments on the Lakes. They are now building 
the engines for the Government sloop "Lancaster." 

Quite recently, as we have elsewhere stated, this firm con- 
structed several Steam Fire Engines, which have operated so 
successfully as to revolutionize popular opinion with respect to 
the availibility of steam for extinguishing fires. 

The building of Hand Fire Engines is inseparably associated 
with the name of one Philadelphia maker JOHN AGNEW. He 
has been engaged in the business for thirty-five years, and has 
constructed, up to the present time, 606 Fire Engines. Several 
of his Engines are in service in New York, three in California, a 
half dozen in Cuba and the other West India Islands. He em- 
ploys generally about thirty-four hands. The average cost of a 
Fire Engine, finished in ordinary style, is $1500. 

5. MILL GEARING AND SHAFTING. 

The manufacture of Gearing, Shafting, Couplings, &c., ordi- 
narily constitutes a branch of the general Machine Business, but 
about eleven years ago it was taken up as a specialty by Messrs. 
Bancroft & Sellers, then located in the District of Kensington, 
and has been continued by them and their successors, Messrs. 

had a long and practical experience in mnchine shops the former hav- 
ing served his apprenticeship with Mr. Holloway, the first Marine En- 
gine builder in Philadelphia; while Captain Levy, the financial partner, is 
a practical seaman and shipwright, possessing a familiar knowledge of the 
hulls, rigging, and engines of steamers. The result of this union is, that 
the firm are prepared to build any description of steam vessel outright, and 
owners have but one contract to make, and that with very responsible parties. 
In the construction of iron boats of all classes, both side-wheels and propel- 
lers, this firm do a large business, having at least two on their stocks at all 
times. The also make all kinds of engines and boilers, high and low-pres- 
sure, heavy and light forgings, and iron and brass castings of all sizes and 
patterns. Having made it a rule to preserve all patterns, their stock at 
present is very large. 



PAPERMAKERS* MACHINERY, ETC. 319 

WM. SELLERS & Co., to whom we have already referred more 
than once, and who have now probably a larger assortment of 
modern patterns than any other house in the country. The jour- 
nals or bearings on which the shafting runs, was one of the first 
points to which they directed their attention ; and the article 
manufactured by them, and known as the Ball-and- Socket Hanger, 
has attained an enviable reputation. Since the introduction of 
the Hanger, and their method of connecting gear-wheels, the at- 
tention of this firm has been chiefly directed to improving the 
method of Coupling the Shafts together, so as to render them per- 
fectly firm and rigid whilst at work, and at the same time to allow 
of detaching, at any particular point, without driving out keys or 
using sledges or screw-presses, as heretofore necessary. This 
object they have at last accomplished by means of their Double- 
cone Adjustable Couplings, which can be released from the shaft 
by slackening two small nuts ; the whole coupling being smaller and 
less expensive than any other in common use. 

The thorough system introduced into this branch of business, 
enables these manufacturers to employ the same patterns in a 
great variety of ways, and to provide special tools particularly 
adapted to the work, thereby decreasing the cost to consumers, 
who, to a great extent, are the machinists themselves in various 
parts of the country. 

6. PAPER-MAKERS', PRINTERS', AND BOOKBINDERS* 
MACHINERY. 

Philadelphia now contains one of the most complete establish- 
ments in the Union for making Paper Machinery, being provided 
with facilities for equipping at least twenty-five Paper Mills annu- 
ally. The proprietor, Mr. NELSON GAVIT, is well known as an 
ingenious mechanic, and has been very successful in turning out 
good machines, both of the ordinary cylinder and the celebrated 
Fourdrinier machine, which cost the Messrs. Fourdrinier $300,000 
to invent, and caused their bankruptcy. The cost of one of these 
machines is now from $3,400 to $6,000, and of a cylinder machine 
from $1,800 to $3,400. One peculiarity noticeable in the "ma- 
chinery of this establishment is, that the shafting, of which there 
is 500 feet, turns upon glass journals inserted in the ordinary 



820 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

cast iron box, thereby avoiding a great deal of friction, and runs 
with much less noise, and requires oil only once, say, in two 
months. About sixty-five hands are constantly employed. 

Bookbinders' Machines are made in part at a number of estab- 
lishments, but particularly and largely at the shop of Mr. H. How- 
ard, and Mr M. Riehl, who have been in operation about four years 
and have turned out a large quantity of very superior Machines, 
which have been shipped to all parts of this country and to Cuba. 
While making all kinds of Machines desired and ordered by 
Bookbinders, this firm is exceptional, inasmuch as they control 
and are sole manufacturers of a great number of superior patented 
machines. Mr. MICHAEL RIEHL is well known to the trade as an 
inventor, extremely successful in originating practical and valuable 
improvements. His patented Book-cutting Machine is in use in 
the principal binderies in Philadelphia, New York, and Boston, 
and in the Government Book Binderies in Washington. The 
motion of the knife is a diagonal forward one, which "draws" 
less and does more execution with less power, than any other 
similar machine, while the knife will preserve its temper and edge 
for a longer time. Riehl's Patent Cutter is adapted for either 
hand or steam power, and the price ranges from $150 to $600, 
according to size. Mr. Howard also makes Riehl's improved 
Embossing and Mashing Machines, weight 3,800 Ibs., price $600, 
his Improved Stamping Press, $150, a Paper-cutting Machine 
for Printers, price $150, and a variety of other similar machinery. 
Bookbinders and Printers throughout the country, we think, 
would consult their interests by communicating with an estab- 
lishment that is fully equipped and prepared to supply them with 
improved machinery on the most favorable terms. 

The manufacture of Printing Presses is limited, we believe, to 
the well-known Ramage Press, made by Mr. Bronstrup, and to 
Dow & Co.'s Card and Job Press, which is said to possess great 
merit. The large Power Presses, most popular, are generally 
patented, and made in other cities. But minor articles for 
Printers' use are made here largely ; as Printers' Furniture, 
Chases, Rollers, made by Mr. Cosfeldt and others, and Brass 
Galleys, Rules, Stereotype Blocks, and Rules cut to Pica eras, 



GAS AND WATER APPARATUS. 321 

various faces, made by L. JOHNSON & Co., who furnish 
Printers' supplies generally. 

Lithographic Ruling Machines, equal to the imported, are 
manufactured by Mr. Saxe ; and Lithographic and Copper Plate 
Presses, Geometric Lathes, Hydraulic and Transfer Presses, and 
Engravers' Machines and Tools generally,by GEORGE C.HOWARD,* 
and several others. 

7. GAS AXD WATER APPARATUS. 
Philadelphia, it is generally known, is the chief seat of Gas- 
making Machinery in the "United States. Nearly all the prin- 
cipal Gas Works, particularly in the South and West, besides 
Brooklyn, Bnifalo, Newport, and New Bedford, were constructed 
or enlarged by Philadelphia machinists ; and larger Gas Castings 
have been executed in foundries in this city than in any other 
place the Gasholder frame of the Philadelphia Works, made 
by Merrick & Sons, being, it is said, the largest in the world. 
The eminence that has been attained in this branch is, no doubt, 
due largely to two circumstances : first, the advantages of Phila- 
delphia for executing heavy castings economically, because of the 
abundance and cheapness of Coal and Iron ; and secondly, be- 
cause there are establishments in this city better provided with 
patterns, tools, and facilities specially adapted for the manufac- 
ture of Gas Apparatus than any others in the United States. 
Some branches of the manufacture, which are now of great im- 
portance, had their origin here ; as, for instance, the manufacture 
of Wrought Iron Tubes and Fittings, first undertaken in 1836 by 
Morris, Tasker & Morris, the predecessors of the present firm 
of MORRIS, TASKER & Co., who are undoubtedly the leading 

* Mr. GEORGE C. HOWAKD ranks among the most ingenious, reliable, and 
honorable of Philadelphia machinists. For some years he has made all the 
Bonnet and Hat Pressing Machines used in Philadelphia. His establishment 
is well -provided with tools and facilities for constructing any machinery of 
moderate size, including Machinists' Tools, Stationary Engines, Millwright 
Work, &c. ; and his reputation is a guarantee that whatever he undertakes 
to do will be well done. 

Mr. Howard is known as the inventor's friend ; he having been of peculiar 
and essential service to inventors in making their drawings, patterns, &c., 
und adapting their ideas to practical results. 
26 



322 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

manufacturers in this country of these articles and Gas Fitters' 
Tools, while they make also Cast-iron Gas Pipes, Gas-works 
Castings, Retorts, etc. Since this house commenced the manufac- 
ture of Tubes, to the expiration of the first quarter of the present 
year, they made 30,788,000 feet of Tubes the smallest amount 
made in any one year being 60,000 feet, in 1836 ; and the largest, 
3,647,273 feet, in 1855.* 

Gas Pipes are also made at another establishment in Philadel- 

* The house of MORRIS, TASKER & Co. was founded in 1821, by Stephen 
P. Morris, who commenced the manufacture of Coal Grates, Stoves, and 
Smith-work in general, at the corner of Market and Schuylkill Seventh sts., 
Philadelphia. In 1828 he removed to the corner of Walnut and Third sts., 
where a foundry was put in operation, and the business greatly extended. 
Not long afterward he was joined by Henry Morris and Thomas T. Tasker, 
under the firm style of Morris, Tasker & Morris. In 1836 they commenced 
the erection of their present works, known as the "Pascal Iron Works," on 
South Fifth and Franklin sts., and also commenced the manufacture of 
Wrought-iron Tubes and Fittings for gas, steam, and water, being, as we 
stated above, the first of the kind in this country. Subsequently, they 
added to these the manufacture of Cast-iron Gas and Water Mains, Lap- 
welded Flues for Boilers, Gas and Steam-fitters' Tools, &c. On the 1st of 
January, 1856, the firm style of Morris, Tasker & Morris, was changed to 
Morris, Tasker & Co., and is now composed of Stephen Morris, Thomas T. 
Tasker, Jr., Charles Wheeler, Jr., and Stephen P. M. Tasker. In their works, 
which have been extended by additions until they cover an area of nearly 
four acres, about 400 men are usually employed, and over 6,000 tons of 
Anthracite coal alone annually consumed. The tools used, as well as thoso 
made, are subjects of wonder and admiration ; and the machinery, as may 
be supposed, is of the most perfect description. Water is furnished for the 
boilers of the five steam engines from two Artesian wells ; and by means 
of hose and pipes, communicating with tanks, it is conveyed to every room 
for immediate use in case of fire. A portion of the iron for the tubes and 
flues made by this firm is prepared in a mill of their own near Fairmount, 
and all the pipes are tested by an hydraulic pressure of at least 300 Ibs. to 
the square inch. 

Messrs. Morris, Tasker & Co. are also extensively engaged in the manu- 
facture of Apparatus for warming public and private buildings, both by hot 
water and by steam. One of the partners, Mr. Tasker, is the inventor of a 
Self-regulating Hot-water Furnace, by which the temperature in a house 
can be maintained at any required point for an indefinite period of time, 
without further attention than an occasional supply of coal. The Commit- 
tee on Science and the Arts, constituted by the Franklin Institute, have 



GAS AND WATER APPARATUS. 323 

phia, viz. : at the Girard Tube Works, of which MURPHY & ALLI- 
SON are the proprietors. 

Gas Meters are made by five firms or persons in Philadelphia ; 
the principal manufacturers, however, being CODE, HOPPER & Co., 
who claim the credit of having been the first to introduce into 
this country the manufacture of this very ingenious instrument. 
This house is the oldest and most extensive in the United States, 
having made, up to the present time, over one hundred thousand 
Gas Meters, wet and dry. They employ constantly more than 
one hundred persons directly in their manufactory, besides a large 
number indirectly outside their walls. In addition to every 
variety of Gas Meters, they make all kinds of Gas Apparatus, 
such as Photometers, Minute Clocks, Pressure Registers, Indicators 
and Gauges, Exhausters, Governors, Meter Provers, Centre Seals, 
&c., &c. Every part of the meter is made on the premises ; to 
which is attached a foundry, with steam power and the most ap- 
proved and perfect machinery, 

Portable Gas Works for generating Gas from resin or oil are a 
comparatively recent invention ; but the manufacture is increasing 
in importance. The apparatus of Messrs. Stratton & Brother 
is said to be capable of making 100 cubic feet of Gas per hour 
from resin : one pound of resin making nine cubic feet of Gas, and 
one burner consuming two cubic feet per hour. One and a half 
bushels of Anthracite coal will supply the requisite heat, it i 
said, to make 500 cubic feet of Gas. 

In the manufacture of Water Works Apparatus, Philadelphia 
firms have been as successful as in Gas-making Machinery. A 
number of Cornish Pumping Engines, of the largest size, have 
been constructed by I. P. Morris & Co., but we shall defer a 
mention of these until we speak of Heavy Machinery. 

reported at length upon its peculiarities, and state that it is free from any of 
the disadvantages to which Hot-air Furnaces ordinarily are subject. 

Within the last few years they have also introduced Galvanized Iron Pipe 
for water, as a substitute for Lead Pipe, over which it possesses many ad- 
vantages such as strength, durability, and economy, and is rapidly coming 
into use. 

This firm has contributed materially to advancing the good name as welJ 
as fame of Philadelphia Iron Workers throughout the Union. 



324 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

The minor articles for Gas Works, as Stop-cocks, Yalves, Drip 
Pumps, &c., are made at several establishments ; and also Cocks, 
Fire Plugs, &c., for Water Works, Yalves and Pipes for Tanks 
at Rail-road Stations, and a great variety of articles included in 
the term Water Apparatus. 

So much for Special Machinery. If we were to elaborate the 
subject, and, besides referring to the special classes of machinery 
which are represented by special establishments, we were to enu- 
merate also the articles which are made prominent and leading 
by certain general machinists, our task would be far from com- 
plete. Fan Blowers are a leading article of manufacture in two 
establishments, that of KISTEKBOCK & SON, who announce Demp- 
fel's Fan, and of MANOAH ALDEN, who, for more than thirty 
years, has been engaged in business as general Machinist. The 
Blower of which Mr. Alden is inventor (it has been established 
by repeated tests, as we are informed) will produce a stronger 
blast, with less power, and less noise, and less liability to derange- 
ment than those of any other construction. His Blowers are 
now in use in nearly all the large foundries, machine shops, and 
iron-working establishments in Philadelphia. Mr. Alden, during 
the last year, has also made for the inventor, Mr. Ager, several 
Rice-cleaning Machines, which, it is supposed, are superior to 
any others ever constructed for the purposes of cleaning rice per- 
fectly without damage to the kernel. Mint Machinery is a lead- 
ing article of manufacture with the firm of MORGAN, ORR & Co. , 
who supplied with machinery the Branch Mint in California, and 
also a Mint for the Peruvian Government. They have all the 
requisite patterns, tools, etc., for doing this kind of work success- 
fully, and are noted for their fidelity in executing orders. 
They employ on an average seventy- five hands. Mining Machinery 
is made at several establishments, but at one, of which THOMAS 
J. CHUBB is'proprietor, it is a leading article. Chubb's Patent 
Pneumatic Ore Separators, Crushers, Drying Cylinders, Sifting 
Machines, Elevators, etc., it is expected, will supersede all ma- 
chinery now in use for the same purposes ; and, if so, its manufac- 
ture would engross the capacity of all the machine-shops at pres- 
ent in Philadelphia. Bakehouse Machinery is made principally 



CUEIOUS MACHINES. 325 

by R. J. HOLLINGSWORTH, who has patterns for cracker-making 
by hand, which, it is supposed, are not possessed by any one else 
in the United States. Brick Machines constitute the exclusive 
business of two shops ; and Braid, Cord, and Whip-plaiting Ma- 
chines are made at the establishments of P. GOSPELDT and 
CHARLES DIEDRICHS. The first-named has had thirty-three years' 
experience in the manufacture of these curious machines. JAMES 
FLINN & Co., in connection with Agricultural Implements, make 
Wood-boring, Chamfering, and Wooden Pin Machines, of which 
they are said to be sole manufacturers. At the present time, 
Messrs. HUNSWORTH, EAKINS & Co. are making what it is be- 
lieved will prove to be a very successful machine for driving 
Steam Plows. But these establishments, and the others that we 
have noticed, with but few exceptions, are provided with facilities 
for constructing a great variety of machinery other than that we 
have designated ; and therefore they are properly classified among 
the shops for the manufacture of General Machinery. 

We had hoped to conclude this chapter with a list of all the 
Machines which have been constructed in Philadelphia since 
1850, and had expended considerable time and money in prepar- 
ing it, with the quantities of each, when we discovered that circum- 
stances which we could not control principally apathy on the 
part of the manufacturers would inevitably defeat its complete- 
ness. Enough, however, was done to inform us that such a list 
would prove incontestibly that the machine-shops of Philadelphia 
can construct almost any machine which the genius of man has 
invented or can invent. It would contain a number of machines, 
mysterious and almost awe-inspiring in the seeming intelligence, 
concealed in arms of wood and fingers of steel, which directs 
their automatic movements.* It would demonstrate, moreover, 

A chnpter, describing the curious machines that are in operation in the 
various manufacturing establishments of Philadelphia, would be one of the 
most interesting we could insert, if our space were not preoccupied. We 
can only say, see the Card Clothing Machines of James Smith & Co. : the 
Paper Bag Machines of the North American Paper Bag and Envelope Man- 
ufacturing Company; the Independent Straight Line, made by P. R. Rece- 
veur, and in operation in the Watch Case ^establishment of T. Esmonde 
Harper; the Planing and Moulding Machines in the Wood-working estab- 
26* 



326 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

that there have been constructed in Philadelphia some of the 
largest Engines and Machines, as well as largest Castings, ever 
made in this country. But this point the capability of Phila- 
delphia to construct Machine-work of extraordinary dimensions 
can be successfully established without any very extended enu- 
meration of particulars, and by referring to a few of the products 
of only two establishments those of I. P. MORRIS & Co. and 
MERRICK & SONS. 

At the " Port Richmond Iron-Works," of which the former firm 
are proprietors, were constructed the large engines of the U. S. 
Mint ; the large Steam Engine of the Lake Erie Steamer Mis- 
sissippi, being a beam-engine, with a cylinder 81 inches diameter 
by 12 feet stroke of piston; two Cornish Bull Pumping Engines 
for Buffalo Water-Works, each having steam cylinders 50 inches 
diameter by 10 feet stroke ; the lever-beam Cornish Pumping En- 
gine, steam cylinder 60 inches diameter, 10 feet stroke, at the 
Schuylkill Water-Works ; the Bull Cornish Pumping Engine, 
cylinder 40 inches diameter, 8 feet stroke, at Camden, N. J., 
AVater-Works ; and the Iron Light-House for Ship Shoal in the 
Gulf of Mexico, to be put up on screw piles in water 15 feet deep, 
and at a distance of 12 miles from land. The whole height of 
this structure, from the water to the top of the spire, was 122 
feet, and from water to focal plain, 107 $ feet. The structure 
above the foundation to the deck, a height of 93 feet, was erected 
in their yard, complete in all its parts, before shipping. The 
Blowing Machinery for the Lackawanna Coal Co. at Scranton, 
probably the largest ever constructed, the dimensions of wkich 
were given on a previous page, was built at these Works. 
This firm also constructed the large Blowing Machine for the 
Lehigh Crane Iron Co., a lever-beam condensing engine, having 
a steam cylinder 58 inches diameter, 10 feet stroke of piston, and 
a blowing cylinder 93 inches diameter, 10 feet stroke. The beam 
of this engine works on a column of cast iron 30 feet high, and 
the whole is set upon a heavy cast iron bed-plate. They also 

lishments; the machines of Alfred Jenks & Son; the Uhlinger Machines; 
the Lathes, Planers, and Borers in the establishment of I. P. Morris & Co., 
Merrick & Sons, J. T. Sutton & Co., William Sellers & Co., and Bernent and 
Dougherty. 



EXTRAORDINARY MACHINES. 327 

made the Direct-acting High-pressure Blowing Machine for Sey 
fert, McManus & Co.'s furnace at Reading, steam cylinder 40 
inches diameter, blowing cylinder 102 inches diameter, both 7 
feet stroke of piston. This firm, it will be seen, have built the 
largest Engines ever constructed for making Iron with Anthracite 
coal ; besides a large quantity of less capacity, but which rate 
among first-class machines. 

At the " Southwark Foundry," of which MERRICK & SONS are 
proprietors, were constructed the great Iron Pile Light-Houses 
illuminating the Florida coast, stationed at Sand Key, Gary's 
Fort Reef, Coffin's Patches, Rebecca Shoal, N. W. Channel, Dry 
Tortugas, as also those on Brandywine Shoal (Delaware Bay) 
and the harbor of Chicago, besides iron lanterns for Cape Hat- 
teras, Cape Florida, &c., and beacons for other points. The 
first three are among the largest in the world, being respect- 
ively 120 feet, 112 feet, and 137 feet high (water to focal plane), 
and 50 feet square, 50 feet diameter, 56 feet diameter at the 
base respectively, and weighing from 250 to 300 tons each. 
This firm made the great Gasholder frame for the Philadelphia 
Works (the largest in the world), being used for a gasometer 160 
feet in diameter ; it weighs about one thousand tons, consisting 
of twelve Gothic pentagonal iron towers, 90 feet high, braced 
apart by girders 36 feet long and 8 feet deep, ornamented Gothic, 
and weighing eighteen tons each in one piece. At this shop were 
made the 140 feet Gasometer and framing for the same Works 

This firm constructed almost all the machinery for the steamers 
of the U. S. Navy ; among which may be specified the Mississippi, 
paddle, two side-lever engines of 500 horse power ; Princeton, 
screw, two oscillating-piston engines of 300 horse power ; San 
Jacinto, screw, two geared-engines of 450 horse power ; Wabash, 
screw, two direct-acting engines of 800 horse power. Of these, 
the former is too generally known to need any comment, and the 
latter is confessedly the finest of her class in the world. Here 
also were made the boilers of the TJ. S. Steamers Susquehanna 
and Saranac, 800 horse power each ; the machinery for the sur- 
veying steamer Corwin ; machinery and hull (iron) for the survey- 
ing steamer Search; and, for private parties, the machinery of 
the Keystone State, paddle, 400 horse power, State of Georgia, 



328 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

paddle, 350 horse power, Quaker City, paddle, 450 horse power, 
Phineas Sprague, screw, 250 horse power, Alfonso and Cardenas, 
screws, 215 horse power each, and others. 

For pumping purposes, the same firm constructed the great iron 
Elevating Wheel at Chesapeake City, Md., for feeding the canal. 
This wheel is 38 feet diameter, 12 feet wide, driven by two condens- 
ing engines of great power, and elevates two millions of gallons 
sixteen feet high each hour. More recently, for the Midlothian 
Coal Mining Company in Virginia, they made a sixty-inch beam 
Cornish Engine, with one "draw" and three "forcing" lifts, each 
fourteen inches diameter, ten feet stroke, which pumps one million 
gallons per day from a coal pit 710 feet deep. They are exten- 
sive manufacturers of Engines and Sugar Mills for Louisiana and 
Cuba, and are exclusive makers of the N. Rillieux Patent Sugar- 
Boiling Apparatus, by which white sugar is made directly from 
the cane juice ; in Cuba by the bagasse alone, and in Louisiana 
by one-half the fuel ordinarily required. They are also sole 
manufacturers of Nasmyth's Steam Hammers in this country, and 
have built all sizes, from five hundred pounds to six tons weight of 
ram, and up to seven feet drop or fall. 

In conclusion it may be said of both these establishments, that 
excellence of material, solidity, and admirable fitting of the joints, 
a just proportion and arrangement of the parts, and a certain ap- 
pearance of thoroughness and genuineness, are qualities that per- 
vade the machine work executed by them. 

We pass to the third and last division of the Manufactures of 
Iron, viz. : Hardware and Tools. 

XXI 

Iron Manufactures Concluded Hardware and Tools. 

The term Hardware is one of those indefinite, comprehensive 
nouns of multitude, of which it may be said that it almost includes, 
as its name imports, every ware that is hard. Popularly, it is 
understood to embrace all the unclassified manufactures of Iron 
and Steel, including all the appendages of the mechanic arts, 
from a file to a mill-saw ; many of the details of common life, from 
a rat-trap to a coach-spring, articles as various in appearance, 



HARDWARE AND TOOLS SAWS. 329 

size, and uses as can well be conceived in fact, whatever is sold 
by a Hardware dealer. In view of the almost infinite variety of 
articles included in the term, almost all of which are made in 
Philadelphia, the utmost that we can hope to accomplish is to 
exhibit the state of the business in its leading branches, as in the 
manufacture of Saws, Forks, Shovels, Files, Locks, Soils, Eivets, 
Scales and Balances, Edge Tools and Cutlery. 

If we were to consider the classes of articles designated as 
Hardware, in the order of their relative reputation abroad, we 
would come first to SAWS. Every country merchant, as well as 
every wood-worker, is familiar with the excellence of Rowland's 
Saws, Cresson's Saws, Disston's Saws, and Conaway's Saws all 
Philadelphia makers. The works now known as Rowland's Saw 
Works were founded by William Rowland in 1802, and are be- 
lieved to be the oldest established of the kind in this country. 
They have supplied, and continue to supply, a large proportion of 
the large-sized Saws in use, Mill and Cross-cut, varying in length 
from six to eighteen feet. About fifty hands are engaged in this 
establishment, and two hundred Saws are produced daily. 

The works of WALTER CRESSOX are located beyond the city 
limits, at Conshohoeken, in Montgomery County, but the business 
is transacted exclusively at the warehouse on Commerce street.* 
The material employed is mostly cast-steel, manufactured in En- 
gland expressly for Mr. Cresson, and rolled under his orders to 
proper thickness, and cut into sheets of convenient size. For 
making Circular Saws, Mill Saws, and Cross-cut Saws, it is im- 
ported trimmed to the size and shape required. Among the pro- 
ductions of this establishment are a great variety of Hand Saws, 
Circular Saws, Back Saws, Wood Saws, Mill and Cross-cut Saws, 
Hay Knives, Loom Springs, and other Tools. His Saws have 

The factory of Mr. Cresson was destroyed by fire on August 17th, 1854, 
but was immediately rebuilt on an enlarged scale. The energy of the proprie- 
tor was peculiarly illustrated on that occasion, for even while the fire was 
stall burning, he rented an old foundry, fitted it up, and on the next day set 
his men to work in it. In three months the new factory was completed, 
and in full operation. The whole of the machinery of this establishment is 
driven by water obtained from the Schuylkill Canal, and applied by one of 
Journal's Turbine Wheels. 



330 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

repeatedly received the highest commendation from competent 
judges for their finish and make. 

The "Keystone Works," of which Mr. HENRY DISSTON is pro- 
prietor, are probably the largest of the kind in the country. 
They consist of four buildings three of them three stories high, 
and cover an area of over 20,000 square feet. The Machinery is 
of the most complete description, and driven by an engine of 
seventy-horse power. The Saws made at this establishment com- 
prise nearly every variety, though principally Cast-steel Circular, 
Hand, and Panel Saws, all of which are tempered by Sylvester's 
Patent Tempering Machine, and the Circular Saws are ground 
by Southwell's Patent Grinding Machine. Among the novelties 
produced in this establishment might be mentioned, the Patent 
Combination Saw, comprising a perfect twenty-four inch square, 
straight edge, twenty-four inch rule and scratch-awl, and a hand- 
saw, with a patent attachment for gauging any required depth. 
Mr. Disston employs one hundred and fifty hands. 

The " Union Saw and Tool Manufactory," 402 Cherry street, 
of which Mr. WM. CONAWAY is proprietor, is also a well-known 
establishment, and produces, besides, all kinds of Saws, Trowels, 
Curriers' Knives, Carpenters' Gauges, etc. BRINGHURST & VER- 
REE also manufacture Saws extensively. 

Besides these celebrated makers, there are five others who make 
Saws to some extent, viz. : THOMAS GAMBLE, J. HUGEL, CHARLES 
LAME, JOSEPH NICHOLLS, and JAMES TURNER. 

2. FORKS. There are four principal establishments in Phila- 
delphia for the manufacture of Forks, viz. : SHEBLE, LAWSON & 
FISHER, MYERS & ERVEIN, RIDGWAY & RUFE, and HARPER & 
HOLT. The oldest of these establishments is the one represented 
by the last-named firm. Messrs. RIDGWAY & RUFE have a fac- 
tory at Germantown, where they also make Coffee-mills, Shutter 
Bolts, &c. Messrs. MYERS & ERVEIN commenced the manufac- 
ture of Forks in 184T. Their establishment is well equipped 
with machinery, and their manufactures, which comprise all the 
usual varieties of Hay and Manure Forks, including Sluice Forks, 
a peculiar article for miners' use, have a good reputation. The 
youngest of these establishments is that of SHEBLE, LAWSON <fe 



FORKS, SHOVELS, FILES. 331 

FISHER ; but its annual production is now supposed to exceed 
that of any other Fork Factory iu the Union. Previous to its 
establishment in 1851, the Eastern manufacturers almost monopo- 
lized the Philadelphia market; but, at the present time, city Forks 
are so generally preferred, that special inducements alone can 
effect a sale of Eastern, or even New York made goods. In less 
than five years, the demand for Forks of this firm's manufacture so 
far exceeded the ability of their works at Fairmount to supply it, 
that, in 1856, they erected new and more extensive works on the 
Frankford Creek. They have now five Trip Hammers, run eleven 
Polishing Machines, and employ forty-five hands. Their manu- 
factures embrace a greater variety of Forks than any similar es- 
tablishment known to us iu the Union, and include every kind or 
style Hay, Manure, Spading Forks and Spading Hoes Forks 
for manufacturing purposes, as Glue, White Lead, Bone, Coke, 
&c. in a word, Forks from two to twelve tines from the solid 
piece, and varying in price from $2 to $50 per dozen. Spading 
Forks and Hoes are new articles in this country ; but the improve- 
ments made in them by the above firm, have brought them into 
use in place of the old style Spade and Hoe for agricultural pur- 
poses. 

Forks are now exported from Philadelphia to England. 

3. Of Shovels and Spades there are six principal manufacturers, 
having a capital invested exceeding a quarter of million of dollars, 
and producing annually about 85,000 dozen of Shovels, worth, 
at $6 per dozen, $510,000. The machinery employed in these 
establishments is of the most perfect description, and the manu- 
factured product is equal in quality to the best made in the coun- 
try, and far better than the Shovels imported. The raw material 
is mainly American iron and steel, though a share of the English 
metal is used. 

4. FILES. These articles, which are of the first importance to 
all workers in metal, are made at nine establishments in this city ; 
and it is said another, upon a large scale, will soon go into ope- 
ration. Rasps are made here more cheaply than in Europe, ex- 
cept the large sizes, where the price of steel may affect the cost of 
the manufactured article. The Files made include every variety, 



I 

332 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

from those used by jewelers, dentists, and watchmakers, to those 
required by metal-workers in heavy operations.* 

5. LOCKS. It is claimed and, we believe, conceded, that the 
ingenuity and enterprise of American mechanics have placed this 
department in advance of the efforts of all other nations. In the 
finer and more expensive class of Locks, it has been abundantly 
proved that the American production is superior to any other ; 
while in Locks, Latches, &c., adapted to the wants of the builder 
or to commerce, the American mechanic supplies the home de- 
mand ; and, to some extent, orders from abroad. 

In Philadelphia there are a large number of very ingenious Lock- 
smiths, who provide every variety of fastening essential for the 
security of dwellings, &c. The business is usually carried on in 
connection with Bell-hanging, Silver Plating, &c. ; but the de- 
mand for special and patented Locks furnishes occupation to 
several special Lock-making establishments. One manufacturer* 
Mr. CONRAD LEIBRICH, employs forty-five bands, and makes 
twenty-one different Spring Locks of his own invention, besides a 
great variety of Pad and Door Locks, Night Latches, &c. The 
Scandinavian Padlock for stores, &c., it is claimed, is perfect 
protection against burglars. But probably the most remarkable 
Lock of modern times is the Permutation Bank and Safe Lock 
made by L. YALE, JR., & Co., at 248 Front Street. The manu- 
facturer, Mr. Yale, it will be remembered, picked the "Parau- 
toptic," or great Hobbs' Lock, which the English Locksmiths 
had unsuccessfully attempted ; he having previously picked most 
of the celebrated Locks of the day. His Permutation Lock, 

The largest File-making establishment in the city, and we believe in 
the State, is that of J. B. SMITH, on New street. The goods manufactured 
by him embrace every description of Files and Rasps, from the smallest to 
the largest, and from the finest to the coarsest, a large portion consisting 
of kinds not generally imported. The popularity of his Shoe Rasp has in- 
duced unscrupulous persons to import from Europe a worthless imitation, 
which is strong evidence of the superiority of his manufacture. These 
Rasps of his manufacture are extensively used in New England, as well as 
throughout the Union. He is likewise manufacturing an improved descrip- 
tion of Saw File, which is said to be of unrivaled excellence. Mr. S. is a 
practical File-maker of thirty-five years experience, and is therefore thor- 
oughly acquainted with every department. Some of the best workmen in 
the United States have graduated at this establishment. 



HARDWARE AND TOOLS LOCKS. 333 

which may now justly be regarded as more secure than any other 
in the world, is distinguished by several important improvements 
It is entirely without springs, those most fruitful sources of fail- 
ure in fine locks. The tumblers, or security parts, are so placed in 
the Lock that they never can be seen, or felt by any picking 
tool, nor can powder ever affect them. The key is small, and can 
be conveniently carried in the wallet ; yet its permutations are so 
numerous, that a lifetime is not long enough to ring all its changes. 

Their latest improvement is their Double Treasury Lock, in 
which two Locks are so combined as to control the same main 
bolt. On locking both sides, the bolt is securely locked out; 
but on unlocking either side, the door can be opened. Hence, 
in daily use, one side only is used ; but, in case of losing the key 
or other accident, instead of being compelled to cut down the 
door, as in ordinary cases, the reserved key, on being applied to 
the other side, will open the door at once. They offer $3,000 to 
any one who can pick or force this Lock, which, for strength of 
material and beauty of workmanship, is unsurpassed. This firm 
also manufacture Bank Vaults and Safes, which are worthy of 
the Lock that secures them. Constructed of hard, chilled iron, 
cast around a basket-work of wrought iron rods, they are proof 
against drills, cutters, or sledge hammers, and are seemingly burglar- 
proof. The Treasury Department has adopted their work, and 
their customers are found in every State in the Union. 

Excellence of workmanship, lowness of price, and adequate 
security characterize the Lock Manufactures of Philadelphia.* 

( The Locksmiths and Bell Hangers of Philadelphia include some of her 
most ingenious mechanics. Mr. HOCHSTBASSEB is called upon in all des- 
perate cases. Mr. P. RODGEBS hns made a beautiful, rabbeted mortice 
Front-door Lock, which was ordered from Paris. Mr. J. B. SHANNON, on 
Sixth street, has attained considerable distinction in this branch of busi- 
ness, making largely for first-class dwellings and public institutions. He 
as constructed Locks for a large number of Insane Asylums, where they 
re wanted in sets, to differ from each other, and yet to be passed by a 
master key by the superintendents, watchmen, and others. Similar Locks 
are also applied to dwellings ; and one member of a family may have a key 
which will open all the chambers and closets, and yet the respective keys 
of the doors will not open any except the one to which it belongs. 

Bells are so arranged in dwellings, by Mr. Shannon, that a person taken 
eick may communicate the need of help to any other part of the h^use. 
InvalMs can thus dispense with constant attendance. 
27 



* . . 

834 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

6. BOLTS, RIVETS, WOOD SCREWS, NUTS AND WASHERS. 
These articles have been made until within a few years by hand, 
but the consumption increasing so considerably in consequence of 
the multiplicity of Railroads, Mines, etc., required that they should 
be produced in a more expeditious manner, and at cheaper rates. 
HOOPES & TOWNSEND, of this city, were among the first to enter 
into this as a separate business, and after several years experience 
are now able to supply the wants of Railroad Companies, Machin- 
ists, Car Builders, Bridge Builders, and others, with articles of 
this description, peculiarly adapted to their several purposes, as 
to strength, durability, finish, &c. 

They claim a great advantage for their product over baud 
work on account of its uniformity, and also superiority over 
much of the Eastern work, both because the material used is of 
superior quality, and because it is made expressly for the pur- 
pose for which it is employed. Their facilities are such as enable 
them to turn out a large amount of work, and their products have 
a reputation abroad as well as at home. 

7. RIVETS. These articles may be said to occupy the same 
relative position to iron that nails do to wood. To a person not 
familiar with their uses, the quantities consumed in various con- 
structions must seem incredible. In the Iron Light-House made 
for the Ship Shoal Reef, Florida, some six tons of Rivets were 
used, all of which were furnished by the " Philadelphia Rivet 
Works." In a first-class freight engine, the boilers and fire-boxes 
will use about 2,000 Rivets, weighing about 500 Ihs. ; and the 
tender will require about 150 Ibs. of Rivets of smaller diameter. 
The Point Breeze Gasholder, the largest in the world, used about 
one million of Rivets the gasometer alone having consumed 
about six tons of Button-head Rivets. The principal firm in this 
manufacture in Philadelphia is PHILLIPS & ALLEN, proprietors 
of the "Philadelphia Rivet Works," and they can produce about 
five tons of Boiler Rivets per day, and about 3,000 Ibs. of smaller 
sizes.* 

Messrs. PHILLIPS & ALLEN, we may remark, are fully sensible of 
the very great importance of using only the best materials in the con- 
struction of Rivets, particularly Boiler Rivets. They employ the severest 
Vests to prove the quality of all iron used by them. The Rivet being maJo 



SCALES AND BALANCES. 335 

8. SCALES and BALANCES. Eminence in the manufacture of 
Scales and Balances, we are quite sensible, presupposes, in the 
manufacturer, very considerable mechanical skill, fidelity in execu- 
tion, and taste and accuracy in workmanship. It is a branch, 
moreover, in which Philadelphia makers hold, and have always held, 
the leading position. Some of the finest specimens of Balances 
in use, every one will admit, are the product of the establish- 
ments of F. Meyer & Co., and their former parlner and present 
successor, HENRY TROEMNER. Mr. Troemner constructed all the 
Balances, Weights, etc., required for the U. S. Mint, Custom 
Houses, and Repositories, and several Scales for the Mexican 
Mint. Some of the Balances made for the Assay Office in New 
York, and for the Branch Mint of San Francisco, cost as much 
as $1,000, and one made several years ago cost $1,250. Besides 
Balances like these, which must turn with the thousandth part of 
a grain, Mr. Troemner constructs Patent Balances that will weigh 
twelve tons. His manufactures comprise Mint Balances, Bankers' 
Scales, Jewelers', Druggists', Grocers', Confectioners' Scales, &c. 
in fact, any kind required for weighing purposes. Nearly all 
the Banks in this city, New York, and other places, have his 
Scales in use. 

red hot, is hammered equally when it is hot and cold ; and should the qual- 
ity of the iron change from fibrous to a crystalline character, the iron is 
regarded as worthless, as the force of contraction upon cooling would pull 
off the head of the rivet. 

For Boiler Rivets this firm employ four machines, which convert the bar 
iron, purposely rolled for them (heated in coke, in order not to impair its 
quality) into Rivets. These machines are of their own make and cut off 
the lengths, and shape and head them at one operation. For smaller Rivets 
the best charcoal iron-wire is used, as the lengths and diameters must be 
exceedingly accurate. The machines are most carefully built and managed. 
After the Wire Rivets are made they are annealed, which allows them to be 
driven cold, or headed with ease. Their customers are the principal machine 
ehops in the United States, among them Messrs. I. P. Morris & Co. Messrs. 
S. V. Merrick & Sons, Reaney, Neafie & Co., Baldwin & Co., and Norris, Phil- 
adelphia; Messrs. Harlan & Hollingsworth, of Wilmington, &c., &c. ; and 
the well-known reputation of these establishments would seem to be a suffi- 
cient guarantee for the excellence of their work. They furnish every kind 
of rivet, from eight inches long by any diameter, to the smallest wire 
sizes. 



336 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

There are two firms engaged almost exclusively in making Plat- 
form-Scales, viz.: ABBOTT & Co. and A. B. DAVIS & Co. Mr. 
Thomas Ellicott, a partner in the firm of Ellicott & Abbott, of 
which Abbott & Co. are successors, is accredited with the distinc- 
tion of having made the first Platform-Scale in the world. It was 
made in 1825, for the New York Coal Company, and continued in 
use until 1850, when it was removed to the factory of Abbott & Co., 
where it now is. This firm recently made a Track-Scale that will 
weigh one hundred tons, entirely of iron, for the Little Schuylkill 
Railroad. But the largest Scale probably ever made in the coun- 
try was made, not long since, by A. B. DAVIS & Co. of this city, 
for the Pennsylvania Rail-road, at Columbia. It is one hundred 
and thirty-five feet in length, and will weigh two hundred tons. 
Three others, constructed for the same firm by the same road, were 
eighty feet each in length. For the Mine Hill Rail-road, Messrs. 
Davis & Co. constructed a Scale of one hundred and twelve feet 
long ; and for the Baltimore and Wilmington, and Reading and 
other Rail-roads, they have made some Scales remarkable both for 
size and accuracy. Their achievements entitle them to rank 
among the leading Platform-Scale makers in this country.* 

9. EDGE TOOLS AND CUTLERY. For the manufacture of Edge 
and Hand Tools there are two principal establishments in this city, 
and four others in the vicinity of the city whose products are sold 
here exclusively. The number of men employed is stated at one 
hundred and twenty-five, and the annual product at $127,000. The 
Edge Tools made in this city are of good material, well finished, 
and believed to be fully equal to any made. 

The branch in which Philadelphia has attained peculiar distinc- 
tion is the manufacture of Braces and Bills and Carpenters' Tools. 
In nearly every report of articles exhibited at fairs within the last 
few years, one may find terms like the following, which is taken from 
the Franklin Institute Report for 1856 : "Braces and Bills, Saw 
Pads, Spoke Shaves, and other light tools, by BOOTH & MILLS, 
Philadelphia. Excellent quality, good workmanship, and reason- 
able in price. A First Class Premium." 

* Mr. Davis is also an inventor, having just patented a Corn Sheller, hav- 
ing an endless picker chain working over an angular bar-grate. This machine 
has been highly recommended as well adapted for the West and South, au<i 
other corn-growing districts. 



CARPENTERS' TOOLS RIFLES AND PISTOLS. 337 

This firm, BOOTH & MILLS, are the successors of T. E. Wells 
& Co., who received the prize medal at the London World's Fair ; 
and the workmanship which was awarded that high distinction over 
Sheffield and Birmingham, was executed, in part at least, by the 
members of the present firm. In 1857, the American Institute 
in New York awarded them a prize medal ; arid it would seem 
that, by the consent of experts and good judges, both in England 
and in the United States, they are unsurpassed, if equaled, in the 
production of these important tools. They claim that the best or 
first quality of their manufactures is both cheaper arid better than 
any imported. The mode of tempering adopted by them is said to 
be specially remarkable for its durability; and the stocks of their 
tools are certainly noteworthy for their elegance. Their manufac- 
tures comprise Braces and Cast-steel Bitts, Squares, Bevils, Spoke- 
shaves, Turnscrews, Saw-pads, Pricker-pads, Cast-steel Gimlets, 
&c. They are sole manufacturers of T. E. Wells & Co.'s Braces, 
Bitts, &c.; also, Patent Anti-friction Braces. They employ about 
twenty hands. 

Cutlery is made by several firms, and of a very excellent quality. 
Gilchrist's Razors, Clarenbach & Herder's Shears and Scissors, and 
Richardson's Table Cutlery, are all celebrated makes. Cutlery is 
also made by the manufacturers of Surgical Instruments, to whom 
we will subsequently refer. At Beverly, N. J., there was a company 
lately engaged in the manufacture of knives and forks, and their 
products were sold principally in this city. 

10. RIFLES and PISTOLS are made quite extensively, and in quali- 
ty equal to the best in the world. The barrels are either imported or 
made at Reading, and in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania a con- 
siderable trade being done in barrels alone. One manufacturer 
claims that he can make a Pistol for sixty dollars, that will hit a 
horse at nine hundred yards. Generals Henningsen and Walker 
provided themselves with a pair each, previous to embarking on 
their memorable expedition to Nicaragua. Orders are now being 
executed for Rifles with solid gold and silver mountings, chased 
stocks, &c., the cost to the purchasers being two hundred dollars 
each. During the last year Messrs. Sharp & Co. erected a very 
extensive and complete rifle factory at Fairmount, for the manufac- 
ture of their celebrated Rifle and Pistol". ( For a description see 
27* 



338 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

APPENDIX.) At the Arsenal at Bridesburg, under the superintend 
ence of a very ingenious and courteous gentleman, Major Hagner, a 
great variety of very remarkable and ingenious machinery is employ- 
ed in converting Muskets into Rifles, making Percussion-caps, &c. 
11. WIRE WORK of all kinds, plain and fancy, particularly 
Wire Sieves, Wire Cloth, Screens, &c., is made very extensively 
at about a dozen establishments. The iron wire is principally ob- 
tained from Easton, Pa., and from Trenton, N. J., and woven, in 
this city, into every article into which wire can be twisted. The 
Philadelphia goods are of a most substantial character, the av- 
erage quality being acknowledged by all to be superior to tho 
New England make, and command readily a higher price.* 

* The first Wire-working establishment in this country was founded by 
John Sellers, in the year 1750. His two sons continued the business at the 
corner of St. James and Sixth streets, and were so employed at the close of 
the Revolution. The house thus established is continued by SELLERS & 
BROTHERS, the great-grandsons of the original founder, and ranks among 
the largest in the business in this country. Their list of manufactures in- 
cludes Wire- work for buildings ; Fourdrinier Cloths, Brass and Copper Wire 
Cloth, &c., for Paper-makers ; heavy Twilled Wire- work for Spark Catchersi 
Sieves of all kinds, Circular and Standing Screens; in a word, Wire-work, 
Wire Cloth, and Sieves, of every description. 

WATSON, Cox & Co., are another prominent firm of Wire- workers. Of 
Brass Wire Cloth they make all numbers from two meshes to one hundred 
meshes to the inch ; Iron woven Wire, from one mesh to sixty meshes to the 
lineal inch ; or in other words, Wire for Coal Screens to Wire for superfine 
Flour. They also make a very strong Wire for cleaning rice ; Sieves and 
Riddles of the best kind for Iron Founders ; and besides, a great variety of 
Plain and Fancy Work, Covered Cylinders and Dandy Rolls for Paper- 
makers. This firm is probably more extensively engaged in making Brass 
Wire-work than any other. Their manufactory occupies five rooms, in 
which five Looms and ten operatives are constantly employed. 

BAYLIS & DABBY are a young firm, but composed of men who have had 
a long experience in Wire-working in the old-established houses of this 
city. Their standing among Paper-makers, for Brass and Copper Wire 
Cloth, is highly spoken of; also, their unusually heavy Coal Sieves for Coal 
Dealers. Their stock of Sieves, of Silk, Hair, Brass and Copper Wire 
Cloth is of every mesh ; and their heavy Founders' Sieves and Fancy Wire- 
work have been repeatedly commended. They received the Diploma at the 
Pennsylvania State Fair in 1854, and since then they have applied Woveu 
Wire to Plastering purposes; the ceiling and dome of the Academy of 



NAILS, HINGES, AWLS, ETC. 339 

Besides the articles and brauches of the Hardware manufacture 
I have thus specially alluded to, there is an immense number of 
articles made in this city, and which come within the category of 
Hardware stock. Wrouglit Nails are made largely ; and Cut Nails 
are produced at the Quaker City Nail Works, near Fairmount, and 
at the Cumberland Nail Works, Bridgeton, N. J. The latter 
Company has about one hundred and twenty nail-machines in oper- 
ation, capable of producing over 125,000 kegs of Nails per annum. 
The supplies of this establishment are furnished from this city, and 
the products disposed of in it. Horse Nails, chiefly for local con- 
sumption, but of superior quality, are made by four or five persons. 
Plasterers' and Brick Trowels are made in several establishments 
in this city, and these goods are sent to all parts of the United 
States. Clock and Sash Weights employ one or two foundries. 
The metal used in this manufacture is of the coarsest kind, 400 tons 
being about the annual consumption. The first Screw Auger 
made in this country was made in West Philadelphia, and the man- 
ufacture is now carried on by the successors of the originator, 
producing an article which is acknowledged to have no superior. 
Hammers of all kinds, from those used in watch-making to sledges 
and trip-hammers, are made, comparing favorably in prices with 
either foreign or domestic manufactures, and superior in quality and 
finish. Cast Iron Butt Hinges are made ; and the Franklin Insti- 
tute has pronounced the pivot-butts of one firm equal in finish to 
any American, and the principle better. A manufactory of Strap 
and Reveal Hinges, of ev> ry size and variety, has been in operation 
here for several years. Piano Forte Hardware, including gimlet- 
pointed screws, is made very extensively by one firm, established 
in 1822, and said to be the oldest in the business in the United 
States. They have ten machines in operation, and make eighty 
gross of Screws per day. Shoemakers' Tools are made by five or 
more establishments, who make their tools of steel, thus securing 
a large sale in the Eastern markets, where cast iron is prin- 
cipally employed. Awl Blades are made in every variety by Mr. 

Music being a sample of this production. Their list of manufactures in- 
cludes Wire Railing for Cemetery lots, Piazzas, Trellis-work for vines, of 
beautiful patterns ; also, Wire Furniture ana Iron Bedsteads. 



340 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Partridge, who is the son of the largest manufacturer of these 
articles in England. He was himself formerly a manufacturer 
in Birmingham, and has recently sent to England for workmen. 
To this branch belongs a great variety of similar articles, besides 
binders', saddlers', printers' and shoemakers' sewing and trenching 
awls, mattress, sail and collar needles, lasting and other tacks, 
&c., which are made by him. Coffee Mills of high reputation 
are made by Selsor, Cook & Co., and Ridgway & Rufe, in Ger- 
mantown ; and also Shutter Bolts, &c. A Rotary Knife Gleaner 
or Polisher is made at one establishment, and by means of it, the 
labor that formerly required hours may be performed in a few 
minutes. Of small tools the variety is infinite. Jewellers 1 Tools, 
Rollers, &c., of the most delicate description ; Oyster and Butch- 
ers' Knives, and Garden Tools in great variety, are made by seve- 
ral persons ; and Patent Curry-Combs, of iron and brass, open 
back and covered ; Patent Bake Pans and Meat Mauls, all of im- 
proved styles, are largely made by one manufacturer. Of Beach's 
Curry-Combs it is worthy of remark that, while they are greatly 
superior in durability and neatness of finish to most of the im- 
ported, they can be furnished at considerably less cost. Steel 
Stamps, Brands, and Punches, Stone-cutters' Tools and Mill 
Picks, Curriers' and Tanners' Knives and Tools of all kinds, Sad- 
dlers' Tools, Binders' Tools, Coopers' Tools of excellent quality, 
Ice Tools, and Umbrella-makers' Tools and Furniture, each em- 
ploy one or more, and some of them several establishments. Skates 
are made of improved construction, being fastened to the foot by 
springs, without straps ; and it is said a Company has been or- 
ganized for their more extended manufacture. Sad Irons are a 
leading article at a factory in West Philadelphia ; and Hoes are 
made at several establishments, and particularly at Prince's ex- 
tensive Hoe factory, on the Pennepack. 

In the manufacture of the miscellaneous articles which are in- 
cluded in the term Hardware, it will be perceived, from what we 
have stated, that there are numerous establishments, and the aggre- 
gate production is very considerable ; but, at the same time, there 
are no very large factories. The most extensive manufactory of 
General Hardware is that of E. HALL OGDEN, on Ninth and Jeffer- 
son streets. He employs about seventy-five hands ; manufactures, as 



OGDEN'S MANUFACTORY LIGHTNING RODS. 341 

per catalogue, nearly one hundred and fifty distinct articles, in- 
cluding Malleable and fine Gray Iron Castings. His works consist 
of a main building, fifty by one hundred feet, with two wings, one 
forty by one hundred, and the other fifty-six by one hundred, filled 
with all requisite machinery, driven by an engine of twenty-horse 
power. His manufactures are carefully made, and his Saddlery 
Hardware, in particular, is noted for its excellence. 

The manufacture of Hardware is a branch deserving the attention 
of capitalists ; for, with an abundance of skilled workmen, cheap 
raw materials, and a good market, a few large establishments could 
hardly fail to prove remunerative. 

Iron is converted in Philadelphia into a variety of forms be- 
sides those enumerated ; and if we were to venture into the de- 
partments of the Miscellaneous Manufactures of Iron and Steel, 
our article would be indefinitely extended. In the city of Frank- 
lin, Lightning Rods are, of course, a prominent article of manu- 
facture ; and one maker, Mr. THOMAS AKMITAGE, states, with a 
laudable pride, " I have put up sixty thousand Rods, and have 
shipped a great number to various parts of the world, especially 
to the Southern States, and have never heard of the loss of a 
single life, or the destruction of a dollar's worth of property, by 
lightning, in any building to which one of my Rods has been 
attached. I have received information of three to five thousand 
instances in which Rods that I have put up have been struck by 
lightning, in all of which it has been carried safely to the earth, 
without the slightest injury to person or property." With such 
a record of facts in their favor, he may well have confidence iu 
the superiority of his Rods. 

But we must take leave of the subject of " Iron and its Man- 
ufactures ;" and do so by giving the following statistical aggre- 
gates, as recently compiled by the present Secretary of the Board 
of Trade, as aforestated. Our own investigation, as far as it 
extended, gives a greater product for certain items, particu- 
larly Saws, Shovels, Guns, &c. ; but the general aggregate, we 
believe, is approximately accurate. 



PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 



Men 


Total 


employed. 


production. 


7 10 


$1,801,150 


2,440 


2,500,000 


3,008 


3,428,000 


1,417 


1,912,0110 


I, 98 


95,000 


421 


411,000 


356 


330,000 


90 


120,000 


220 


300,000 


310 


345,000 


170 


238,000 


80 


78,000 


195 


397,000 


125 


127,000 


150 


150,000 


120 


120,000 


500 


600,000 



Forges and Rolling Mills, - ' - ' - "'- J . '- 

Foundries of Stoves, Hollow Ware, Ac. - 

Locomotives and Steam Engines, with Foundries, - 

Machinist and Foundry establishments, 

Platform Scales and Foundry work not before included, 

Wrought Iron Bolts and Nuts, - ' '-" 

Malleable Iron, Ac., - 

Safes, Ac., - ^-j t ... ^ <.; f.,i<t i? -ii-m - 

Rail-road Cars, Ac., - - - - '", 

Manufactures of Steel, mainly 

Saws, .-_-.. 

Coach and Car Springs, - 

Steel Hay Forks, 

Shovels, Ac. - - - - . [- . . 

Edge Tools and Hammers, - - - 

Cutlery, Skates, and Instruments, 
Rifles and Guns, ! L '- ' - 

Other classes, ...... 

Total, ..... . 10,410 $12,852,150 

If to these totals we add the share of Iron making and Roll- 
ing, within forty miles of the city, which truly belong to its busi- 
ness being established by its capital, and obtaining supplies as 
well as finding its market here we are sure that two thousand 
workmen, and a production of $2,500,000, would be within 
bounds for that share. Ten thousand workmen, finding homes 
constantly within the city, are engaged in the commercial manu- 
facture and working of Iron, and two thousand of the same class 
alternate between the city and the country in its vicinity. The 
finished work made in the city, and its immediate suburbs, has a 
commercial value of twelve millions of dollars ; and the share be- 
longing to the city, though located a few miles from it, of three 
millions more. 

XXII. 
Jewelry, Silver-ware, &c. 

Precious Metals are first mentioned in history as a means of 
facilitating the transfer of property : And Abraham weighed 
*o Ephron the silver, " four hundred shekels of silver, current 
money with the merchant." The adoption of gold and silver for 
personal adornment was subsequent to its use as money, and even 



GOLD AND SILVER PLATE. 343 

to this day the idea of value, in the popular mind, is associated 
with these metals principally in the form of coin. It will, therefore, 
seem surprising to many, that the value of the gold and silver plate 
in the world has been carefully estimated to be two thousand mil- 
lions of dollars, which is at least one-fourth wore than all the coin 
in the world. In the United States, precious metals, of the value 
of at least thirty millions of dollars, are annually converted into 
plate or worked up into ornamental forms. 

Philadelphia has long been the chief seat in America for the 
conversion of the precious metals into coin. The United States 
Mint was established in this city, in 1793, and np to the close of 
the year 1856, the entire coinage amounted to $391,730,571.86. 

At the present time, Philadelphia is also one of the principal 
points for the manufacture of Gold and Silver Plate, and works 
have been produced in both these metals that would do no discredit 
to the master goldsmiths of Europe. Mr. WALLIS, in the Report 
on the Industry of the United States, thus testifies : 

" The manufacture of Gold and Silver Plate is more or less carried 
on in nearly all the larger cities, especially New York, Boston, and 
Philadelphia. In the last-named it partakes of the character of a 
settled trade, there being some twelve or fourteen establishments in 
which a considerable number of persons are employed, and the produc- 
tions of which are of a varied, but for the most part of a useful, as 
well as an ornamental character. Table services, and all the articles 
of utility comprised in suites of plate for domestic use, form the staple 
articles ; and these are manufactured in large quantities. 

" The workmanship is usually sound ; but it often happens that, on 
close examination, a deficiency in that nicety of finish, especially in 
the chasing, which characterizes the best English work, is observable. 
Still it is rarely found that the equally, or perhaps more objectionable 
practice of over-chasing, to the destruction of the artistic effect of the 
details, is committed. The fault is evidently that of timidity in hand- 
ling ; but there is a wisdom in leaving off at the right time, which the 
elaborate chasings of English works rarely display. 

" In most of the manufactories a few European workmen are to be 
f3und ; but the Americans engaged in this department of industry are 
usually of a superior class, and it is remarkable how soon they get into 
the system of those amongst whom they are thrown as mere learners, 
f n this, as in other branches of industry, their minds being thoroughly 
prepared by education, they seem to seize upon and master even very 



344 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

difficult points in manipulation and construction, as it were by mere 
instinct." 

Many of the magnificent Services of Gold Plate, Silver Trnm pets, 
Horns, &c., which, at different times and in different parts of the 
United States, have been presented by citizens to those whom they 
delighted to honor, were executed at workshops in Philadelphia. 
But, besides Gold and Silver Plate, the manufacture of Jewelry is 
largely and successfully carried on, particularly the finer and more 
costly kinds, as Diamond and Pearl Jewelry. The taste displayed 
in setting diamonds and pearls, and in Cameo, Enameled, and 
Filagree work, and the weight and purity of the solid gold work, 
would astonish those who are familiar only with the work of this 
description executed in New England. 

The London Commissioners refer, in particular, to the jewelry 
made by Messrs. Bailey & Co., of this city, and highly commend 
their original designs and workmanship. 

There are fifteen lapidaries in the city, constantly occupied in 
cutting and preparing the various stones Rubies, Sapphires, 
Agates, Emeralds besides the large quantities that are imported 
from abroad. The value of the gold jewelry annually made in 
Philadelphia, including gold chains, amounts to $1,275,000. 

The articles embraced within the term Jewelry are exceedingly 
numerous ; and we can only allude to those which may be considered 
special branches, particularly Gold Chains and Pencil and Pen 
Cases. 

Gold Chains are made by at least four houses DREER & SEARS, 
STACY B. OBDYKE, E. C. BONSALL, and NEWLIN, BISHOP & Co. The 
first-named firm has been engaged for many years in the manufac- 
ture of gold chains of the finest quality and workmanship. During 
the past few years they have extended the range of their manufac- 
tures, and now produce chains of every merchantable degree of 
fineness. The present firm is a continuation of the old house of 
Dreer & Hayes, favorably known to the trade since 1833. Their 
manufactory, in Goldsmiths' Hall, is one of the most complete 
and best arranged in the country, lofty, well-lighted and ventila- 
ted, and supplied with the most scientific tools and machinery, 
driven by steam power : they have a capital invested in the business 
of $150,000, employ one hundred and twenty-five hands, to whom 



PEN AND PENCIL CASES WATCH CASES, ETC. 345 

they pay annually $10,000, and produce chains of the value of 
$200,000 annually. 

Messrs. Dreer & Sears carry on, in addition, an extensive busi- 
ness in assaying and refining the precious metals, and sell bullion 
annually to the amount of $300,000. 

Gold and Silver Pencil and Pen Cases are made largely in 
Philadelphia, but, as we are informed, only by one firm Messrs. 
GEORGE W. SIMONS & BROTHER, Sansom Street Hall. This firm 
claim to have been first to use steam advantageously in this 
branch ; and their present machinery, which is new, costing up- 
ward of $25,000, is of the first class, and embodies all the latest 
improvements. Messrs. Simons & Brother had the misfortune to 
lose their entire stock of tools in the great fire which consumed 
the Artisan Buildings in Ranstead Place, on April 1st, 1856, not 
a single appliance of manufacture remaining available ; but in six 
weeks from that time, as we are informed with a steam engine, 
much heavy shafting, and other machinery, and all the peculiar 
tools of the art to be constructed anew their factory was again 
in good running order in its present location ; and ever since they 
have been occupied in perfecting and simplifying its details, till 
now it is confessedly a model in its appointments. In addition 
to Gold and Silver Pencils and Pen Cases, Messrs. Simons & 
Brother manufacture Gold, Silver, and Steel-top Thimbles, Fin- 
ger Shields, Tooth and Ear Picks, Watch Keys, Gold Pens, Cane 
Heads, Bracelets, Breastpins, Ear Rings, Finger Rings, Sleeve 
Buttons, Studs, Gnard Slides, Charms, Seals, Badges, etc. In 
the manufacture of Thimbles they have effected many improve- 
ments, particularly in the application of steam ; and it is said that 
as many Gold Thimbles are now sold annually as there were Silver 
ones a few years since, while the consumption of the latter has in- 
creased in the same ratio. They employ sixty hands. 

Next to Gold Plate and Jewelry, the largest consumption of 
this precious metal is in 

Watch Cases and Dials. This branch of manufactures has 
rapidly augmented in the United States within a few years, and 
now consumes a large amount of Gold. English and Swiss Silver 
Watches are almost invariably imported complete and ready for 
sale, but Gold Watches are usually cased here. William Warner, 
28 



346 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

of this city, was the first American manufacturer of Watch Cases, 
having established the business previous to 1812 ; and Philadelphia 
continues to be now one of the chief seats of this manufacture. In 
purity of Gold, in excellence of workmanship, and in elaborate- 
ness and beauty of ornamentation, it may safely be said, the 
cases made in Philadelphia are not surpassed by any. 

The price of Gases chiefly depends on the weight and fineness 
of the Gold ; but in some instances much labor is expended upon 
them. The engraving alone costs from $5 to $60. A Case of 
common Gold can be sold at $20, or less ; while others, like the 
magic cases, are worth from $75 to $125 the labor expended 
upon them costing more than half that sum. The business re- 
quires a large capital, as the material and labor must be paid for 
in cash, while the cases are usually sold on a credit of four months. 

There are at present sixteen Watch-Case manufacturers in the 
city, who have a capital invested of $375,000, employ two hundred 
and ninety-four men, and make Cases annually of the value of 
$942,000.* 

* A reference to two or three of the principal establishments in this 
branch may not be inappropriate : 

E. TRACT & Co., Goldsmiths' Hall, Library street, are one of the most 
prominent firms making both Gold and Silver Cases, and possess facilities 
for completing every part of all styles in their own factory. They are also 
Refiners and Assayers, and prepare all the Gold and Silver they use by dis- 
solving them, which is said to be the only sure process to obtain them 
entirely pure. They usually employ about fifty workmen ; and for quality 
of gold, as well as beauty and excellence of workmanship, their Cases are 
second to none. They make a very large number of Cases for the American 
Watch Company, of which Mr. Tracy is one of the three proprietors a 
Company that has succeeded in competing with foreigners in a department 
of manufactures that was before untried in this country. 

T. ESMONDE HARPER, formerly Harper and McLean, S. E. corner of 
Walnut and Dock streets, is another house that may be referred to with sat- 
isfaction, as illustrating the prominent and excellent Philadelphia houses in 
this branch. Mr. Harper acquired his knowledge of the art from Mr. Wm. War- 
ner, who, as previously stated, was the first manufacturer of Watch Cases in 
this country. He usually employs about fiftj- hands, and manufactures largely 
for Philadelphia, New York, Boston, and Baltimore, both of the finer and most 
costly Cases, as Magic, Miniature, Hunting; and of the lower-priced, as 
Detached Lever and Cylinder Cases. In Engraving the Cases, he employs 
several of the rarest and most ingenious machines that have ever been cuu- 



GOLD LEAF AND GOLD FOIL. 347 

In the manufacture of Gold Leaf, there are now nine firms, who 
employ one hundred and twenty-five hands, and produce an annual 
value of $175,000. The malleability of Gold is such that it may be 
beaten into leaves one two-hundred-and-eighty-thousandth of an 
inch in thickness ; in other words, a pile of 280,000 leaves will 
measure but one inch in thickness. Gold Leaf is made into books 
containing 500 Leaves, the leaves being 3f inches square ; so that 
each book contains five thousand six hundred and ninety-five 
square inches of Gold Leaf, sufficient to carpet a small bed-room, 
and yet the weight of Gold is less than four pennyweights. In the 
process of hammering or beating, membrances of parchment, vellum, 
and gold beaters' skin (a peculiar substance prepared from the 
outer membrane of the large intestine of the ox) are interposed 
between the hammer and the Gold. 

The largest Gold-beating establishment in the city, and, we 
believe, the largest in the United States, is that of HASTINGS & 
Co., on Fifth street. They employ forty-five hands, and have 
facilities for beating out 200 packages, or 4,000 books per week. 
The quality of leaf produced is very superior. 

Of Gold Foil the annual production in Philadelphia is $150,000. 
The principal firm in this branch which has become to some 
extent a distinct business is CHARLES ABBEY & SONS, the oldest 
established and most extensive manufacturers of Gold Foil for 
dentists' use in the United States. Mr. Charles Abbey, the 
founder of the firm, is a veteran in the business, having been un- 
interruptedly engaged in manufacturing Gold Leaf and Gold 
Foil for the last twenty-three years, Gold Foil only since 1816. 
His three sons, who with him now compose the firm, are also 
skillful and practical manufacturers, rendering the partners a host 

structed. They are the invention of a monk in Switzerland, but introduced 
into this country some years ago, and now made exclusively in this city. 

Another very extensive house is that of JACOT & BROTHER, 109 S. Second 
street, who supply with Cases some of the largest Watch Importers and 
Jobbers in all the principal cities of the Union. They commenced business 
about twenty years ago, and turn out about six thousand Cases per annum. 
To .obtain a sufficient number of skilled workmen Mr. J. frequently visits 
Switzerland, and brings buck a number of workmen and their families, 
advancing the money for the expenses of their journey, to be refunded out 
of their subsequent euruiugs. 



348 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

within themselves. Mr. Abbey's connection with the manufac- 
ture of Gold Foil may be said to cover the entire period of its 
use for purposes of dentistry. When he commenced, dentistry 
was scarcely known as a distinct profession. This firm prepare 
all the Gold they use, not purchasing from refiners, as is cus- 
tomary ; and that they make a most superior article is proved by 
the fact that " Charles Abbey & Sons' Foil" is quoted in the 
trade's circulars at a higher price than that of any other manufac- 
turer. They supply all the prominent dentists in the United 
States, and receive orders from England, France, Germany, Swe- 
den, and from other parts of Europe. 

Gold Spectacle Frames are a leading article of manufacture 
with a number of firms N. E. MORGAN, BUTLER & MCCARTY, 
MCALLISTER & BROTHER, W. BARBER, and I. SCHNAITMANN. 
The quality of those made here can be very highly commended. 

Gold Pens are an exclusive branch of manufacture by two or 
three firms, and are also made by several others. Hair Jewelry 
is made by a half dozen, and some of the specimens are exquisite. 
2. SILVER AND PLATED WARES. 

The Silver Ware made in Philadelphia, it is claimed and gener- 
ally acknowledged, is at least equal, in workmanship and design, 
to the very best made in this country ; while many connoisseurs, 
who have visited the most celebrated silversmith shops in the old 
world, ascribe to none of them precedence over those of Philadel- 
phia. The articles are generally made of a fixed standard, several 
degrees purer than coin, and, consequently, possess great intrinsic 
value, aside from mere workmanship.* The manufacture of Spoons 

* Messrs. Bailey & Co., the leading Jewelers and Silversmiths of Phila- 
delphia, claim the distinction of having first introduced the use of Silver 
of the full British standard, say from 925-1000 to 930; the American stan- 
dard being but 900. They now work no other, a test being made monthly by 
J. C. Booth, Esq., Chief Assayer of the Mint. One advantage of thus raising 
the standard is, that it successfully secures the trade from importations of 
Silver from England, for purchasers are assured, by a full gurantee, of re- 
ceiving Silver as pure as that stamped by the English government. This 
improvement in the quality of Silver also renders the manufactured articles 
more beautifully white, susceptible of higher polish, and less liable to oxi- 
d-ition and consequent discoloratiou. 

The house of BAILEY & Co. has been in existence over twenty years, and 



ELECTRO-PLATING. 349 

and Forks, by machinery, is largely carried on, the shops being 
provided with " rolls," and all other improved machinery that baa 
as yet been introduced. A great deal of Silver-ware made in 
Philadelphia is retailed in New York as Parisian. 

Within the last few years, since the discovery of the process of 
Electro-plating, the wares produced in an inferior metal, but 
covered over with a film of silver, have become quite popular. 
In England the principal improvements effected in this class of 
goods are identified with the names of Elkinton, Mason & Co. ; 
in the United States, the most successful experimenter was John 
0. Mead, who, with his two sons, constitute the firm of JOHN 
0. MEAD & SONS, leading Silver-platers of Philadelphia. The 
following recital of facts, extracted from a memorandum now before 
us, tends to establish the point. 

" Previous to 1836 Mr. John 0. Mead was executing all the silver- 
plating and gilding by the old process of quicksilver and acids, for the 
N. P. Ames Manufacturing Company, which then, as now, was employ- 
ed principally in making swords, cannon, and military equipments for 
Government. In 1836, Mr. N. P. Ames was tendered an appointment 
as one of a committee to visit England and Germany for the purpose 
of acquiring such knowledge as would be necessary for establishing a 
Government Manufactory of these articles, but, though declining the 
honor, he followed the committee in the next vessel. While in England 
he was invited to attend certain lectures instituted by Government, where 
the subject of depositing silver by electricity was discussed, and its feasi- 
bility theoretically but not practically demonstrated. On his return 
to the United States, in 1837, he brought with him one of Smee's bat- 
its reputation at the present time, throughout the Union, is unsurpassed by 
any other similar establishment. Though the South has been their princi- 
pal customer, their wares are well-known throughout all parts of the Union, 
and everywhere favorably. A Communion Service, finished by this firm to 
order for one of the wealthy churches in Charlestown, Mass., adjacent to 
Boston, attracted by its beauty a wide-spread attention. All the processes 
the designing and drawing of the patterns, the melting and refining of 
the metal, to the last finishing touch of the graver, are executed upon 
their own premises, and under their personal inspection. The Silver Ware 
made in this single establishment amounts to $100,000 annually. This firm 
have just completed a marble store on the north aide of Chestnut street, ad- 
joining Messrs. L. J. Levy& Co.'s, and nearly opposite the new Hotel. It 
is one of the finest and most attractive of the many attractive buildings 
an that thoroughfare. 



850 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

teries, and such investigations relating to the subject as had then been 
made, which, however, had not resulted in the discovery of any process 
by which silver could be deposited on any base metal, as copper, German 
silver, &c. After about a year of close study by day and night, Mr. Mead, 
to whom the matter had been submitted, aided by scientific suggestions 
from Professor Silliman, discovered that prussiate of potash was the 
alkali that would hold up silver and not oxidize base metals, and con- 
sidered the point gained. This was in 1839 ; but the difficulty yet to 
be surmounted was a means of depositing any given weight of silver 
that might be desired. The discovery of the cyanide solution in 1840 
solved this difficulty, and enabled Mr. Mead to deposit any required 
amount of silver on base metals, and subsequently on any metal direct 
without the intervention of any other metal a result which even yet 
few houses can or do accomplish. When Mr. Mead had perfected his 
experiments, he instructed others in the process, and was the means of 
putting into successful operation a number of concerns now flourishing 
in New England." 

It is one of the advantages of electro-plating, that all ornaments, 
however elaborate, or designs however complicated, that can be 
produced in silver, are equally obtainable by this process. Messrs. 
Mead & Sons are now producing articles of every kind and variety, 
from the most elaborate Epergne to the plainest article of Tea or 
Dinner Service, in the greatest perfection. Their manufactory is a 
very extensive one, over two hundred hands having been employed 
in it at a time ; and, in their warerooms, near the Girard House, 
may be seen all the latest and most beautiful patterns, rivaling, in 
style and finish, those of solid silver. They make about fifty dif- 
ferent patterns of tea-sets, and their plated-ware exceeds, in dura- 
bility and variety, as well as in richness of design, that of any of 
the New England concerns. Services of plate are constantly being 
furnished by them to private families, hotel proprietors, steamboat 
and ship builders ; and wares of their manufacture have been ship- 
ped to England, Turkey, Persia, and China. 

MEYER & WARNE, another prominent firm, have manufactured, 
for some years, a new article of Plated-ware, of which the judges 
at the Franklin Institute Exhibition of 1856, spoke as follows : 

" It appears that the manufacturers have substituted a new method 
in making, by which the expense of chasing is dispensed with. Although 



BRITANNIA METAL. 351 

the mode of manufacture is not fully known to the judges, yet sufficient 
is known to enable them to say they consider it a decided improvement ; 
because any pattern can be exactly reproduced, and at a cost which 
will enable the maker to sell a handsome article at a moderate price. 
The judges would, therefore, desire to speak in the highest terms of this 
improvement in manufacturing." 

Since that period the firm have perfected the process, and are 
now producing a metal that is truly remarkable for its strength, 
whiteness, and cheapness, while it has a ring somewhat resembling 
silver. 

Mr. HARVEY FILLET has long been identified with the manu- 
facture of Plated Wares in Philadelphia, and has established an 
enviable reputation. We notice that he announces an article 
which he terms Nickel Silver. 

Britannia metal and Britannia metal goods are made by four 
firms. This metal is composed chiefly of tin, antimony and copper, 
which are melted and mixed, and then cast into bars. Many im- 
provements have been effected in the manufacture of Britannia- 
ware, the most important of which is the art of spinning the hollow 
ware into form. All the fine work is now spun, but the process 
is by no means peculiar to this city. 

The statistics of Works in the Precious Metals and their imita- 
tions, for this city, are approximately as follows : 

Persons employed, ._.- 1,700 

Product, viz. .-Gold Jewelry, Pens, Spectacles, Ac., ... $1,275,000 

" Watch Cases, 942,000 

" Leaf and Foil, 325,000 

SilverWare, 450,000 

Plated and Britannia Ware, .... 380,000 

Total, $3,372,000 

This statement, it will be apparent, does not include the addi- 
tional value produced by assaying and refining, includes nothing 
for the Mint, which employs 125 persons, nothing for the silver- 
plating of Door-plates, Knobs, Bell-pulls, Cutlery, &c., but simply 
the product of the manufacturing establishments in Gold and Silver. 
The amount thus only partially given far exceeds the annual prod- 
uct in Providence, R. I., which, it has been heretofore supposed, 
was the chief seat of the manufactures of Gold and Silver in the 
United States. 



352 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

XXIII. 
Lamps, Chandeliers, and Gas Fixtures. 

In nearly every Exhibition of American Manufactures, which has 
been held in the last quarter of a century we presume it will be 
conceded by every one the most attractive, artistic and brilliant 
feature of the display was the Chandeliers, Candelabras, Giran- 
doles, &c., made and deposited by Philadelphia houses. The 
manufacture of these, as a branch of American industry, is of 
quite modern origin, and is mainly indebted to Philadelphia en- 
terprise and skill for its present development. Previous to 1830, 
the whole trade in Chandeliers was in the hands of foreign im- 
porters. Now, the American market is entirely supplied by home 
manufacturers ; and if we may judge from the frank acknowl- 
edgments of intelligent foreigners, and their unequivocal testi- 
monials to the excellence in design, workmanship and finish, dis- 
played in the products especially of Philadelphia workshops, we 
anticipate a period, not remote, when Lamps and Chandeliers 
from this city will compete successfully with those of Europe, in 
European markets. 

The pioneer establishment in this manufacture, and the one 
which, in extent, is now confessedly without an equal in Europe 
or America, is that of CORNELIUS & BAKER. Founded about a 
half century ago, it has grown from a small workshop, employing 
two or three journeymen, to be an immense factory, requiring as 
its motive power several hundred workmen, and two large steam- 
engines. The operations are conducted, as will be perceived by 
reference to the engraving, in two extensive buildings located in 
different parts of the city, but they are so managed in order and 
system as to constitute but one factory. A telegraphic wire, laid 
principally on poles erected at the expense of the firm, forms a 
medium for instantaneous communication between the two ; and 
the state of forwardness of any work can be ascertained with 
almost as much facility as if it were in different parts of the same 
building. The Cherry street factory is an immense structure, 
five stories high, built in the form of a hollow square, and is en- 
tirely fire-proof. The floors are of brick ; the stairs and window- 
sash of iron, and the roof of slate and iron not a pound of nails 
nor a particle of wood having been used in its construction. 



N 



' 

:\ 




LAMPS, CHANDELIERS, AND GAS FIXTURES. 353 

Each distinct process has its room or department, and every grade 
of workman, from the common laborer to the artist and chemist, 
is needed in the various departments. In this miniature world, 
too, almost every nationality on the globe is represented. 

To describe the processes necessary in the manufacture of the 
various articles which form the caption of this chapter, as con- 
ducted in this establishment, would require more space than we 
can appropriate to the subject. The firm has provided for pres- 
entation a comprehensive description in twenty-four pamphlet 
pages, and to that we must refer the curious reader. Briefly, 
however, we may state, that the successive processes in the form- 
ation of an Ornamental article from Brass occur in the following 
order : The design is first modeled iu a mass of prepared wax. 
Each modeler in the establishment mentioned has a private room, 
and every facility given him in the production of his patterns. 
Immense sums have been expended by this firm in procuring ap- 
propriate designs ; and probably no other house in the world pos- 
sesses such a rare collection. When the pattern, which is fre- 
quently the work of weeks, is finally completed, it goes into the 
hands of the caster, who makes a mould of it in brass, which is 
sent to the "chaser," aud finally finished and elaborated into the 
dignity of a standard pattern, from which the caster may multi- 
ply an infinity of copies. It is one of the advantages which Phil- 
adelphia has for the manufacture of Ornamental Brasswork, that 
the sand found in the vicinity of the city is of so fine a character 
as to require no sifting for use, and the finest castings are easily 
made without the intervention of white metal. Thus, the shrink- 
age and variation of size between the white metal pattern and 
the brass casting, often found to exist in castings made from the 
former, is avoided, and the register of the two sides of a branch, 
or other portion of a Chandelier or Gas bracket requiring to be 
fitted together, is more perfect than it otherwise would be. The 
brass pattern, too, takes a sharper aud more decisive chasing than 
white metal ; and all that is required to be done, after the castings 
leave the foundry, is to file off the very small amount of super- 
fluous metal retained in the casting, and fit the parts together. 

The articles, after leaving the filing room, in which about one 
hundred mtu are employed, are sent to the dipping rooms, where, 



354 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

by means of acids and various chemical ordeals, a rich pale gold 
color is imparted to the brass. Messrs. Whitworth and Wallis 
remark, that : 

" Iu the dipping process, as pursued in these works, great modifica- 
tions are made in the character and strength of the acids used. It was 
found that, from the variation of temperature at Philadelphia, ranging 
as it does, from below zero in the winter, to 96 and 98 in the shade in 
the summer, nitric acid became unmanageable during the hot season, 
as its fumes were given off so rapidly as to injure the health of the 
workmen. The accurate scientific knowledge, however, brought to 
bear upon this point one, too, involving the very existence of the 
trade, except at a frightful destruction to human health and life has 
obviated every difficulty, adapted the acids to the temperature, and 
the dipping department is comparatively free from noxious fumes, even 
under the highest of the above temperatures. The result is equally 
satisfactory as regards the color of the work when dipped, some novel 
effects being produced, and a singular purity of color obtained." 

From the dipping rooms the articles are removed to the burn- 
ishing room, where a high polish is given to the prominent parts 
of the work by means of tools, (which consist either of highly 
polished steel, or a very hard material called blood-stone) dipped 
freely into a cup of small beer. After the brass is burnished, it is 
again cleansed by means of acids, and finally washed in hot water, 
the heat of which soon causes the work to dry ; it is then thrown 
into a trough containing bookbinder's paper shavings, which com- 
plete the drying. The work is then ready for lacquering. The 
lacquering is of the utmost importance, and requires the lacquer 
to be scientifically made and skillfully applied to ensure a rich 
and lasting gold color unaffected by the action of the atmosphere. 
In this process, the house to which we have referred has made 
considerable improvements. It was found that the lacquers made 
after the English formula lost color very quickly, from the ex- 
tremes of temperature already noted; and that during the months 
of July and August, when the dew-point of the barometer is 
reached in Philadelphia, the red-lacquered work always streaked 
in the direction of the marks of the spinning tool on the broad 
surface of metal. After a series of experiments, carried through 
several months, this firm succeeded in making a lacquer which is 
quite permanent under any variation of temperature. 



CORNELIUS AND BAKER'S MANUFACTORY. 355 

As the work is usually made in numerous parts, the fitting of 
these constitutes an important branch in such an extensive estab- 
lishment. One room is occupied entirely by a number of men 
who are constantly employed in fitting together such Gas-work as 
Chandeliers, Pendants, Brackets, &c. ; another, Girandoles and 
Candelabras ; and a third, the numerous class of Solar Lamps 
designed for standing upon the table, or for being suspended from 
the ceiling or against the wall. From all these apartments the 
goods are taken to meet once more in the packing-room previous 
to bidding a final farewell to their birthplace, and starting for 
their port of destination, which often is, Cuba, South America, 
the Canadas, and sometimes China and India. 

Besides the rooms in which these leading processes are con- 
ducted, there are numerous others devoted to special purposes. 
Some of the Ornamental work is painted in particolors to please 
fanciful tastes ; some is bronzed with different shades ; while other 
work is tastefully enameled or covered with a coating of fine 
gold. Each of these processes has its appropriate department. 
There are also rooms devoted to glass-cutting, grinding and pol- 
ishing, and rooms appropriated to the workers in artistic bronze ; 
while others are occupied by those who are employed at damask 
work, in which the chief agents are lacquer and acids. In the 
prosecution of such an immense business, there is necessarily a 
vast deal of turning of metals. Many hands are constantly em- 
ployed cutting screws, a branch in which considerable care and 
skill are requisite. All the screws of the different classes that 
are turned out of this establishment are made of one size. If the 
branch of a Chandelier exported by this house to China should 
find its way to Russia, it would fit exactly into any of the Chan- 
deliers in the Kremlin. 

The success which has attended the operations of this firm is, 
no doubt, due in part to the natural advantages of Philadelphia for 
this manufacture ; in part to the large capital which the firm con- 
trol, enabling them to procure the most perfect machinery, as well 
as purchase raw materials on the most favorable terms ; but espe- 
cially would we ascribe it to the constant attention paid by the 
managing partners to the scientific principles of Metallurgy, 
Chemistry, and Mechanism. Every detail of the establishment is 



35(3 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

carried out in accordance with thorough scientific principles, 
and the result is the products of their manufactory sustain an 
enviable reputation in all parts of the world. All, or nearly all 
the Capitols of the United States are lighted by Chandeliers man- 
ufactured at this establishment. The Chandeliers and Brackets 
of the Capitol at Columbus, Ohio, contain, among their embellish- 
ments, statuettes of Prudence, Science, Commerce, Liberty, Amer- 
ica, modeled and bronzed in the highest style of Art. The Chan- 
delier of the Hall of Representatives, at Nashville, Tennessee, is 
fifteen feet iu diameter, and appropriately decorated with the 
products of the State corn, cotton, tobacco-plants, &c. The Gas 
fixtures in the Academy of Music, at Philadelphia, were also made 
here. The Chandelier hanging in the Auditorium is said to be the 
largest in the world, being sixteen feet in diameter and twenty-five 
feet long, and having two hundred and forty burners. 

The firm has just completed the lighting apparatus for the 
House of Representatives at Washington, and is now executing 
a similar apparatus for the Senate Chamber. There will be 2,500 
burners, but so arranged that all can be lighted instantaneously. 

Messrs. ARCHER, WARNER, MISKEY & Co., are another firm in 
Philadelphia engaged extensively in the manufacture of Lamps, 
Chandeliers, and Gas Fixtures. The English Commissioners be- 
fore quoted state : " The remarks as to the character of the work 
produced by the last-named firm, especially Gas Fittings, and the 
perfect division of labor, which is not so general a feature in 
American as European manufactories, applies with equal force to 
both establishments ; and though that of Messrs. Archer, War- 
ner, Miskey & Co. is not so extensive, its operations are carried on 
in a systematic and efficient manner, the results being shown in 
the articles produced, which are excellent of their class." (For a 
description of this establishment, see APPENDIX.) 

Besides the establishments referred to, there are numerous others 
engaged in the manufacture of Gas Burners, and Brass, Composi- 
tion, Carriage, and Locomotive Lamps. Lamp Shades are made 
by V. Quarre and others ; and the entire business done in Chan- 
deliers, Gaseliers, and Lamps, we estimate at $1,300,000, employ- 
ing twelve hundred and fifty hands. 



TANNING AND CURRYING. 357 

XXIV. 

Leather and its Manufactures. 

The manufacture of various kinds of Leather, particularly Sole 
Leather and heavy Upper Leather, has long been a leading pursuit 
in Pennsylvania. The Tanneries, which reveal themselves here and 
there in ravines along the highways and by-ways of the State, some 
traveler has remarked, are almost as plentiful as the old-fashioned 
water-propelled grist mills, or the country taverns. In 1840 the cap- 
ital invested in Tanneries in Pennsylvania amounted to $4,255,055, 
by which, at that date, 5,226 operatives were employed. The 
abundance of Oak, particularly the White Oak and Chestnut Oak, 
has facilitated and rendered profitable the business of tanning ; 
and the excellence and cheapness of oak bark, probably more than 
any other circumstance, explain the immense production of Leather 
which finds its principal depot in Philadelphia. Quercitron Bark, 
which is simply a product of the ordinary Black Oak, is now largely 
exported to Europe, where it commands high prices. 

The two principal processes for the manufacture of Leather, it 
is perhaps needless to remark, are denominated Tanning and 
Currying. The latter is mainly a mechanical process, and the former 
a chemical one, though requiring more or less manipulation in or- 
der to facilitate the chemical action. In Philadelphia the principal 
branch carried on is Currying ; much of the leather tanned in the 
interior of the State being brought to the city in its rough state, 
and requiring the art jof the currier to smooth and adapt it, in 
pliability and softness, to its various uses. The firms engaged in 
currying Leather within the limits of Philadelphia number at least 
thirty-five, some very extensive, while there are but ten tanneries, 
four of these being employed in making Sole Leather exclusively, 
two in Calf Skins, one in Belting Leather, while the others make 
both Sole, and Calf, and Sheep to some extent. 

It would be interesting, did our space permit, to note and trace 
the effects of the various improvements that have been made by 
mechanical means in the manufacture of Leather. The steam 
engine has been generally introduced into the factories of leather- 
dressers and tanners, and is now used for grinding bark, for soft- 
ening foreign hides, and in giving motion to many machines for 
29 



358 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

washing, glazing, and finishing Leather. Important results have 
also arisen from the invention of ingenious machinery for splitting 
hides and skins. This is effected by means of a long sharp knife, 
kept in rapid motion about the sixteenth of an inch from the edge 
of a smooth bar of iron, over which the skin is drawn by a revolv- 
ing cylinder. By another machine, the skin is pressed between the 
revolving rollers, and presented, as it emerges, to the edge of a 
long straight knife, nicely adjusted between the upper and under 
surfaces of the skin, and kept in motion backward and forward, to 
facilitate the operation of splitting. But the most remarkable of 
modern improvements in this connection are what has been termed 
"time-shortening inventions." The feat has actually been per- 
formed of butchering a kid, dressing the meat, and tanning the 
hide, all in the self-same single hour ; and it has been repeatedly 
and unequivocally demonstrated that good Leather can be made 
iu a comparatively brief period of time, by the aid of machinery, 
bringing the skins into rapidly repeated contact with the tanning 
liquor by means of a revolving cylinder, which catches them up 
and dashes them down alternately. 

The distinction which Philadelphia is justly entitled to claim in 
this branch of manufacture, is in the production of the finer kinds 
of leather. Calf Skins are made of a most superior quality, nn- 
equaled elsewhere, it is believed, in this country, and not excelled 
by the celebrated French. One of our manufacturers, it will be 
remembered, entered into competition with the French and all 
others, at the World's Exhibition at London, in 1851, and carried 
off the Prize Medal. All parts of the West, as well as less remote 
States, are chiefly supplied with this leather from this city. 

Deer Skins are very largely manufactured into Leather, which is 
used for Gloves, Suspenders, Drawers, &c. About 60,000 deer 
skins are annually converted into leather in Philadelphia alone. 
The hair is considered to be the best material for stuffing saddles. 

Sheep and Lamb Skins are tanned in all the various modes ; in 
bark, in alum or salt for white leather,* and are also largely ap- 

* Alum or White Leather is made to a considerable extent, and used for 
Saddlers' facings, lining Shoes ; for Masons' aprons, for covering necks of 
bottles and spreading plasters, and for various other purposes. The skin 
is softened in lime-water, washed several times in pure water, and 



MOROCCO LEATHER. 359 

propriated for Parchment and Chamois Leather. Two of the 
manufacturers have hydraulic presses for expressing the grease from 
the skins, thus facilitating the operation of dyeing in brilliant 
colors, which cannot well be done while any grease remains in the 
pores of the skins. The raw material is principally furnished 
from the flocks of our own country, though Sheep skins are im- 
ported to some extent from the Cape of Good Hope. 

But the branch of the Leather manufacture in which Philadel- 
phia may fairly claim a decided pre-eminence is that of Morocco. 
At least one and a half millions (1,500,000) of Goat skins are 
annually converted into leather in Philadelphia ; and the excellence 
of quality is no less remarkable than the quantity. The Goat 
skins are chiefly obtained from the East Indies, and three-fourths 
of the whole amount imported into the United States are brought 
to Philadelphia. The East Indian skins are small and have short 
hair, and are peculiarly suited for ladies' and children's shoes. 
The Goat skins from Tampico are highly esteemed, being large 
and heavy; while those from Curatjoa, though smaller, are very 
superior, and used chiefly for making kid for gloves and gaiter 
uppers. Those from the East Indies comprise perhaps four-fifths 
of the whole importation. 

The skins are principally imported into Boston, brought to 
Philadelphia to be made into Morocco, and many of them again 
returned to Boston to be converted into shoes. Boston and New 
York are both largely supplied with Morocco from Philadelphia, 
and also the principal cities in the West, from Pittsburg to St. 
Louis. The climate and peculiarities of water in Philadelphia 
seem admirably adapted for this manufacture ; and with the aid of 
the highest skill, attracted hither as the chief seat of the manufac- 
ture, contribute to produce results that are apparently not attain- 
able anywhere else in this country. 

There are now twenty-five Morocco manufactories in Philadel- 
phia, located principally on Margaretta, Willow, and St. John 
Streets, employing six hundred and thirty males and seventy-five 
females, who produced last year 125,000 dozen of Morocco and 

ward in fermented bran liquor. Yolks of eggs, flour, alum, and salt, are 
used. In France and England 6,000,000 eggs are used annually in prepar- 
ing Leather for Gloves. 



060 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Kid skins, averaging $9 25 per dozen, which would amount to 
$1,156,250. Several of the firms have very complete establish- 
ments for making Fancy Leather for Shoemakers, Hatters, Book 
binders, Coachraakers, Saddjers, &c. 

The entire product of Leather in 185 7 we state as follows : 

Sole Leather, Calf Skins, Upper Leather, Skirting, &c., Tanned and 

Curried, ; :: "'! i; . ' U 'J '^^' ^ ' ' " I -* 1 "! $1,175,000 

Morocco and other manufactures of Goat Skins, 125,000 doz. a $9.25, 1,156,250 
Sheep Skins, ... .V i-m ' - 50,000 doz. a $6, 300,000 

Deer Skins, White Leather, Parchment, Vellum, Ac., - " , 135,000 



Total, - 1 ***"' ;' ' l . ;l .*. -'fi?i'' !: -- "'- ; .' '-'-' : '; $2,766,250 

The principal manufactures of Leather are considered under 
their appropriate captions, viz.: BOOTS and SHOES, SADDLES, 
HARNESS and TRUNKS, &c. The miscellaneous manufactures con- 
sist principally of Gloves and Clothing, Belting, Hose, &c. The 
Gloves and Buckskin goods made in Philadelphia have a deserved 
and wide-spread reputation. Their qualities and merits are famil- 
iar to all dealers. The interests of this branch were for a time 
depressed and injured by the large quantities of inferior articles 
thrown upon the market, through auction houses, by the Gloversville 
manufacturers; but, by adhering to the principle of making only 
articles of the first quality, which in this class of goods are alone 
of any value to the consumer, the Philadelphia manufacturers have 
maintained their reputation and increased their business. The 
annual production of Buckskin Gloves, Mittens, Drawers, Suspend- 
ers, &c., in Philadelphia, including Kid Gloves, which are made of 
excellent quality, will exceed $150,000. The product of Belting, 
Leather Hose, &c., may be reckoned at $175,000, and consequent- 
ly, the entire product of Leather, Buckskin Gloves, &c., will be 
stated approximately at $3,091,250. 

XXV. 

Marble, Stone, Slate, Soapstone, &c. 

Marble, as a building material, is used more extensively in 
Philadelphia than in any other American city ; and the prepara- 
tion of it for this purpose alone would constitute a prominent, and 
perhaps a flourishing pursuit. One cause that has contributed 



MARBLE QUARRIES NEAR PHILADELPHIA. 361 

more than any other to bring this material into such extensive 
use in Philadelphia, aside from its beauty, is its cheapness and 
the facility of obtaining it, there being several very old and excel- 
lent quarries within fifteen miles of the centre of the city. The 
Hilner Quarry, which is nearest to the city, has produced some 
very fine White Marble ; but on account of the extreme depth of 
the quarry, reaching in some places to two hundred and forty feet, 
the working is very expensive. Contiguous to this is the Lentz 
Quarry, which produces a marble not very desirable on account 
of the dark-blue spots. The Fritz Quarry, recently purchased by 
the "Pennsylvania Land and Marble Company," is an old quarry, 
and has produced a very fine white and blue variegated Marble, 
known as the " Pennsylvania Clouded," formerly much used for 
mantels and chimney-pieces in old Pennsylvania houses of the 
better kind. The Dager Quarry, in the same vicinity, produces 
a similar Marble, but not quite equal to it in beauty. On the 
west side of the Schuylkill are the Henderson Quarries, extensive, 
deep, and expensive to work, but which produce very good quali- 
ties of White and Blue Marble, found in alternate layers in the 
same quarry, the bed of blue being first, and the white underneath 
it. Numerous important buildings in the city exhibit specimens 
of Marble from these quarries ; as, for instance, the Mint, Ex- 
change, and steps and ashlar of the Girard College ; and, among 
the new buildings, Henry Korn's store in Third above Market.* 
A Black Marble, formerly much used for hearths, wall-plates, and 
shelves of mantels, when Black and Gold was the fashion, is also 
found in these quarries in boulders or detached masses, but not 
equal in quality to the Irish Black. One mile distant from these 
is the Brooks' Quarry, from which the Blue Marble composing 
the front of Levick, Raisin & Co.'s store, on Market street, was 
obtained. 

When the building which formerly occupied the site of the present 
University of Pennsylvania was torn down, a corner-stone of Henderson's 
Blue Marble, two feet eight and a half inches by one foot eleven inches, 
was discovered, with the following inscription cut on the face : 
'* Thu Corner Stone of the house to accommodate the PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED 
STATES, was laid May 10th, 1782, when Pennsylvania teas happily out of 
Debt: 

THOMAS MIFFMN then Governor of the State." 
29* 



362 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

The products of the Pennsylvania quarries, however, constitute 
but a small proportion of the Marble consumed by the Marble- 
workers in Philadelphia. Large importations of different varie- 
ties of Marble, but principally veined Italian, are annually made 
from Leghorn, and sold on arrival at public auction, at prices 
varying from $2 to $4 per cubic foot. One establishment, that 
of Mr. JOHN BAIRD, consumes annually over 15,000 cubic feet of 
Italian Marble. The quarries of J. K. and M. FREEDLEY, at 
West Stockbridge, Mass., supply a good quality of ordinary 
building Marble, which is extensively used in Philadelphia ; and 
the Vermont quarries, particularly those at Rutland, from which 
the finest varieties of American Marble are obtained ; and those 
at Manchester, owned by FREEDLEY, MACDONALD & Co., supply 
this market with large quantities sawed to sizes for gravestone 
and other purposes, and from hence reshipped to the South and 
West. It is not an unusual circumstance for quarry operators in 
New England to consign a cargo of Marble to this city on a 
venture ; and as ventures do not always arrive exactly at the time 
of demand, the jobbers and dealers in Philadelphia can frequently 
purchase on terms so favorable, that they can in turn supply cus- 
tomers in the South and West with Marble in slabs cheaper than 
either could purchase it in block at the quarries. The wholesale 
dealers in this city, however, are generally owners of quarries 
Mr. S. F. PRINCE is the only jobber who has no interest in any 
quarry. 

The trade in Marble, as an important pursuit, is of compara- 
tively recent origin ; but probably in no other has the adoption of 
improved facilities been more rapid and general. Less than 
twenty-five years ago, all Marble was sawed by the friction of a 
saw without teeth, aided by sharp sand, pushed backward and 
forward by manual force. Now, Marble is sawed, rubbed, and 
polished by steam power ; and a block of Italian Marble has been 
converted into four hundred superficial feet of slabs in twelve 
hours. Holes of any required size are now drilled by machinery, 
and perfect joints are made by the aid of lap-wheels. The 
rapidity with which a rough block of Marble can be converted 
into highly-finished products, is only less astonishing than the time- 
shortening tanning process referred to in the preceding article. 



STEAM MARBLE MILLS. 363 

There are now six steam mills in Philadelphia for sawing and 
preparing Marble ; and some of them are the most extensive, com- 
plete, and best-arranged mills of the kind in the entire Union. 
The proprietors of these mills are EDWIN GEEBLE, JOHN BAIRP, 
LEWIS THOMPSON & Co., S. F. JACOBY & Co., J. & E. B. SCHELL, 
and ELI HESS. 

Greble's Works are located on Chestnut above Seventeenth 
street, and consist of a four-story brick mill 88 by 40 feet, with 
a two-story addition in the form of an L, 26 by 115 feet, of which 
the lower part is occupied for offices and as the stonecutters' de- 
partment ; and the entire second story, a large and handsome 
room, is appropriated as a mantel wareroom, in which may at all 
times be seen about one hundred different patterns of mantels. 
In connection with the Marble-Works on Chestnut street, he has 
in another location a very extensive yard devoted to the prepara- 
tion of Brown Stone building-work. Some of the most elegant 
fronts Philadelphia can boast were executed in his establishment. 
In the two concerns, about one hundred and twenty men are usu- 
ally employed. 

Mr. Edwin Greble is one of the oldest established and conse- 
quently best known Marble-workers in Philadelphia. He com- 
menced the business in 1829, and for more than a quarter of a 
century has been uninterruptedly engaged in the Marble trade, 
prosecuting a constantly-increasing business. He was among the 
first in Philadelphia to use Italian Marble in monumental work ; 
and, since the discovery of very excellent varieties of American 
Marble, and its durability has been well established, he has been 
among the most zealous in recommending that to favorable con- 
sideration for like purposes. 

Mr. Greble's Works were formerly located on Willow street, 
above Broad, where he owned the second mill for sawing Marble 
by steam-power built in Philadelphia. 

BAIRD'S MARBLE WORKS are so well known throughout the 
Union, that a detailed description would be superfluous. The 
enterprising proprietor has provided first-rate equipments for 
working Marble, and then has shown a master's hand in advising 
the public of the important fact. It was the fortune and pleasure 
of the Author to refer to these Works some two years ago, and a 



364 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

brief extract from his remarks on that occasion must suffice for a 
present description : 

" In the workshops a large force of skillful workmen may be seen en- 
gaged in executing various designs, and converting rough blocks or 
pieces of marble into various beautiful forms by the mallet and chisel, 
which machinery, with all its triumphs, has not as yet superseded. In 
designing and carving Mantels, Monuments, and elaborate works of 
Art, Mr. Baird has been unusually successful, through the agency of 
accomplished workmen ; and some of the most exquisite specimens of 
the Phidian art, of which this country can boast, are the products of 
his workshops. It has been his practice not only to secure the best 
native and foreign artists in carving and designing, and to stimulate 
their ambition by rewards and liberal remuneration, but to encourage 
the study and practice of both these arts by establishing schools for the 
benefit of his apprentices. The fruits of his enterprise in this respect 
may be seen in his Mantel warerooms, and in the Monuments and 
Tombs which adorn our Cemeteries. His warerooms contain upward 
of 130 different patterns of Marble Mantels, made from all varieties 
of marble, common and rare, from the clouded Pennsylvania to the 
Carrara statuary, and ranging in price from $10 each to $1,000 and 
upward per pair. The designs in most instances are original, and the 
carving on the most costly renders them worthy of a place among the 
chef-d'oeuvres of the art. The flowers and fruits appear to want nothing 
but color to start into life, and the heads and scrolls are worthy speci- 
mens of the sculptor's skill. In Monumental Art, the triumphs of the 
proprietor of those Works are written on the Cemeteries of Philadel- 
phia, the Mausoleums of the South, and the resting-places of the dead 
throughout the Union. Whether it be a people's testimonial of gratitude 
to heroes who sacrificed their lives in battling with the pestilence, or a 
contribution from patriotic mechanics to the pile erecting in honor of 
Washington, or the more numerous and diversified mementos of affec- 
tion to departed relatives or friends, the same wealth of resources, the 
same masterly execution, are visible in all. In the workshop devoted 
exclusively to this branch may at all times be seen a greater variety of 
finished Monumental and Tomb work of Italian and American Marble 
than in any other establishment that we know of in this country." 

LEWIS THOMPSON & Co.'s Works are employed principally, 
and we believe exclusively, for sawing Marble into furniture tops. 
These works in their entirety are among the most remarkable in 
Philadelphia. We shall therefore reserve a description for the 
APPENDIX. 



MONUMENTAL MARBLE-WORK. 365 

The Marble- Works of S. F. JACOBT & Co., J. & E. B. SCHELL, 
and ELI HESS, are all provided with good facilities, and tarn out 
large quantities of sawed Marble, which are sold to the South 
and West in slab or converted into finished products. The trade 
with the South and West is rapidly extending, as the facilities 
of Philadelphia for supplying Marble become more widely known. 
The demand also for new forms of Marble-work, as Tiles, Mosaics, 
etc., is likewise increasing. 

But the marked characteristic of this trade in Philadelphia, en- 
titling it to a high rank and position as a pursuit, is not in the 
Mills, well-equipped as they are, but in the artistic ability and 
taste which have been displayed in designing and executing orna- 
mental and monumental Marble-work. Long before the Marble- 
workers in New York and other cities were seemingly aware that 
uniformity in design was not a merit, those of this city employed 
special designers ; and the genius of at least one, who for twelve 
years was solely occupied in making monumental designs for one 
firm, has afforded copyists abundant and profitable occupation. 
The sums expended by Struthers, or Baird, or Greble for origi- 
nal designs, probably exceed the expenditure, for a similar pur- 
pose, of the whole trade in other cities. Of the execution, too, 
in Monumental work, it would be impossible to speak in exagger- 
ated terms. The sculptors of Philadelphia might, with confidence 
in a verdict favorable to themselves, submit the question to any 
jury, even of intelligent competent foreigners, who would take 
the time necessary to form a correct judgment, whether the work- 
manship ordinarily displayed by them in carved Marble-work (ex- 
cept in statues, in which they have had but little experience) is 
not superior to that ordinarily executed in Italy, the home of 
Sculpture.* Certain it is, that the tombs imported from abroad, 
though perhaps the most costly, are not the most noteworthy and 
finely-chiseled Art-objects in our Cemeteries. Nearly all the Sar- 
cophagi in which repose the ashes of the greatest of American 
heroes, jurists, and others, were executed by Philadelphia sculp- 

*Even in Statues no very great inferiority can be admitted. Mr. THOMAS 
HA.EQRAVK has recently executed two Statues one of Moses Delivering 
the Law, and another of Christ the Mediator, that, we are told, will beai 
favorable comparison with the best works of the kind executed in Italy. 



366 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

tors ; for instance, the Sarcophagus of Washington, of Chief-Jus- 
tice Marshall, of Chief-Justice Tilghman and Bushrod Washing- 
ton, of the Kev. Mr. Whitefield, and others. At this moment 
the chisels are busy in shaping Sarcophagi that will, if possible, 
invest with increased interest the burying-places of HENRY CLAY 
and JOHN M. CLAYTON.* But the theme is susceptible of un- 
limited elaboration. 

There are now about sixty marble yards in Philadelphia, employ- 

* Both of these works, we are happy to learn, are being executed of 
American Marble, and by Mr. WILLIAM STBUTHERS, who is well-known as 
one of the most successful and eminent of the workers in Marble in Phila- 
delphia. He is successor and representative of the house of John Struth- 
ers, and J. STRUTHEES & SON, established more than a half century ago. The 
Marble work of nearly all the elegant and costly public buildings for which 
Philadelphia is distinguished was executed by this firm the U. S. Bank, now 
Custom House, U. S. Naval Asylum, U. S. Mint, Chestnut-street Theatre, 
Philadelphia and Western Banks, Philadelphia Exchange, Mechanics' Bank, 
Philadelphia Saving Fund ; Girard Buildings, Chestnut above Eleventh ; 
Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank, Bailey & Co.'s new Marble store, and many 
others. Their skill in this branch, however, has not been monopolized by 
Philadelphia, but maybe seen in many of the Marble buildings of the United 
States : the State Capitols of North Carolina and Ohio ; the Commercial 
Bank, Natchez, Miss.; the United States (Branch) Bank at Pittsburg, Penn. 
Mr. Struthers is also largely engaged in executing building work in Sand- 
stone ; and we believe was the first to introduce the stone of this descrip- 
tion, now so popular, from the Albert and Pictou Quarries, British Prov- 
inces. Many of the elegant stores and mansions which enhance the archi- 
tectural beauty of the city, as for instance, Morris L. Hallowell's, J. Stone 
& Sons, L. J. Levy & Co.'s stores ; Pennsylvania Rail-road Company's 
building on Third street and Willing's Alley ; John Grigg's mansion, in 
Walnut street ; Wm. Welsh's mansion, in Spruce street; J. Hare Powell's 
mansion, in Walnut, &c. But the branch of his general and extensive bu- 
siness which entitles Mr. Struthers to special distinction, because excellence 
in it is more rare, is Marble Monumental work. To enumerate all the im- 
portant Monuments which have been executed in the yard of J. STRUTHERB 
& SON, would require far more space than our limits can afford. Art- 
objects, of the highest character in point of taste and workmanship, have 
been sent by this firm not only to all parts of the United States but to En- 
gland, the West Indies, China, and Syria. 

As an exception to the characteristic American rule of frequent change, 
we may state that the spot, 360 Market st., now occupied by Mr. Wm. Struth- 
ers, as a Marble Yard, has been used as such uninterruptedly since 17'J8. 



SLATE, SOAP-STONE, ETC. 367 

ing, on an average, eight hundred and forty hands, and executing 
work to the amount of $860,000 annually. Nearly one-half of the 
amount is done by four firms. 

Two or three of the marble-workers are also extensively engaged 
in executing Building work in Sand-stone ; and the statistics of 
the entire business, including workers in Brown-stone, Granite, 
Flag-stones, &c., would amount, on an average, to 1,150 hands, 
and a product of $1,160,000.* 

3. SLATE, SOAP-STONE, ETC. 

In our introductory remarks we adverted to the Slate Quarries, 
in Lehigh County, and stated that the very best qualities of 
Slate are obtained in Pennsylvania. In other places, the pre- 
paration of Slate for Roofing purposes constitutes the principal 
item of its manufactures, but in Philadelphia, School Slates are 
also made extensively. A new method of framing School Slates 

* Nearly all varieties of Stone used in this country, for building mate- 
rial, have their representatives in buildings erected in Philadelphia. The 
following are of 

Stone, from the Albert Quarries, British Provinces. Cowperthwaite's Build- 
ing, Chestnut St., above tith; Howell & Brothers, S. W. corner Chestnut and 
6th; Pennsylvania Rail-road Company's, 3d and Willing's Alley; J. Stone 
& Sons', Chestnut, above 8th ; Western Saving Fund, Walnut and 10th ; 
Morris L. Hallowell's, Market, below 4th ; Gans, Leberman & Co., 8d, above 
Market ; Geo. W. Ball's mansion, Chestnut street ; R. W. D. Truitt's, Chest- 
nut st. ; W. J. Duane's, Locust st. ; Thos. Beaver's, Logan Square. 

Stone, from the Pictou Quarry. Joseph Harrison, Jr.'s, mansion on 18th, 
and houses on Locust St.; Simes' Building, 12th and Chestnut; William 
Welsh's mansion, Spruce, below 12th; Thomas Thompson's, Spring Garden, 
below 12th; Womrath's stores, Arch St., above 4th. 

Connecticut Stone, Middlesex Quarry, Portland, Conn. Schuylkill Naviga- 
tion Company's building, Walnut, above 4th; L. J. Levy & Co.'s, new store, 
Chestnut, above 8th ; two large Warehouses, north siJe Chestnut, below 3d ; 
Farnham, Kirkham & Co.s', Chestnut, below 3d; John Grigg's mansion, 
Walnut street, opposite Rittenhouse Square ; J. Hare Powell's, Walnut, op- 
site Rittenhouse Square ; Peabody's and others, on Walnut, opposite Ritten- 
house Square; Farquhar Building, Walnut, below 3d; and many others. 

Miscellaneous Stone. Ingersoll's house, Walnut street, Paterson Quarries, 
N. J. ; Athenaeum, from Little Falls, N. Y. ; Dr. Jackson's store, Arch st., 
Caen stone ; Dr. Jayne's stores, &c., Quincy Granite. 



868 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

was invented a few years ago, by Mr. EDWIN YOUNG, and is rapidly 
growing into favor. The Slate is nearly oval, and is framed with 
a single strip of hard wood, fastened together by a secret metal 
clasp, not seen from the outside, constituting the strongest fasten- 
ing known. About 3,000 cases of these Slates, averaging ten 
dozen each, are made annually, of the value of $27,000, at the 
factory in Philadelphia ; but when introduced into the Public 
Schools, as they probably will be, the product will be much in- 
creased. Slate has also been converted into Billiard Tables, for 
which it is said to be the best material. 

Enameled Slate Mantels are now made by Arnold & Wilson, 
manufacturers of Hot-air Furnaces, Parlor Grates, &c., who have 
recently erected ovens for baking on the enamel. The advantages 
of these are a high degree of beauty, combined with strength and 
cheapness. 

Of Soap-stone the manufactures are quite limited, though the 
material obtained at a quarry now within the corporate limits of 
Philadelphia, about two miles above Manayunk, is of the best qual- 
ity. This quarry is one of the oldest in the country ; was opened 
before the Revolution ; but until it came into the possession of its 
present enterprising owner SAMUEL F. PRINCE its value was 
scarcely appreciated. Its products now amount to about 6,000 
tons annually, and are disposed of principally to Iron manufactu- 
rers along the Schuylkill, in Trenton, &c. ; and five hundred tons 
were shipped last year to Pittsburg, and small quantities on order 
to England. 

This stone, hitherto little used for economic purposes, is adapted 
for many ; particularly for fire-stone, kitchen sinks, wash-tubs, bath- 
tubs, and especially for baths, and sizing rollers used in cotton mills. 
For the last purpose it possesses the advantage of not being affect- 
ed by the acids ordinarily used in sizing, and of not warping, con- 
tracting, or expanding by changes of temperature and moisture. 

Both Slate and Steatite, or Soap-stone, have not attained their 
maximum of appreciation, and offer excellent opportunities for 
the enterprising to establish new manufactures. 



OILS. 369 



XXVI. 
Oils. 

The following revised Report gives a brief bat comprehensive 
description of the Oil manufacture in Philadelphia : 

SIR : The manufacture of Oils in Philadelphia comprises Linseed ( 
Lard and Tallow, Red, and Eosin Oils Linseed constituting much 
the largest business. 

In the manufacture of Linseed Oil there are five mills employed, 
generally possessing very improved machinery, and two of them make 
each 1,200 gallons of Oil and ten tons of Oil Cake per day. The 
material used for making this Oil is flaxseed, or linseed, imported from 
Calcutta, that being the only point from which the best article can be 
obtained. The process of the manufacture of this Oil is as follows : 
The hard seeds are passed first between cast-iron rollers, in order to 
crack the shells. The rollers are sometimes of different sizes, so that 
different velocities may be given to their surfaces ; this enables them to 
draw the seeds in, and to perform their work more quickly. Above 
the rollers is a hopper containing the seed, from which the rollers are 
fed. In some places the rollers are not used, but the seed is at once 
subjected to two vertical mill-stones, or runners, revolving on a hori- 
zontal bed. "When the seed is sufficiently bruised by either or both 
of these means, it is placed upon heated tables, and then into wool bags, 
and afterward either in what is called a hydraulic press, or wedge pi-ess, 
and pressed until the seeds come out of the bags in the form of flat 
cakes. The Oil thus obtained is of the best quality, and is kept dis- 
tinct from that obtained by the after processes. 

The residue, which is known as Oil Cake, is largely exported to Eu- 
rope, where it is highly valued as food for cattle, this compensating 
partially for the importation of the raw material. Its value, however, 
in this country as food for stock, has not been fully appreciated, but is 
growing more into favor of late years. 

In addition to the regular establishments making Linseed Oil, the 
manufacturers of Zinc Paints, Colors, White Lead, etc., frequently 
make sufficient Oil to supply their own necessities. 

There are eight concerns in the manufacture of Lard, Tallow, and 
Red Oils, of which the animal product amounts to nearly as much as 
that of Linseed Oil. The Lard or Tallow is placed into bags, and then 
under a press heated to a temperature from forty to sixty degrees, 
remaining as long as the Oil will drip from it ; thus the Oil is pressed 
out, the extract being known as Lard and Tallow Oils, and the bal- 
ance as Stearin. The Stearin is then submitted to a second process. 
80 



370 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

being placed under a powerful steam press, which is also heated by 
steam, and the extract is termed Red Oil, largely used in the manufac- 
ture of soaps. 

Tallow and lard are not the only materials used in the production of 
Red Oils, but Palm Oil is largely employed, which is obtained from 
Guinea, Africa, in a state thick like lard somewhat, undergoing pre- 
cisely the same process as the former. 

An Oil is also made from rosin, or gum of the pine-tree, and known 
as Rosin Oil. This gum contains several ingredients which, when sub- 
mitted to the process of distillation, are separated and are each useful, 
but are of entirely different natures, being Oil, Acid, Naphtha, Pitch, 
and Tar. The Oil is, by various manipulations known to the manu- 
facturers, converted into Lubricating, Tanners', and Painters' Oil. The 
Naphtha, after being properly refined, will burn with a clear, brilliant 
light, nearly equal to gas, but much cheaper, and well adapted to be 
used where gas has not yet been introduced. There are four establish- 
ments within the city proper, who have facilities for manufacturing 
from the rosin of commerce, about two thousand gallons per day. 
Another establishment erected at " Chester," about eighteen miles 
south of this city, is of much larger capacity than either of the pre- 
ceding, and from which some twelve hundred gallons could be pro- 
duced daily. These Oils range in price from twenty to fifty cents per 
gallon. The capital invested is over $150,000. 

The bleaching and pressing of Sperm and Whale Oils is another 
considerable item connected with the Oil business of Philadelphia. 
One of the firms, of which there are four, is successor to the parties 
who claim to have been the first to introduce the process of the chemi- 
cal bleaching of Oils in this country. 

The refining of these Oils from the crude state greatly improves 
their burning and lubricating qualities, giving to them a white, clear 
appearance, by taking out that residue known as foots' and spermaceti. 

Oils pressed and bleached in the coldest months of winter, or by 
means of a freezing temperature by ice, are the only Oils used in cold 
weather that remain always entirely fluid. 

The manufacture of Rail-road and Cart Greases, made of Rosin and 
other Oils, is carried on to a considerable extent. These Greases, 
which are now extensively used for the oiling of machinery, vehich a, 
etc., have grown much into favor of late. They are considered much 
more economical than Oils, and, as a lubricator, vastly superior. 

There are but two establishments in this business, R. S. HUBBARD 
& SON and TAWS & BEERS, the former of which is the largest in the 

08 



PAPER HANGINGS. 



371 



United States. They both produce daily about 3,200 Ibs., at an aver- 
age price of eight cents per pound. 0. W. KIBBIK. 
The following is a summary of the aggregate production : 





Establishment*. 


Capital. 


Hand*. 1 Annual Production 


Linseed Oil and ) 
Oil Cake, J 


5 


$4.50,000 


125 


J $687,500 
> 276,730 


Lard and Tallow, 


8 


200,000 


60 


600,000 


Kosin Oil, 


5 


150,000 


15 


187,000 


Sperm and Whale, J 










bleaching and re- > 


4 


200,000 


30 


300,000 


fining, ) 










K. K. & Cart Greases, 


2 


40,000 


15 


80,000 


Total, 


24 


$1,040,000 


245 


$2,131,230 



XXVII. 
Paper Hangings. 

Decorative Paper-Hangings came into use about 200 years ago, 
and are said to have been copied from the Chinese. The man- 
ufacture of them iu this country, however, only dates about thirty 
years ago ; and Philadelphia claims the credit of having first estab- 
lished it. The progress made, however, in design and elaboration of 
workmanship, has been so rapid, that now the importation of foreign 
Papers is an unimportant item said to be not more than five per 
cent, of the whole amount consumed, and confined to French goods 
of the first quality. For more than twenty years, Philadelphia has 
supplied all the principal American markets, including New York 
and Boston, with the best American made Papers ; and though 
since the establishment of the business in this city, a large number of 
factories have been started at various points in New England and 
in New York, she continues to produce a large share of the supe- 
rior qualities generally quite equal to the best French manufacture. 
The cheap and low grades, which constitute the bulk of the produc- 
tion in other places, our manufacturers do not make to any extent. 
The medium qualities and the finest Velvet, Velvet and Gold, and 
Satin-surfaced Papers are made, but none of the "one cent per 
square yard " goods. The printing usually is what is termed 
Block Printing, though some first-class machines are in use in the 
principal establishments. 

The processes of manufacturing Paper Hangings are briefly as 
follows : The paper comes from the mill in rolls about 1,200 
yards long, and from twenty to thirty-five inches wide ; costing from 



372 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

nine to fourteen cents per pound, the average price being about 
eleven cents. The stock generally used here is said to be heavier, 
though costing less than that employed in the best French papers, 
and therefore free from the absorption of moisture, which almost 
invariably disfigures the surface of those made in New York and 
Boston. The pattern having been first carefully drawn, is then 
pricked, and the outlines of the various tints are pounced each 
on a separate wood block made of pear-tree, mounted in pine. 
These blocks are pressed on the sieves of color and then applied 
to the paper, each block following the other on the guide-marks 
left by the previous impression. An idea may be formed of the 
enterprise and labor required to produce some decorative Paper 
Hangings, when we state that on a single one of them, represent- 
ing a chase in a forest, including the animals, birds, and attributes 
of the chase, exhibited at the^World's Fair, 12,000 blocks were 
employed. 

In making Flock Paper, the pattern is first printed in size, and 
then with a preparation of varnish or Japan gold size. When 
this is partly dry, colored flock, prepared from wools, is sifted 
on the varnish pattern, to which it adheres. When gilding is in- 
troduced, the leaf-metal is laid on the varnish pattern ; or, if worked 
in bronze-powder, it is brushed over with a hare's foot. 

The designs are principally original, and are largely supplied 
by the Female School of Design established in this city, and which 
has already made important contributions toward elevating the 
standard of correct taste. 

During the last year there were six Paper Hanging factories 
in Philadelphia, besides various small establishments where a few 
hands are employed. The proprietors of the principal factories 
were HOWELL & BROTHERS, BLANCHARD & ROCK, Louis BELROSE, 
BURTON & LANING, HART, MONTGOMERY & Co., and J. E. VAN 
METER. Misfortune has sorely visited one or two of the establish- 
ments, but it is probable that no important changes will be made. 
The factory of Howell & Brothers, situated at Nineteenth and Spruce 
streets, is a four-story brick structure, three hundred and ninety-six 
feet by eighty undoubtedly the largest in the United States, and 
probably larger than any similar European manufactory, 
uloaiava-vniui, 



ROPE, CORDAGE, TWINES. 373 

The following are the statistics of the business, as made tip for 
us by a leading manufacturer : 

Blank Paper consumed, 1,250 tons at 11 cents per lb., _ - $275,000 
French and American White Clay and Whiting, average 364 toni, 

at$10perton, -_...._. -' r . '' 3,640 

Colors, - V.-4 *'/! -O ;Jj!,/L ? _ - - - - 44,040 

Flocks, (Shearings of Broad Cloth,) - - - ... 1,860 

Oil, ., ~- .,.,.- -, 4,600 

Gold Size, 3,150 

GoldLeaf, 9l*n~itil lij'^J-i, ... 'J !,; . . 20,100 

Glue and Sizing, ......... 31,500 

Coal, 1,875 tons, at $4, - - mf/OTftfj <T) J; - - - 7 ' 500 

Hands employed, 456 ; one third males wages, - - ... 123,240 

Cost of Printing Blocks and Designing, - .... 11,000 

Total, r j T ^ h , -..'.-' $525,630 

Annual product, $800,000. 

XXVIII. 

Rope, Cordage, Twines, &c. 

The term Cordage usually comprehends all the various sizes of 
Rope, Cords, Twines, Lines, <fec. In this city, there were, as early 
as 1810, no less than fifteen Rope-walks; and at the present time 
there are about that number of Cordage manufacturers ; but now 
one single establishment turns out annually a greater product than 
all then made. The materials used are Manilla, Russian, Italian, 
and American Hemp ; and, for Fishing Cords and Twines, Cotton, 
Flnx, and the best qualities of Linen Thread. Manilla Hemp is 
the fibrous inner bark of a species of Plantain, growing in the 
Phillipine Islands, whence it is imported into this country. 
The American Hemp used is grown chiefly in Missouri and Ken- 
tucky. A considerable amount of Russian Hemp is also used ; and 
Jute is now employed to a considerable extent, in the manufacture 
of Cords, Bagging. &c. 

The present condition of the business may perhaps be best illus- 
trated by reference to one or two of the leading establishments. 
The largest manufacturers in the city are WEAVER, FITUBR & Co., 
who are also among the very largest in the United States. They 
are the successors of one of the oldest Rope manufacturers in the 
city; Mr. Weaver's father having founded the establishment in 
30* 



374 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

1816. The firm have now two factories in operation ; one of these, 
for making Manilla and tarred Cordage, is located on the German- 
town Road, near the first toll-gate ; and the other, for the manu- 
facture of Fine Yarn, Jute Rope, Cords, &c. ( on Seventh street, 
above Columbia Avenue. These two factories are capable of turn- 
ing 4,500,000 pounds of different kinds of Rope per annum, or 
about seven tons daily. The product embraces every size and 
description of Cordage, from a bed-cord to the largest size gang 
of rigging. Marline, Hambroline, and Spun Yarn are also exten- 
sively made by them. 

This firm were the first to introduce, in this city, the use of ma- 
chinery for spinning yarns for Manilla Rope and Cordage, which 
has nearly superseded the former slow process of spinning by hand. 
The quantity turn-ed out by their present machinery, employing 
about two hundred hands, would, by the former process of hand- 
spinning, require at least eight hundred, and perhaps one thousand 
men. Their machinery is all of the latest improved construction, 
and is said to be more complete than that in any similar establish- 
ment in the United States. The firm pride themselves upon the 
manufacture of a superior article of Cordage ; and their reputa- 
tion, in this respect, in the South and West, is well established. 

Messrs. SPROAT, M'!NTYRE & Co. are also large manufacturers 
of many descriptions of Cordage ; and were the first to introduce 
here the manufacture of fine yarn Jute Rope, which they make 
from inch to 1 inch in size. This establishment commenced busi- 
ness in 1850, as J. & H. Sproat, under which name it was conducted 
until 1857, when Mr. John M'Intyre, who occupied their present 
place of business, 23 North Front street, and had a Rope- walk on 
Frankford Road, was admitted into the firm. The manufacture is 
carried on still at the latter place, and also at their factory at Lam- 
bertville, on the Delaware, where water-power is derived from the 
feeder of the Raritan Canal. These two factories use fifty bales 
of Jute Hemp in a week, weighing each three hundred pounds, 
and each making that number of pounds of to 1 inch Rope. 
They employ about seventy hands, one-third of whom are females. 
This firm claim to make more Twines and Lines of every descrip- 
tion, such as Wool Twine, Hemp and Mineral Water Twines, 
Baling Twine, Broom Twine, &c., as well as Linen Yarns, Veni- 



SADDLES, HARNESS, ETC. 375 

tian Filling, and Carpet Chain, than any other house in the city. 
The Mineral Water Twines made by them cannot easily be sur- 
passed; and in the employment of fine Jute Hemp for this purpose, 
they claim to have preceded all other manufacturers. They have 
lately introduced Boon's Patent Laying Machines, and also Boon's 
Forming Machines ; and they now believe they possess a larger set 
of machinery for this branch than any other establishment in the 
State. 

Besides these two principal manufacturers, there are at least a 
dozen others, who make nearly every description of smaller Cord- 
age, and who generally aim to produce articles of superior quality, 
so common a feature in Philadelphia manufactures. We have seen, 
in some of these smaller establishments, Cords, Twines, Lines, &c., 
for various purposes, truly remarkable for accuracy and smooth- 
ness of finish. 

The whole capital invested in the business is $450,000. The 
other statistics of the business for 1857, are furnished us as follows : 

Raw Material. 

1,500 tons Manilla Hemp, at $175, ... y : ; >- $262,500 
1,250 " Western Hemp, at $150, - - ; <- v -_ , -, 187,500 

450,000 
300 hands employed, averaging $300 a year each, - _ ^ 90,000 

$540,000 
Product. 

1,500 tons of Manilla Cordage, 
1,000 " of Hemp, 

2,500 " average price 10 cents per lb., ... $560,000 
Besides the above, Twines and Cords of various kinds were 

made, amounting to at least ..--- 250,000 

Total, - . . "- -," - -, - - % -_ $810,000 

The prices of Cordage, the present year, are much less than 
those during last year. 

XXIX. 

Saddles, Harness, Whips, Trunks, &c. 

The manufacture of Saddlery in this country is distinguished 
from that in any other part of the world by the immense variety 
of styles and qualities which are produced. We are informed by 
a leading manufacturer, that of Saddles there are probably not 



376 PHILADELPHIA AXD ITS MANUFACTURES. 

less than five hundred various styles and qualities, with a proportion- 
ate quantity of Bridles, Bridle Mountings, Martingales, Girths, 
Circingles, Stirrup Leathers, Saddle Bags, Medical Bags, <fec. 
Of Harness, for Coach, Gig, Dearborn, Sulky, Stage, and Omni- 
bus, there are perhaps three hundred styles and qualities ; while, in 
coarse Harness, for Carts, Drays, Wagons, and Plows, there is also 
great diversity. 

It is a fact well-known to persons who are familiar with the 
history of Industry during the past few years, that the Saddle and 
Harness- makers of Philadelphia have invariably carried off the 
" palm" at local Exhibitions and Fairs ; and the fact that the 
Prize Medal was awarded to a Philadelphia firm at the World's 
Fair, in London, cannot be unknown to any observant person, who 
has traversed Seventh street, North of Chestnut. The special causes 
conducive to superiority in the Harness manufacture are manifold ; 
all the raw material consumed, especially the Leather and the Hard- 
ware, are made here of the very best quality ; the workmen have 
permanent employment, and the manufacturers have an established 
reputation for faithful work, which they are determined to main- 
tain. The solvency and character of the trade in Philadelphia, 
enable them to buy at the very lowest rates ; and the system of 
manufacturing involves much less ostentation, and, consequently, 
less expense than in many other cities where the sales-house and 
factory are distinct and separate establishments, even if owned by 
the same parties. In this city, the goods are generally manufac- 
tured and offered for sale under the same roof. The ingenuity of 
the manufacturers too has been repeatedly and successfully called 
into exercise, and the very best of the new styles of Saddles made 
in the North were first originated and introduced by one of our 
large houses; while improvements upon the old English styles ren- 
der those made in Philadelphia in several respects superior to the 
foreign. In the new styles, of the Spanish and Mexican order 
generally, the utmost care is taken to guard against injury to the 
horse, and also to produce (which they have, beyond all other 
places,) the most comfortable and pleasant Saddle, for both horse 
and rider. Hog-skin continues to be the principal Leather con- 
sumed in the best Saddles, on account of its softness and ca- 
pacity for exposure to the sun and rain ; though Buckskin is also 



SADDLE-TREES WHIPS. 377 

frequently used for the seat, and for the horns of Ladies' Saddles 
particularly. 

For the manufacture of SADDLE-TREES, there are two establish- 
ments the proprietors being CONDIT PRUDDEN, and AARON 
SCHELLENGER. The last-named has been in the business for 
twenty-eight years. His Trees are all cut out of the solid ma- 
terial by the axe and the " shave," no bent work being made in 
this shop. He employs eight hands. 

Mr. CONDIT PRUDDEN has had an experience of over thirty years 
in the manufacture of Saddle-Trees, and about one-third of that 
time in Philadelphia. He conducts the business on a more exten- 
sive scale, it is said, than any other Saddle-Tree maker in the Union. 
His manufactory is a four-story building ; the machinery is pro- 
pelled by steam-power ; and the capacity of his works is sufficient 
to turn out 1,200 finished " Trees" per week. About thirty hands 
are at present employed. A list of " Trees" made in this establish- 
ment would include all the ordinary descriptions, and some pat- 
ented ones. Saddle-Trees are shipped from Philadelphia to New 
York and New England, and largely to the West and South. 

The Saddle and Harness manufacture employs a capital of 
three-quarters of a million of dollars, nine hundred and sixty hands, 
and yields a product of $1,500,000. Two of the oldest houses, 
W. S. HANSELL & SONS, established for forty-five years, and 
M. MAGEE & Co., have branch establishments in New Orleans. 
Orders for fine work are occasionally executed for Europe ; while 
the coarser qualities are shipped to various parts of the South and 
West, and also sent in considerable quantities to Mexico and Cuba. 
The manufacture consumes annually over one hundred thousand 
sides of Leather. 

2. WHIPS. 

The manufacture of Whips is a business entirely distinct from 
that of Saddles and Harness ; but the relations existing between 
them are so intimate, that they may properly be considered in the 
same article. 

The Whip manufactories of Philadelphia are said to be the 
first established, and among the most extensive in the Union. The 
principal factories are those of PEARSON & SALLADA, and CHARLES 
P. CALDWELL ; but, outside of these, large quantities of Raw-hide 



378 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

and common Whips are made by individuals, for saddlers' use. The 
factory of Messrs. Pearson & Sallada is said to be the largest in this 
country ; but we have no particular information with regard to it. 
The factory of Mr. CHAKLES P. CALDWELLIS located at Mantua, in 
West Philadelphia, and there all kinds of Whips are made, from 
those which sell at $1 25 per dozen, to those which sell at $600 per 
dozen. The materials used for the stock are Whalebone, Rattan, 
Fancy Woods, Leather, Gut, Gum, Pitch, Glue ; for the lashes, 
Leather, Gut, and Thread ; for the handles, Wood, Ivory, and 
Bone ; and for the mountings, Gold, Silver, Ivory, Pearl, &c. 
Machines are used for plaiting or weaving the gut covering. Tliis 
machine is a circular frame, around which is a series of bevel cogs, 
driven by a crank-handle in the hand of the operator ; the whip 
stands in the centre, and receives its gut from numerous spools 
which surround it; the machine at the same time plaiting the gut 
over the stock. They are of different capacities : one plaiting 
sixteen threads, another twenty-four. 

The great difference in the cost of Whips, some selling as high 
as $50 each, is mainly in the character of the mountings. Mr. 
Caldwell uses, in all his Whips, the very best material ; and the 
reputation of his manufactures is unsurpassed by any in the 
United States. He employs about thirty-five hands. Fully one 
third of his products are sent to New York and Boston. 

Canes are also made in both these factories, and the materials 
and mountings are often exceedingly rare and costly. 

The Whip and Cane manufacture suffers severely from the 
enormous expansion of ladies' skirts, and the consequent demand 
for Whalebone hoops. The price of Whalebone has recently 
quadrupled, and that which formerly could be purchased for thirty- 
five cents per pound now costs $1 20 per pound in its rough state, 
and $1 75 ready cut. It appears that neither Whips nor Canes could 
prevent the advance I The annual product of the Whip and Cane 
manufacture in Philadelphia, estimating for that made outside of 
the factories above-mentioned, is at least $175,000. 

3. TRUNKS AND PORTMANTEAUS. 

In this branch of Leather manufactures, a capital of $100,000 
is invested, two hundred and fifty hands are employed, and an ag- 



SHIP AND BOAT BUILDING. 379 

gregate value of $313,000 annually produced. The same care in 
the selection of materials, and attention to finish, that we remarked 
in the Saddlery and Harness manufacture, are noticeable in this ; 
and not merely in the finer qualities, but neatness and taste, as well 
as strength, characterize the cheaper varieties. 

Philadelphia Portmanteaus are deservedly famous for their com- 
bination of strength and capaciousness, with lightness. At the 
World's Fair, in London, it will be remembered by many, that a 
Portmanteau, made in this city, costing $500, received the First 
Premium, notwithstanding competition from all countries. New 
York procures the ordinary qualities of Trunks and Portmanteaus 
from Newark, and other places, but the very finest are obtained 
exclusively, we are informed, from this city. 

The London Commissioners remark: " The -workmanship and 
finish of the best class of goods are unexceptionable ; and even in 
the cheaper and lower qualities the style in appearance is a matter 
of much consideration, and displays a decided advance, in point 
of taste, upon the unsightly character of the cheaper kind of trav- 
eling conveyances of England." 

XXXI. 

Ship and Boat Building. 

It is no idle nor foundationless boast to say that the Ship-Build- 
ers of Philadelphia have contributed materially to the present 
commercial prosperity and supremacy of the United States. The 
history of commerce will establish the fact incontestibly, that the 
rapid rise of the Commercial Marine of the United States is due 
mainly to the superior swiftness of American vessels; and it must 
moreover be conceded that the Ships constructed in Philadelphia 
were, for a long period of time, the " crack sailers" of the ocean. 
The pivot board, so essential to the speed of Sailing Vessels, was 
originated and brought to perfection in this city ; and cotton duck 
and horizontal canvas, which are esteemed the best materials 
for Sails, were invented by a citizen of Philadelphia. The speed 
of Philadelphia-built Ships is demonstrated by the records of 
short passages, and their staunchness is established by the low 
average rates of insurance. 

During the last ten years the attention of the private Ship- 



380 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES 

Builders of Philadelphia has been largely directed to the construc- 
tion of Steamers. Within that time, the firm of Birely & Son 
has built one hundred and seven Steamers, having an aggregate 
tonnage of 21,018 tons. A list of the Vessels that have been 
constructed at this port would include a number of important 
ones, as the Steamship "Pennsylvania," "City of Richmond," 
the Steam Propeller " S. S. Lewis," 1039 tons burden ; the 
Steamer " Star of the South," built for R. F. Loper, of Philadel- 
phia, for Boston ; the " General Knox," famous for her good 
qualities and speed; the "Carolina," which her builders, C. & 
N. Cramp, claim is the fastest Propeller afloat; the Clipper Ships 
"Manitou," 1,500 tons, the "Bridge water," 1525 tons, and the 
Propeller "Phineas Sprague," 1,000 tons, built for the Philadel- 
phia and Boston -line by the young firm of Birely & Linn, who 
are now building a 1,200 ton Propeller for the same line. The 
various Propeller and Steamship Engines and Iron Boats that 
have been constructed here, were adverted to in the article on 
" Iron and its Manufactures." 

But the supremacy which Philadelphia claims over all other 
cities in Marine Architecture, is in her Government Navy Yard 
work. The Navy Yard in this city is alike remarkable for its 
success in constructing vessels that are acknowledged to be the 
equals of any in the world, and for the neglect and positive oppo- 
sition of the Government in providing equipments. The area is 
eighteen acres,* enclosed on three sides by a substantial brick 
wall, the other fronting upon the river. The space, it will be 
perceived, is ample for the construction of the largest Vessels, 
though many of their essentials, as engines, chains, anchors, etc., 
are made outside of the walls. The moulding lofts for modeling 
Ships-of-War are the most spacious in the country. There are 
two ship-houses, one of which, 270 feet long, 103 feet high, and 
84 feet wide, is the largest in the United States. The other is 

* At our request, the Commandant's courteous Secretary, HENRY S. 
ORABBE, had the whole area of the Navy Yard measured, and ascertained 
that it contained eighteen acres within the present walls ; but he informs 
us, that an assurance is given, by parties interested, that the two large lots 
lying contiguous to, on the south side of the Yard, will be purchased by 
the United States this season, and added to it. 



THE NAVY YARD. 381 

210 feet in length, 80 feet in height, and 14 feet in width. The 
Sectional Floating Dry Dock is unsurpassed by any other. There 
are nine sections, equal in dimensions, 100 feet long, 30 feet wide, 
and 11 feet deep. The water is pumped out in about two hours by 
four high-pressure engines, of 12-inch cylinders, and 24-inch stroke, 
and 8-feet beams. They are of simple construction, but answer their 
purpose admirably. The conveniences for docking Vessels are ex- 
cellent. Two or even four Vessels can be docked at the same 
time, and placed on the Rail-ways in the yard at the head of the 
Dock by the Hydraulic Engine, which has already proved its 
power by hauling up the " City of Pittsburg," a first-class Steamer 
of the Commercial Marine, and placing her far above the reach 
of the water, convenient for the operations of the mechanics. 
The Basin is constructed chiefly of Wood, and does not retain 
dampness a serious objection to those of stone. The entire cost 
of this noble Dock was $813,742.* 

The number of workmen employed at the Navy Yard ranges 
from five hundred to thirteen hundred, averaging eight hundred. 

At the present time there are about twelve hundred men at 
work, principally on the new Sloop " Lancaster." Their occu- 
pations are divided as follows : Shipwrights, Sawyers, Borers 
and Carpenters' Laborers, Smiths, Joiners, Gun-carriage Makers. 
Caulkers, Reamers, Spinners (oakum), Pickers (oakum), Sail- 
makers, Mast and Spar-makers, Riggers, Painters, Boat-builders, 
Plumbers, Block-makers, Engineers, Masons, House Carpenters, 
and ordinary Laborers. 

The list of Vessels that have been built at this Yard includes 
not one that failed from bad construction or inferior material. 
The history of the Yard is a succession of successes. We have 
not the necessary data to enumerate them all, but herewith submit a 

At Christian-street Wharf, Messrs. J. SIMPSON & NEILL have a Sec- 
tional Floating Dry Dock, constructed on the same principle as the above, 
and capable of docking the largest merchant vessel. The water, we are 
informed, can be pumped out in one hour, and an eighteen hundred ton 
merchantman docked in the same time. 

31 



382 



PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 



List of Vessels of War of the U. S. Navy, built in Philadelphia, and 
now in service, as per Official Register, for 1858. 



Name. 


Guns. 


Tonnage. 


When Built. 


SHIPS OF THE LINE. 


120 


3241 


1S37 




84 


2633 


1S20 


FRIGATES. 

United States 


50 


1607 


1797 




50 


1726 


1843 


SLOOPS OF WAR. 


22 


939 


1846 




20 


783 


1828 


Dale 


16 


566 


1839 


SCREW STEAMERS. 


40 


3200 


1855 


Lancaster ...(2d class) 

SIDE-WHEEL STEAMERS. 


18 
10 


2360 
1692 


1858 
1841 




15 


2450 


1850 


STORE VESSEL. 

Relief 




4fiS 


1836 



Besides these we might mention the "Arctic," memorable for 
her connection with the Kane expedition ; the " Shubric," used 
on the Coast Survey ; and the " Princeton," celebrated in her day 
as the swiftest Vessel afloat, and also for her connection with 
naval operations performed at Tera Cruz. She was rebuilt at 
the Gosport Navy Yard, and is uow degraded to be a Receiving- 
Ship at this station. 

It is a very significant fact, established by the history of the 
Naval Marine, that, while various attempts have been made in 
other American eities at constructing Naval Steamers, Philadel- 
phia is as yet the only port where it can be said the work has 
been done successfully. This, however, is not surprising, inas- 
much as all the elements conducive to success and economy in 
Marine construction are concentrated here in an unusual degree. 
Cheap coal and iron, the best mechanical ability, experience, and 
facilities, combine to render Philadelphia practically the most 
available point in the entire Union for the construction of Vessels 
of every grade and description. 

Besides the Ship-Builders, there are six concerns, all located in 
the old district of Kensington, employed chiefly in Boat-Building, 
which includes Yawl Boats, Whale Boats, Life Boats, etc. In build- 
ing Yachts they have been very successful. The Yacht " Decoy," 
designed and built here, we are informed, has challenged the world 
year after year without a response. Holmes' Patent Life Boats, very 
highly spoken of by competent authority, arc built at this port. 



SOAP AND CANDLES. 383 

The minor branches connected with Ship-Building are all carried 
on here. Sails are made unsurpassed in quality and unequaled 
in reputation. The sails of the Yacht " Maria," of the New York 
Squadron, and of the Yacht "America," famous for her triumphs 
over the English in a contest for the supremacy of the seas, were 
made by Mr. Maull of this city. The entire business of Ship and 
Boat-Building, including Masts and Spars, Sails, Blocks, and 
Pumps, judging from the best data we can obtain for an average 
of five years, has amounted to $1,760,000 annually. 

During the last year, and even for two years past, it is well 
known that the shipping interests have been seriously depressed, 
and the construction of new Vessels at all ports was exceedingly 
limited. At Philadelphia, during the last year, one hundred and 
forty-seven new Vessels, having an aggregate tonnage of 17,917 
tons, were admeasured by the United States officers. 

XXXI. 

Soap and Candles. 

"The quantity of Soap consumed by a nation," says the cele- 
brated Liebig, in his Familiar Letters on Chemistry, "would be 
no inaccurate measure whereby to estimate its wealth and civiliza- 
tion. Political economists, indeed, will not give it this rank ; but, 
whether we regard it as joke or earnest, it is not the less true that, 
of two countries equal in population, we may declare with positive 
certainty that the wealthiest and most highly civilized is that which 
consumes the greatest weight of Soap." It is not, however, merely 
by the quantity consumed of this important article, that the distin- 
guished chemist would establish its claims to represent the civiliza- 
tion of a people. The vast train of chemical, manufacturing, and 
commercial operations called into existence for its economical pro- 
duction, and the cheaper, more extended, and altogether new arts 
and processes incidentally growing out of these, would, even with 
political economists, entitle it to this rank. 

The materials used in making Soap are alkalies, and fatty sub- 
stances, or oils, both of animal and vegetable origin. Of the for- 
mer, Potash, Soda, and a small proportion of Lime, are employed. 
The artificial production and cheap supply of Soda, the alkali 
chiefly used, from common salt, introduced about the beginning of 
the present century, has since that time completely revolutionized 



384 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

the business in Europe and this country, and probably within the 
last twenty years quadrupled its amount. Of fats and oils, Tallow, 
Lard and Fish Oils, Palm, Olive, Linseed, Cocoanut, Sassafras, 
and other Oils, and Rosin, are the principal., Their chief agency 
is to serve as a vehicle for the alkali, upon which the detergent 
properties of Soap mainly depend : while the combination of the 
latter with the fatty acids, generated in the process of saponifica- 
tion, subdues its caustic qualities, and preserves the skin, and the 
texture and colors of fabrics. Rosin enters into the composition of 
common Yellow Soap, and, in due proportion, improves, while an 
excess deteriorates the quality of So#p an adulteration largely 
practiced, because of the cheapness of common Rosin. Lime, a 
portion of which is necessary, with the commercial Soda Ash, 
which contains only about fifty-four per cent, of pure alkali, injures, 
by giving undue causticity, if too freely employed. The "Con- 
centrated Lye" made by the Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing 
Company, which is represented in Philadelphia by LEWIS, JAMES 
& Co., is warranted to make Soap without Lime, and with little 
or no trouble. 

In this city, there are about thirty-five establishments engaged 
in the manufacture of Soap ; and few branches of our manufac- 
tures have grown more rapidly with the prosperity of the city. 
We have been assured that there is more Soap now made here in 
one month, than there was ten years ago in a whole year. At that 
time, we were greatly dependent upon New York, New England, 
and Western Soap makers ; and Colgate's Soap of New York 
crowded every store ; but now our own manufacturers supply our 
market, to the exclusion of nearly all competitors, and have besides 
large supplies for exportation. A few of them manufacture almost 
entirely for exportation to the West Indies, South America, &c. 
They make all the varieties in common use, and some make Soap 
of superior quality. Palm Oil is extensively employed for making 
Soap and Stearin Candles ; and Olive Soap of remarkable power, 
soluble in strong brine, and therefore well adapted for marine use, 
is an important article made here.* 

* An article of this kind, known as Chemical Olive Soap, manufactured 
by Mr. WM. CONWAY, 310 South Second street, is deserving of particular 
notice, inasmuch as it has become a staple article in nearly every grocery 



CANDLES. 386 

Numerous experiments have been made toward producing Cas- 
tile Soap in this city, but apparently without success. 

The manufacture of CANDLES is so very generally associated 
with that of Soap, that the branches may be considered insepara- 
ble. The advances that have recently been made in chemical sci- 
ence have wonderfully influenced the manufacture of both articles ; 
and by the separation of constituent?, purification, distillation, 
pressure, and other arts and appliances, known to the initiated, it 
is possible to attain very remarkable results from very unpromising 
materials. The most impure fats, as well as Palm and other oils, 
may be made to yield, by the skillful Candle-maker, a product from 
their solid portions but little inferior to those made from wax, 
which is too expensive for ordinary use. Dip Candles are nearly 
obsolete ; but the manufacture of Moulded Tallow Candles is still 
an important part of the business of nearly all the Soap-makers. 
The cheapness and brilliancy of gas have, however, superseded 
their use in most of the principal cities, while the introduction of 

store in the city, on account of its superior detersive qualities, and its 
adaptation alike to the use of hard and soft water. This Soap is the result 
of a series of experiments commenced about three years ago, in conse- 
quence ^f the popularity of an Eastern Soap of similar name, extensively 
sold here at that time, which it has almost wholly superseded. 

With the self-reliance which characterizes all successful enterprises, and 
a thorough practical acquaintance with his business, to which he was 
brousrht up, assisted by a competent knowledge of the chemical principles 
involved, Mr. Conway resolved that what had been done elsewhere could be 
done by himself. His first attempts were followed by successive im- 
provement, until the efficient and economical Soap now made by him leaves 
little to be desired in the way of amendment, and after much pecuniary 
loss in establishing its name and merits, he is being rewarded with substan- 
tial success. It is claimed for it that it is superior to any common Soap for 
washing in any water, hard or soft; for the reason, among others, that it 
contains more alkali, which at the same time is so completely neutralized 
by the other ingredients, that the fabric is not in the least injured by it. 
Mr. Conway is also a large manufacturer of Cnndles, and of Palm, Va- 
riegated, White, Yellow, Pale Brown, and other common Soaps, as well as 
of Fancy and Perfumed Soaps. Of his improved Chemical Olive Soap, his 
sales to the city alone average one hundred boxes per day, besides the 
quantities sent elsewhere. 

31* 



386 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Camphine, and the various illuminating oils, has also tended to 
limit the manufacture of Candles. Wax Candles are made by 
only one person in this city. 

At least two establishments in this city are engaged in the 
manufacture of Adamantine Candles and Olein Oils, with all the 
modern appliances for doing a large business. DAVID THAIN & 
Co., and C. H. GRANT & Co., have a capital invested in this 
business of $400,000, employ 116 hands, and produce annually, 
of Candles and Oils, $570,000. The entire capital employed 
in the Soap and Candle manufacture is $950,000 ; and the 
aggregate product is $2,057,600. 

XXXII, 

Sugar Refining. 

SIR : Your request for accurate information with regard to the 
Sugar Refining business in Philadelphia has received due attention, 
and I take pleasure in transmitting the result of my researches respect- 
ing the subject. 

There are five large Steam Refineries, besides two extensive estab- 
lishments which extract Sugar from Molasses. Those engaged in Re- 
fining Sugar are J. S. LOVERING & Co., T. A. NEWHALL & Co., BUTE 
& SMITH. EASTWICK BROTHERS, and J. R. ROUDET ; in extracting Su- 
gar from Molasses, G. L. BROOM & Co., and FELTUS & ZIMMERLINO. 
The buildings used by these firms are very extensive, and the combined 
steam power amounts to over 500-horse power. The number of men 
employed in the different works is about 700, and the amount of raw 
Sugar imported from the West and East Indies, St. Domingo, &e., and 
used, will reach 1,000 hogsheads per week, from which nearly 5,000 
barrels of Loaf and the different grades of Clarified Sugar are pro- 
duced, the greater portion of which is for the Philadelphia market. 
Each barrel of Sugar weighs about 240 pounds. 

By the introduction of machinery and steam the process of puri- 
fying and refining Sugar underwent an entire revolution ; and this im- 
provement, with the substitution of aluminous finings in place of bul- 
lock's blood, which supplied a fertile source of deterioration, has wonder- 
fully increased the quantity of production and raised the standard of 
quality. The Raw Sugar, from the West Indies, is imported in cases and 
hogsheads ; from the English Islands in hogsheads ; from South Amer- 
ica chiefly in bags, as also from Manilla and the Mauritius. These latter 



SUGAR REFINING. 387 

bags are double, and made from the leaves of reeds, plaited or woven 
into suitable material. 

The first operation of the Refiner, after removing the Sugar from 
the hogshead, boxes, &c., is dissolving the Sugar in a pan by means 
of steam passing through a perforated pipe in the bottom of the pau. 
The color is then extracted from the solution by means of chemical 
and mechanical means, when it is passed to what is known as the va- 
cuum pans, heated by steam, for the purpose of being boiled. By this 
means the liquor is so concentrated that the Sugar is only held in solu- 
tion by the high temperature, so that on cooling a rapid crystallization 
takes place, which produces that uniform fine grain, such as is required 
in Loaf Sugar. The syrup, after boiling sufficiently, is poured into the 
moulds, which are of the funnel or sugar-loaf form, for the purpose of 
assisting the separation of the mother-liquor. The syrup or liquor 
which runs from the mould is again boiled, from which the lower grades 
of Sugar is produced. The syrup coming from this second process is 
sold for molasses. The production of molasses is about one fifth from 
each hogshead. 

The value of Refined Sugar manufactured in this city in one year ( 
taking for the basis of calculation the data given above, with the 
prices which ruled in 1857, and a working period of ten months, would 
be from $5,500,000 to $6,000,000 ; an( ] the business of the year, in- 
cluding Molasses, amounted to $6,500,000. It will be remembered, 
however, that the high price of Sugar during the early part of last 
year diminished the demand ; and at present prices, which are much 
lower than in 1857, the Refineries here are of sufficient capacity to 
produce $10,000,000 annually, if constantly in operation. 

The art of Refining, it is believed, has attained a higher standard 
in this country than in any part of Europe, and the excellence of this 
manufacture is not approached by any imported article. Within a 
recent period, our own city has advanced greatly in both the quantity and 
quality produced. A few years since but a single Refiner had a name 
here, and a well-deserved one ;* now several others are approaching 

* The firm alluded to, it is perhaps needless to remark, is J. S. LOVERINO 
& Co. a name well-known in the principal markets of the world, and we 
mny say in the scientific world. Their Refinery is one of the very largest 
in this country; but we have made this reference more particularly to de- 
scribe their Barrel-making establishment at Bridesburg. The grounds en- 
closed for the Works, a memorandum before us states, contain about nine 
acres. The Maple Logs are kept in large quantities in a pen leading from 
the Frankford Creek, and which is immediately back of the Saw mill where 
the timber is cut into planks the thickness of the width of the stave. The 



388 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

the high standard with rapid strides. The PENNSYLVANIA REFINERY, 
corner Race and Crown streets, with very slight additions to its appa- 
ratus, has nearly trebled its capacity of production, and has for several 
years fully reached the highest standard, as regards quality, attained 
either in New York or Philadelphia. M. 

XXXIII. 

Tobacco Manufactures Cigars, Snuff, etc. 

SIR : The manufactures of Tobacco in Philadelphia are limited to 
Cigars, Snuff, and Smoking Tobacco. Chewing Tobacco is made in 
the neighborhood of the plantation ; and the reason that so much of in- 
ferior quality is made, is that the demand exceeds the supply. All the 
first quality grown is required for wrapping the frost-bitten, unripe, 
and otherwise injured leaves, which are deposited in the centre of the 
plug. 

The manufacture of Cigars is a great business in Philadelphia. I am 
practically acquainted with the trade, and since your queries were re- 
ceived have made it a subject of careful investigation. My opinion is 
there are about 1,000 Cigar manufacturers in Philadelphia; thirty of 
whom employ from ten to sixty-five hands ; the others from one to five 

pieces are then taken to another room and placed in steam-tight boxes, into 
which the engines exh*aust their steam, aud thus in a short space' of time 
the timber is sufficiently steamed to be cut into staves. The blocks are 
then taken into the stave-cutting room, where one man with a huge 
knife, worked by steam, cuts eighty staves the proper shape every 
minute. This knife has a curved blade, which gives the staves the proper 
curve. This knife is over five feet in length, and acts perpendicularly ; 
and the feeder stands at a table and presents the piece of timber to the 
knife, a gauge stopping the slack, so that the knife cuts the stave the proper 
thickness. The staves are then put in iron cars and run into drying kilns, 
two hundred feet long, and heated by hot air. They are, after being dried, 
placed upon a revolving table, which joints them so that they fit together in 
such a manner as to give the proper bilge. After passing through another 
machine, which cuts the chime nnd prepares it for the head, the staves are 
passed to the setters-up. About thirty-five men and boys are employed, nnd 
with this force from three hundred to five hundred Barrels are made daily. 
The maple logs are brought from the head- waters of the Delaware; 1,500,000 
feet, costing from $8 to $10 per thousand, are used annually. The hoops 
are of ash, and brought from the shores of the St. Lawrence. The ma- 
chinery is moved by three steam engines; one of sixty-horse power, and 'wo 
of thirty-horse power each. 



CIGARS, SNUFF, ETC. 389 

or six. The whole number of employees, journeymen and girls, engaged 
in making Cigars, is fully 4,000. If each hand makes 1,500 Cigars 
per week, a minimum amount, the weekly production is 6,000,000, or 
312,000,000 Cigars per year. A fast hand will make five hundred Cigars 
per day. The average labor expended upon each thousand Cigars costs 
about $3 50 : the weekly production of 6,000,000 would cost $21,000 ; 
and the yearly cost for labor on 312,000,000, would be $1,092,000. 

The average cost of each thousand Cigars is $8 00 ; that of 312,000,000 
is $2,496,000. A profit of twenty per cent, makes the annual production 
about $3,000,000. The largest factory employs sixty-five hands, and 
manufactures 4,000,000 Cigars, of which the average cost is $16 per 
thousand. This firm has invested in the Cigar business alone $80,000. 

About one-third of the leaf tobacco, for making Cigars, is obtained 
from Cuba ; the rest is of American growth. The Cuban is of course 
used for the superior qualities. The best Cigars are known by their pure 
color, and the white solidity of the ashes. The best Cigars made in 
Philadelphia need only the foreign brands, and Custom-house marks, to 
sell as real Havanas. They are shipped to all parts of the West 
and South, and the best qualities are sold largely in New York as im- 
ported. 

The Cigar branch alone employs a capital of $1,800,000. 

Machines have not as yet been found to work well. A Liverpool 
house is said to have a patented machine in operation, which will make 
5,000 Cigars per day ; and in Prussia machines are extensively used, 
which is one reason why German Cigars are so cheap, and so badly made 
that few will smoke. 

In the manufacture of Snuffs there are four mills, that employ fifty 
hands, and have a capital invested of $80,000. Garrett's Mill has been 
established probably a century. Smoking Tobacco is cut in the Snuff 
mills, and also by mills devoted exclusively to the purpose. The prod- 
uct will average 5,000 pounds per day, worth ten cents per pound, which 
amounts to $156,500. 

The Cigar, Snuff, and Leaf Tobacco trade undoubtedly employs a 
capital of $3,000,000, turned twice a year, which produces a business 
of $6,000,000 per year. 

XXXIV. 
The TJmbrella and Parasol Manufacture. 

Archaeologists have demonstrated that those portable protec- 
tions from the sun and rain, called Umbrellas and Parasols, prob- 
ably commenced with the latter of these inventions, and in a region 



390 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURE?. 

where the intensity of the light and heat rendered a shade almost 
indispensable. In the contrivance of such a shelter, the pole and 
top of a tent seem to have originally suggested the well-known 
form, which, in its general features of a dome or canopy, still re- 
mains unaltered. The materials used in the early Parasols were 
exceedingly heavy, and one or more attendants were required to 
carry them over their possessors ; hence, the ownership of a Parasol 
was at one time indicative of high rank. But we are compelled to 
pass by much curious information, with respect to the early history 
of these articles, and their gradual introduction into common use, 
and proceed to consider the present state of the manufacture, par- 
ticularly in Philadelphia. 

The Umbrella and Parasol manufactories in Philadelphia, it is 
supposed, are more extensive than any others of the kind in the 
United States ; and their products have proverbially a better repu- 
tation for quality than any others. It is probable there are more 
than a hundred places in Philadelphia where Umbrellas and Pura- 
eols are made to some extent, but the very extensive establishments 
are limited to four or five. The causes that have contributed to 
the supremacy of Philadelphia in this manufacture, are principally 
those which have led to a like result in other branches ; but there 
are also special and particular reasons for the superiority. The 
sticks and metal mountings made in Frankford, a populous 
suburb of the city, are unsurpassed for excellence and efficiency. 
The stretchers, made from the best Pennsylvania iron the wire, 
drawn at Easton, and formed, forked, and japanned at the House 
of Refuge, under the superintendence of" a firm in this city are 
tougher, and less disposed to rust or oxidize, than any in the world. 
The mechanical genius of the manufacturers has also been active, 
and a number of very important improvements, which facilitate the 
manufacture, have originated here. Of this description we might 
instance the " Sorting Machine," invented by the elder Mr. 
Sleeper, for adjusting the strength of the ribs, or setts, worked by 
balance-weights, and by determining the strength of each rib, 
ensures the perfect and regular shape of their goods. 

The firms most extensively engaged in this manufacture are 
WRIGHT, BROTHERS & Co., SLEEPER &FENNER, WM. A. DROWN 
& Co., SIMON HEITER, and WM. H. RICHARDSON. The' first two 



UMBRELLAS AND PARASOLS. 391 

are probably the largest, and certainly among the largest Um- 
brella manufacturing concerns in the Union. 

The quantity of material annually consumed in the manufactory 
of WRIGHT, BROTHERS, & Co., is enormous. The Pennsylvania 
Inquirer, referring to them, stated 

" This house produces an average of 2,200 Umbrellas and Parasols 
a day, or about 700,000 per annum : and consumes one million yards, 
equal to 570 miles, of Silks, Cottons, and Ginghams ; upward of 200,000 
pounds of Rattan, and about seventy-five tons of Horn, Bone, Ivory, 
and other materials, for ornamental mountings. Of Whalebone, the 
house alluded to above consumes over 100,000 pounds, equal to about 
one-thirtieth of the average products of the whale fisheries of the 
world. 

Such are the extent and variety of the mechanism used, and the per- 
fection and nicety with which it is adapted to the purpose, that, with the 
help of ample steam-power, all this vast quantity of material changes 
its form, and 700,000 Umbrellas are manufactured in the establishment 
of the Messrs. Wright, with the help of only 450 hands constantly em- 
ployed under one roof. All parts of the Umbrella are now arranged with 
mathematical accuracy by the machinery used, some of which was in- 
vented by one of the proprietors of the establishment, from whom the 
above information was obtained, and can be used by no other manufac- 
tory. The system to which all parts of this manufacture is reduced is 
now so perfect as to place the cost of production very low, and far below 
competition from hand labor and ordinary machinery in addition to 
forming the article with a beauty and accuracy only to be obtained from 
the best mechanical means." 

Messrs. SLEEPER & FENNER are a prominent firm, who have 
been identified with this manufacture for about thirty years, and 
now rank among the most extensive makers of Umbrellas in this 
country. Their Umbrellas and Parasols are sold largely, not 
only in the South and West, but to a great extent in New York 
and in Boston. 

WM. A. DROWN & Co. are the successors of Erasmus J. Pierce, 
one of the pioneers in this manufacture. Previous to the last war, 
he was engaged in the business, in Baltimore ; but his residence 
in this city dates, we believe, from 1815. At that time, forty 
Umbrellas per day was a large product fully as much as the de- 
mand would warrant. Mr. Pierce retired from active participa- 



392 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

tion iii the business about 1836, and at the time of his retirement 
was accounted among the very largest manufacturers. His suc- 
cessors, Messrs. Wm. A. Drown & Co., are noted for the fine styles 
of Umbrellas and Parasols which they produce ; and their goods 
are well-known throughout the entire country. 

The house of SIMON HEITER, though less extensively engaged 
in the manufacture than some of the others to whom we have re- 
ferred, is well known to the trade, and takes a very respectable 
rank. All the styles usually made in this country are produced 
in his manufactory; and by means of connection with houses in 
Europe, he is in early and constant receipt of whatever novel- 
ties are originated in the workshops of Paris or elsewhere. 

WM. H. RICHARDSON has been connected with the trade for 
many years, and during the period of this connection he has 
introduced several novelties that can be highly commended. 
One is the Walking-cane Umbrella, a very ingenious and neat 
affair, well adapted to the use of pedestrians and travelers. It 
consists of a convenient size of Umbrella, in a very handsome 
rosewood case, which, when the Umbrella is hoisted, forms the 
handle, and, when closed, becomes a handsome cane. Another 
arrangement for the comfort of travelers is an Umbrella, the handle 
of which may be readily converted into a rest for the head ; it is 
intended to be used in cars as a head-support, and thus facili- 
tates sleeping while traveling. Another novelty to which we beg 
leave to invite attention is an Umbrella that can readily be 
packed in a trunk, and also the Holland Rectangular Steel Tube 
Umbrella, which, with the frame covered with strong silk, is said 
to weigh only nine ounces. 

The Umbrella and Parasol manufacture in Philadelphia em- 
ploys directly about 1,500 persons, and indirectly, and in all its 
branches, 2,500. A large proportion of the employees are females, 
whose earnings average from $2 to $5 per week. A cap- 
ital of about $700,000 is invested, and the average annual pro 
clnct is about $1,275,000, though in 1853 it was nearly two mil- 
lions of dollars ; the sales of one firm alone exceeding a half 
million of dollars. The value produced in Philadelphia is nearly 
equal to that of Paris in 1847, when the product was stated at 
296,000. 



IVOKY TURNING WHALEBONE AND RATTAN. 393 

The circumstances that have contributed to the development 
of the Umbrella manufacture in Philadelphia, we have in part al- 
ready alluded to. The establishments in Fraukford for the marx- 
nfacture of Metal Mountings, Tips, &c., are deservedly noted, 
and supply not only the manufacturers of this city but of New 
York. The Ivory and Bone Turners, and Carvers, perform their 
part well in ornamenting the handles. In the establishment of 
HARVEY & FORD, undoubtedly the most extensive in the United 
States, 150 operatives are employed, and their carved Ivory-work 
successfully rivals the finest of England or France. The quanti- 
ties of material annually consumed in this branch may be inferred 
from the following statistics, recently given in the Ledger, for two 
of these shops, viz. : 

" Ivory, 30,000 Ibs., worth about $80,000 ; Walrus, a large quantity 
of which is also used for like purposes with Ivory, 6,000 Ibs., worth 
$3,000 ; Boxwood, 9 tons, worth $270 ; Vegetable Ivory, 30 tons, 
worth $3,000. One hundred and forty men and boys are employed, 
who receive for their labor $29,700 per annum. In the two shops, one 
hundred and five Turning Lathes and eleven Saws are at work. Eight 
thousand bushels of dust are sold every year for $5,200. The dust is 
used by farmers as an excellent manure." 

A considerable proportion of the finished work in Ivory and 
Bone, it is proper to explain, is used for the handles and mount- 
ings of Whips and Canes, and various kinds of Surgical Instru- 
ments. 

There is also an extensive establishment in the city for the 
manufacture of WHALEBONE and RATTAN, and is said to be the 
only factory in the country where Whalebone is prepared for all 
purposes to which it is adapted, viz. : Umbrellas, Parasols, Whips, 
Canes, Dresses, Hoops, Bonnets, Hats, Hair Pins, &c. This manu- 
factory, of which the proprietors are George W. Carr and Samuel 
Warrington, trading under the firm-style of GEORGE W. CARR & 
Co., was established in 1842. The machinery and fixtures are 
principally original, and said to be unknown to other manufac- 
turers. Steam, supplied by a twelve-horse engine, is used in all 
the various processes of Boiling, Dyeing, Drying, and Heating. 

Previous to the great advance in Whalebone, this manufactory 
consumed annually from 150,000 to 200,000 Ibs. ; but at present, 
32 



394 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

the consumption is much reduced by the introduction of substi- 
tutes of much lower cost. Rattan is now a leading article in the 
manufacture of Umbrellas, Parasols, Chair Seating, Skirt Hoops, 
&c., and this firm consume annually about 200,000 Ibs. The 
manufacture of Skirt Hoops is largely carried on by them, and 
for covering the Skirts they use the Whip Braiding machines be- 
fore referred to. Messrs. G. W. Carr & Co. employ fifty to sixty 
hands men, boys, and girls. 

XXXV. 

Wagons, Carts, Drays, and Wheelbarrows. 

Within comparatively a few years the demand for Wagons of a 
peculiar construction has elevated the business of Wagon-making 
into the rank of manufactures. The wheelwright and the black- 
smith are no longer able to supply the combined wants of the 
United States Government, Express Companies, and Emigrants : 
and establishments are required that can purchase lumber and iron 
in large quantities, and which are provided with all th requisite 
machinery and appliances for turning out heavy vehicles with expe- 
dition and rapidity. The excellence of the timber furnished from 
the forests of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware ; the repu- 
tation of the builders, established even prior to the time when 
Conestoga Wagons transported all heavy goods from the Eastern 
States to the West ; the present facilities of the Wagon-making 
establishments, and the immense stock of well-seasoned lumber al- 
ways kept on hand, make Philadelphia, at the present time, the 
best and principal seat of the Wagon manufacture. 

There are now forty-five establishments in Philadelphia where 
Wagons, Carts, Drays, &c., are made, but, we believe, only three 
that carry on the business on a large scale, and supply the South, 
the United States Government, and distant markets generally ; 
viz. : WILSON, CHILDS & Co., SIMONS, COLEMAN & Co., BEGGS 
& ROWLAND. Two other houses, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, and W. 
HOSKINS, have executed orders of some importance for remote 
sections. 

These establishments send their products to almost every part 
of the South, including Texas; and even Mexico obtains a second 
edition of our old Conestogas, which are there drawn by mules 
Thu United States Government has for some time obtained it^ 



WOOD-WOXKIXG. 395 

Wagons from Philadelphia, inasmuch as those built here are found 
to be the most serviceable on the Western frontiers, where only those 
of the best material and construction can withstand the abrasion 
of travel. A considerable proportion of those required for the 
transportation of the Utah expedition are being made here, and the 
factories at the present time swarm with industrious artisans. We 
shall describe two of the principal establishments in the APPENDIX. 
The statistics of the product are given as follows : 

Value of Wagons annually sent South, and for the U. S. Government, $525,00* 
" " Wagons, Carts, Drays, Ac., made for the city and vicinity, 290,000 

Total product, - ~"i^ v $815,000 

XXXVI. 

Wood-Working Bnilding Materials, &c. 

The working of Wood in Philadelphia, and throughout the 
United States, is especially remarkable for the application of labor- 
saving machinery, by which the most important results are attained 
from apparently very simple means. All the implements and ma- 
chines designed for the purpose, and in use in this country, from 
an ordinary axe to a planing machine, are far in advance of those 
in use in Europe. A house in Liverpool is now importing the best 
American Wood-working machines, and making great efforts to 
introduce them generally into England. 

The abundant supply of Lumber in Pennsylvania, and the 
sources of that supply, were stated in the Introductory. It is 
probably our duty to describe the facilities that are in use in the 
various and numerous Wood-working establishments ; but we are 
reminded that the leading branches of productive industry have 
already consumed more than their allotted space ; and we are satis- 
fied that nothing like justice could be done, within narrow limits, 
to a subject so comprehensive. We may probably describe one or 
two of the leading establishments in the APPENDIX ; but here it 
must suffice for us to say that the machinery in the various Planing 
Mills, Sash Factories, Turning and Scroll-sawing Establishments, 
<fec., is truly remarkable for its efficiency ; and that those estab- 
lishments occupied in preparing the various parts of Wood-work 
required in Buildings, can supply builders at a much cheaper rate 
than the latter can produce them in their own workshops, without 
the aid of such machinery. 



PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 



The statistics of the aggregate product, prepared with a good 
deal of labor, will convey some idea of the extent to which the bu- 
siness of Wood-working, in its several branches, is carried on : 

Value of Lumber Sawed, including Mahogany and Fancy Woods, 
" " Flooring and Planed Lumber, - - - - ' . 

" " Sashes, Blinds, Doors made in factories, 

" " Mouldings, Turnings, in Wood, Ac., .... 

" " Barrels, Casks, Shocks, Vats, <fco., ^ ,m.ii ^ 5^K-, 
" " Boxes, Packing, estimated, ---... 
" " Picture and Looking-Glass Frames, stated by a leading 

manufacturer at $1,500,000, estimated, - . ''i' 1 
" " Matches 6 Match factories, estimated, ... 
" " Coffins, ready made, ....... 

" " Lasts and Boot-Trees, one maker using machines, 

" " Cedar and Wooden Ware, - - - - - 

" " Patterns, Stove and other, ...... 

" " Show Cases, Ac., 

Miscellaneous manufactures in Wood, viz. : Hydrant Stocks, Lad- 
ders, Kindling Wood, Shingles, Laths, Ac., estimated - *' : - 



Total, 



$580,000 
370,000 
250,000 
850,000 
715,000 
500,000 

750,000 
125,000 
219,000 

36,000 
150,000 
115,000 

55,000 

100,000 
$4,815,000 



We now take leave of the Branches of Productive Industry in 
Philadelphia that can be called "Leading," or those of which 
the aggregate product and relative commercial importance entitle 
them to the designation. A recapitulation of the respective values 
produced in these branches alone would show that Philadelphia is 
a very great manufacturing city ; and if we were to step beyond 
the city limits, and compute the industrial values of the district 
of which this city is the commercial centre, we would have at 
at least the following additional aggregates : 

Dry Goods in the vicinity of Philadelphia, as before stated, - $6,696,000 
Iron Anthracite made near Philadelphia, ----- 4,569,720 
" Charcoal in Eastern Pennsylvania, - - - .; r^-M+fj 1,754,280 
Products of Forges and Rolling Mills in the vicinity of Philadel- 
phia, in 1856, 5,000,000 
Miscellaneous manufactures of Iron, estimated, .... 3,000,000 

Leather, estimated, ,.<?* o.^JT'ftffcS 2,500,000 

Paper, estimated, 2,000,000 
Wood-working, including Agricultural Implements, Barrels, Han- 
dles, Tools, Ac., brought into Philadelphia, estimated, - f'lv 1,000.000 

Total, $26,520,000 



RECAPITULATION. 397 

.RECAPITULATION. 

Agricultural Implements, Seeds, and Fertilizers $1,003,00' 

Alcohol, Burning Fluid, Camphene, Ac .....1,022,140 

Book Manufacture, and its kindred branches, as already given $5,593,000 

Profits of Publishing Books and Periodicals amount $1,090,003, esti- 
mated rate 20 per cent 818,000 

Daily and Weekly Newspapers, estimated by a leading Newspaper 

Publisher 1,370,000 

- 7,781 ,OOC 

Boots and Shoes 4,141,000 

Brass and Copper 1,230,000 

Ale, Porter, Lager Beer, Ac 2,300,000 

Bricks, Fire-Bricks, Pottery, Ac 1,459,000 

Carriages, including Wagons, Carts, &c 1,715,000 

Chemicals, Paints, Glue, Curled Hair, Varnishes, Medicines, Ac 7,370,000 

Clothing, Mantillas, and Corsets 11,157,500 

Confectionery, Fine Cakes, Ac 1,020,000 

Distilling and Rectifying Liquors 3,154,000 

Dry Goods or Textile Fabrics 21,318,118 

Flour and Substances as Food, including Baker's Bread, and Cured and Smoked 

Meats 14,150,000 

Furniture, Upholstery, Ac 3,000,000 

Glass Manufactures 1,600,000 

Hats, Caps, Furs, Ac 1,900,000 

Iron, Manufactures of 12,852,130 

Jewelry, and other Manufactures of Gold, Silver, ic 3,272,000 

Lamps, Chandeliers, and Gas Fixtures, 1,300,000 

Leather, including Buckskin and Kid Gloves, Belting, Hose, Ac 3,091,250 

Marble, Stone, Slate, Ae 1,160,000 

Oils 2,131,230 

Paper Hangings 800,000 

Rope, Cordage, Ac 810,000 

Saddles, Harness, Whips, Trunks 1,988,000 

Sugar Refining and Molasses. 6,500,000 

Ship and Boat Building 1,760,000 

Soaps and Candles 2,057,600 

Tobacco, (Smoking), Cigars, Snuff. 3,256,500 

Umbrellas and Parasol*, including Umbrella Furniture, Ivory and Bone Turning, 

Whalebone and Rattan manufacturing 1,750,000 

Works in Wood Products of Saw Mills, Planing Mills, Sash and Door Factories, 
Wooden Ware, Matches, Lasts, Ac 4,300,000 



Total value of Leading Branches of Productive Industry in Philadel'a $132,349,488 

Add for Product of Lead.ng Branches in the vicinity of Philadelphia 26,520,000 



Total for Leading Branches in Philadelphia and Vicinity 8158,869,488 

32* 






MISCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURES. 



i. 

Artificial Teeth. 

THE manufacture of Porcelain Teeth is modern in its origin. Orig 
inally natural or human Teeth were used ; also calves' and sheep Teeth ; 
next ivory, or Teeth carved from the tusk of the Hippopotamus. Fifty 
years ago there was not a Porcelain Tooth made in this country. 
Twenty years ago, not more than two hundred and fifty thousand were 
manufactured annually in the United States, and but a trifling number 
in Europe. Since then the demand has been continually increasing, 
owing in a great measure to the rapid improvements made from year 
to year, and the more perfect applicability to the purposes designed ; 
and within the last eight years, it is said, the consumption has in- 
creased one hundred per cent. 

Philadelphia was the first and original seat of the manufacture of 
Porcelain Teeth in the United States ; and over one half, if not two 
thirds of all the Teeth now made in this country are made in Philadel- 
phia. One firm, that of JONES, WHITE & McCuEDY, Arch street, 
make annually about 1,250,000 Porcelain Teeth. Their products are 
exported to Europe, South America, the West Indies ; and in all the 
markets they take precedence over the European manufacture. 

In the report of the last Franklin Institute Exhibition, we notice 
that the judges remark : 

" These gentlemen claim the following as improvements in their 
Teeth. A close imitation of the natural organs ; a great variety of 
shapes in conformity with nature ; the thickening of the posterior 
edges of the canines and bicuspids, in conformity with the gradual fill- 
ing out of the natural organs from the incisors to the molars ; a greater 
capacity to withstand the extremes of temperature to which they must 
be exposed ; the peculiar blending of the tints in imitation of nature ; 
the shape of the bases of the gum teeth for half and entire denture.", 
and their more perfect adaptation to the plates with but little grinding. 
Also, a great improvement in the enamel surface, which is divested of 
that glassy, reflecting character so unnatural, and which has hitherto 

(398) 



AWNINGS, BAGS, ETC. 399 

been so objectionable in Artificial Teeth. Most of these improve- 
ments, especially those which relate to the shape, articulating and en- 
amel surfaces, are of a high order of merit, and entitle them to a recall 
first-class premium." 

It is but justice to say, that the eminent success which has attended 
this firm is due to their merits as manufacturers of superior Artificial 
Teeth ; but also in part to their standing as gentlemen, their enter- 
prise, and to their public spirit. 

The statistics of the manufacture of Porcelain Teeth, as furnished 
to us, are as follows : 

Number of establishments, - - ,- ^ .__ ,- _ . ,._ 5 

Capital invested, - ..- . . - - - $175,000 

Persons employed one half females, - -' ".'''.'" 125 

Value of production annually, - - ' C J "*'-"'- S^'L $500,000 



II. 

Awnings, Bags, &c. 

There are about eight principal establishments in this city for mak- 
ing Awnings, Bags, Sacking Bottoms, &c., and in addition, they man- 
ufacture Garden and Field Tents, Yerandahs for windows, Wagon 
Covers, Flags and Banners, &c. Military Tents were, during the 
Mexican war, and until a recent period, made here to a very large 
amount for the United States Army, but are now all made at the 
United States Arsenal in this city. Wagon Covers and Sacking Bot- 
toms form considerable items in the business here ; and of the former, 
two extensive Wagon Building establishments in this city necessarily 
require many for their Mexican and Southern customers. 

Bags, for grain and flour, are only made to a limited extent in con- 
nection with the other branches, the recent introduction and greater 
cheapness of Seamless Bags having greatly abridged the demand. The 
covering of Hams, previous to being whitewashed for their better 
preservation during the hot season, also belongs to the business, and 
occasionally employs a number of hands. Mr. JOSEPH H. FOSTER, a 
principal manufacturer in all these branches, and also a practical Sail 
maker, has furnished the following statistics, viz. : 

Hands employed, ...___- 125 

Yards of Canvas used annually, 325,000, worth, - - $58,250 

Other material?, as Rope, Twine, Rags, Hooks, Needles, Ac. 3,500 

Workmanship, - '''-'* - 30,000 



Total, -! * : ->* f 'i>Ji ;i''v>rti;u.i WKUO 4J*aurr .!*{. $91,750 



400 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

III. 

Baskets and Willow Ware. 

This is a branch of business which may be regarded as yet only in 
its infancy in this country, but destined to become one of considerable 
magnitude at no distant day. Considering the numerous uses of the 
Willow, it is gratifying to know Philadelphia is actively leading in an 
enterprise which must aid in eventually rendering us independent of 
Europe, both for the raw material and the manufactured product. 
Enormous quantities of Willow are annually imported, chiefly from 
Havre, and then manufactured into Baskets by our German population 
and others ; while of the finer and fancy Willow Ware, nearly the whole 
has hitherto been imported. For some years past, however, increased 
attention has been given to the cultivation of the Willow by our 
Basket-makers in this city, on account of the superior quality of the 
native growth ; the foreign article being always culled of the better 
portions previous to shipment. Our soil and climate are found to suit 
the plant admirably ; and there are now within the city limits not less 
than eighty-five acres of swamp or meadow lands under cultivation. The 
number of persons engaged in growing Willow, exclusively for their own 
use, with one or two exceptions, is about ten, whose gardens embrace 
from two to twenty acres each ; and others are engaging in it every year. 
Mr. John Stinger, the largest Willow-grower and Basket-maker at pres- 
ent, has twenty acres, or nearly ; and if persons of capital, which our pio- 
neers have not been, were to embark in this branch of husbandry, a 
ready sale could be had for all that can be raised for years to come, at 
a remunerative price. The Willow is planted in rows four feet apart 
each way, or four feet by two, according to the kind. During the 
first year the young plants require care similar to that bestowed upon 
corn ; but in subsequent years little attention beyond keeping rank 
grass from the roots. In two years it reaches a size sufficient for use ; 
and may be cut the first year, but with diminished profit subsequently. 
It continues to yield for fifteen years, at an average value of $30 per 
acre, when it must be grubbed up and replanted. 

Messrs. ROBERT & CHARLES DUNK, who are among the largest of the 
Willow-growers and Basket-makers, and whose family have been thirty 
years in the business, have experimented upon some sixty varieties of 
the Willow, to ascertain which are best adapted to our climate, soil, 
and manufacture. Few or none of those most cultivated in Europe 
succeed here. Those best suited to our wants, we are informed, are the 
Salix Lambertiana, S. Cordata, (native), S'. Pentangea, and S. Rns.sef- 
liana. The last named is most cultivated ; and as it produces all the 



BROOMS, BLACKING, INK, AND LAMPBLACK. 401 

sizes required for different kinds of work, it would supersede all others 
were it not liable to grow twiggy. The S. Cordata is best for larger and 
coarser Basket-work ; and other varieties are respectively used for spe- 
cial purposes. Of Basket-makers, there are about twelve principal ones, 
besides a very large number of manufacturers on a small scale. In 
quantity, the product in this city is supposed to exceed that of any 
place in this country, and the quality of the work is undoubtedly supe- 
rior, arising chiefly from the greater whiteness, strength, and beauty 
of the native Willow. 

Mr. Dunk, and some others, we believe, export nearly all they make. 
Much of the imported Willow is used in the covering of Carboys and 
other Glassware, by some of our large Glass factories. 

Chairs, Settees, Cradles, Coaches, Work-Tables, Baskets, &c., are 
also made of Bamboo and Cane, by several persons. 

IV. 

Brooms. 

Of Corn Brooms the product in Philadelphia is large, and the qual- 
ity generally superior to the average. The Wire-fastened Broom made 
here, in particular, is nowhere equaled by any article of the same 
price. The principal supply of Broom Corn used here conies from Ohio 
and Indiana, and it is manufactured by between one and two hundred 
persons, each of whom will make from twenty-five to fifty Brooms 
daily. Some of our larger manufacturers employ quite a number of 
hands ; and we believe few, if any, establishments in this country turn 
out more Brooms and Whisk Brushes than Messrs. BERGEK & Buxz, 
of this city. Ten or twelve thousand Brooms, probably, find their way 
into the market weekly from the hands of Philadelphia Broom-makers, 
the wholesale prices of which range from 01 to $3 per dozen. To this, 
as to most similar branches, belongs an assortment of tools appro- 
priate to the business, for the supply of which we are as yet dependent 
upon New England. Our ingenious mechanics ought to supply not 
only the home, but the distant demand for these articles. The same 
may be remarked of Broom Handles, which come from other quarters 
in very large quantities. 

V. 

Blacking, Ink, and Lampblack. 

Blacking, it has been remarked, consists essentially of two principal 
constituents, viz., a black coloring matter, and certain substances 
which will acquire a gloss by friction. Each maker has of course pro 



402 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

portions and methods of mixing peculiar to himself, but the chief ma- 
terials used are the same in most cases. The extent to which the manu- 
facture is carried on by some firms, is illustrated by the business of the 
celebrated Day & Martin, who send away on an average 150 casks, 
containing a quantity equal to 900 dozen pint bottles, per day. The con- 
stituents of Day & Martin's Blacking are said to be Bone-black, Sugar, 
Molasses, Sperm Oil, Sulphuric acid, and strong Vinegar. In Phil- 
adelphia there are five principal establishments engaged in the manu- 
facture of Blacking JAMES L. MASON & Co., JOHN ANNEAR, J. & E. 
NEWBERT, and CHARLES 0. WILSON, and many others who make to a 
limited extent. The first-named employs seventy-five persons, and 
turns out three and a half millions of boxes of Blacking per year. 

Writing Ink is made by Messrs. MASON & Co., and by five others, 
viz., BARTHOLOMEW BUSSIER, GREEN & Co., JOSEPH E. HOOVER, APOL- 
LOS W. HARRISON, and SAMUEL SCHURCH. The excellence of the " Co- 
lumbian Writing Fluid," made by Harrison, every penman is familiar 
with. 

Lampblack, as we previously stated, is made in connection with 
Printing Inks, and also at separate establishments. Matlack's Lamp- 
black, and Martin's, are well-known, both in this country and in 
Europe. 

The value of the Blacking, Inks, and Lampblack, made annually 
in Philadelphia, may safely be stated at a half million of dollars. 

VI. 

Boxes, Paper. 

Paper Boxes are probably made more extensively in Philadelphia 
than in any other American city. The demand for Boxes, for all pur- 
poses, renders the variety seemingly unlimited Boxes for Fancy Ho- 
siery, Shoes, and Parasols ; Boxes for Shirts, Bosoms, and Collars ; 
Boxes for Artificial Flowers, Ruches, and other Millinery goods ; 
Boxes for Brushes and Combs ; for Perfumery and Fancy Soaps ; for 
Envelopes, Pencils and other Stationery ; Confectionery Boxes, Jew- 
elry Boxes, Pill Boxes ; and Match Boxes, though these are generally 
made by the Match-makers. All these different descriptions and va- 
rieties, from the commonest and cheapest, up to the most elabor- 
ately ornamented, at $2 each, are made in the Philadelphia manufac- 
tories. A description of the largest establishment, that of GFORGE 
W. PLUMLY, must suffice for all. It consists of six floors in all, in- 
cluding a basement, and each room is appropriated to its own peculiar 
separate and distinct operations. In the basement, and under the 
sidewalk, there is a boiler supplying steam for heating the building, and 



BOXES, PAPER. 403 

not water for making paste, <tc. ; also, a small steam-engine for pump- 
ing water, <fcc. Here a man and boy are engaged in covering paste- 
boards with white and colored paper, which is done by a machine con- 
taining two large rollers one of which revolves in a trough filled with 
paste, the sheet being passed between them, covered with paste, and 
the paper laid on both sides. The sheets are subsequently dried and 
pressed. The first floor is chiefly occupied as a warehouse, counting- 
house, <fec. In the second, the large boxes which require sewing are 
made aiid finished. In this, and in other rooms, are shears of every 
size and pattern ; and machinery for cutting, with great rapidity, 
pasteboards into the lengths and widths required. The third story 
is devoted to another description of work the largest that does not 
require sewing, and has machinery for a variety of purposes ; such 
as cutting boards into circular pieces for tops and bottoms of round 
boxes, machinery for scoring and cutting out the corners preparatory 
to making square boxes, &c. The fourth story is devoted to still 
smaller work, and the fifth to pill and other round boxes. Here the 
most perfect machinery is found. One machine, invented by Mr. 
Plumly, for cutting round pieces for ends of boxes, operates with such 
rapidity that it is said 5,000 can be cut in an hour. The upper stories 
are subdivided, and one part of each occupied by the men who cut 
and prepare the work ; the other by the women and girls who finish 
the boxes. The cheapness with which boxes can be made is remark- 
able ; some of very neat appearance can be made at about three 
cents per dozen ; and yet each is made of several separate pieces, and 
each has to be many times handled, covered with colored or fancy 
paper, labelled, and packed. Although most of the manipulations 
must be done by hand, yet within the last few years a great variety 
of machinery has been invented for the purpose, which gives increased 
facilities to the operations. 

The Pasteboard is principally obtained from mills at Chambersburg, 
Harrisburg, and Williamsport, and costs upon an average $50 per ton. 
The Glazed and Fancy Papers, of which the consumption is consider- 
able, are principally imported. 

Mr. Plnmly makes every description of Boxes ; and not only supplies 
in part this city, but executes orders from Boston and other parts of 
the East, and from the chief cities of the South and West. 

The whole business employs 325 hands, and the annual product ia 
about $175.000. 



PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

VII. 
Brushes. 

Few articles of manufacture admit so great a diversity of forms, 
sizes and qualities, or so wide a range of uses, as the production of the 
Urushmaker ; and of none does it hold more true that the best article 
is the cheapest. From the delicate Pencil of the artist, to the 
" Whitewash," or the " Scrub," the variety in style and ornamentation 
is exceedingly great. 

The manufacture in this city includes the usual variety of Hair, Paint, 
and the commoner kinds of Brushes, and employs about a dozen prin- 
cipal concerns, besides a large number of individuals who make to a 
limited extent. In this, as in other branches, our manufacturers have 
aimed at the production of substantial and reliable work. In the im- 
portant article of a Paint Brush, particularly, some of them have suc- 
cessfully striven to excel ; and we believe Clinton's Improved Copper- 
bound Paint and Yarnish Brush is not surpassed by any in this coun- 
try, while those of other makers are generally preferred to similar 
Brushes made elsewhere. 

Steam has not as yet been introduced to any extent in the Brush 
factories, and fewer Brushes are made in the Penitentiaries and Alms- 
houses, in this State, than in some other places ; but in this city, the 
annual production in the House of Refuge, and Blind Asylum, is in- 
creasing. The present product, therefore, including that in Public 
Institutions, amounts to about $225,000 annually. The Bristles are im- 
ported principally from Russia; a cold climate being indispensable, it 
is said, to their perfection. 

Tooth Brushes, chiefly of the open-backed variety, are made here of 
a quality superior to the imported. 

VIII. 

Buttons. 

Buttons of nearly every material of which these useful little articles 
are usually made, including Metal, Pearl, Bone, Horn, Paper, and 
every variety of Plain and Fancy Covered and Silk Buttons, are made 
in Philadelphia. 

In the manufacture of Pearl Buttons, Philadelphia takes the lead 
in America. We have been shown in stores Pearl Buttons of Phila- 
delphia manufacture, which, in neatness and beauty of finish, we were 
informed were superior to any foreign article, and certainly could not 
well be excelled ; and Buttons made in this city, are not unfrequently 
Bold in some of our cities as imported French or English. Some im- 



BUTTONS. 405 

provements in the process of finishing, unknown elsewhere in the busi- 
ness, have been introduced here, whereby the cost is lessened, and OUT 
manufacturers enabled to compete with the foreign. 

The Pearl employed comes from the East Indian and China seas, 
and also from Panama and the Gulf of Mexico. The former is th 
finer in quality, as well as more expensive, and is chiefly used for the 
best qualities of Shirt Buttons and Studs. There are about eight per- 
sons engaged in this branch, employing usually about forty hands, and 
they make probably two thousand gross weekly of the various sizes, 
from small Shirt Buttons to large Coat Buttons ; and with a remark- 
able range of prices, from forty or fifty cents to twenty dollars per 
gross. A difficulty exists in the want of a uniform supply of material, 
which becomes at times very scarce. Mr. EDWARD MAEKLEW, and Mr. 
W. GIBBS, have facilities for manufacturing almost any amount, and we 
believe dealers generally will be satisfied with a trial of the Buttons 
made in this city. 

Bone Buttons and Bone Moulds, of every size, color, and description 
in use, are made extensively by several persons, to the amount 
of many thousand gross yearly. Mr. J. WITZEL employs several 
improved machines, the invention of Mr. E. Wahl, of this city. Of 
these, the most important is a machine for drilling and countersinking 
the Button on both sides at one operation, by which one person can ac- 
complish the labor of three. From 25,000 to 30,000 Buttons can be 
thus finished up by its aid in one day. One of these is now, we believe, 
in successful operation in Germany by a Philadelphia Button-maker. 
An improved Facing and Cutting-out machine, by the same inventor, 
securing greater ease, accuracy, and speed than the old ones, seems 
also an important auxiliary in producing a neat and smoothly finished 
article. We are not aware that Horn Buttons are made by more than 
one person in this city, his product being some eighteen gross per 
week. Probably the demand is not very great. 

The manufacture of Metallic Buttons is chiefly confined to those 
used on military and other equipments. 

Messrs. GEIERSHOFER, LCEWI & Co., who have been for some time en- 
gaged in the manufacture of Covered Buttons of every variety, have 
now facilities which enable them to challenge foreign competition. Silk 
and Fancy Buttons are manufactured by a large number of persons in 
this city, and have been elsewhere referred to. 

Paper, or Papier-mache, Buttons are made here also to a limited 
extent. 
33 



40G PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTUKES. 

IX. 

Cedar- Ware and Wooden-Ware. 

The manufacture of Cedar-ware, though not very extensive in this 
city, will nevertheless well sustain the reputation of our mechanics in 
the minor as well as the larger branches of productive industry, by the 
undoubted excellence both of the material and workmanship. The 
chief supply of Cedar, for this business, is derived from Virginia and 
Carolina. There are about ten principal establishments engaged in 
the manufacture, besides many smaller ones. 

Of these, Mr. C. DREBY is the largest, employing ordinarily about 
fifteen hands. He is a large producer of all the important articles be- 
longing to this class, including Bath Tubs, Wash Tubs, Staff and Bar- 
rel Churns, Buckets, Pails, Measures, Chests, &c., &c. 

The manufacturers referred to, employ together about sixty hands on 
this work, and have invested a capital of about $60,000. The annual 
production is not far from $100,000. 

Wooden-ware, including all the various Wooden Housekeeping articles 
not made of Cedar, employs quite a number of small establishments. Only 
one, we believe, uses steam power in the business. Among the articles 
of this class may be enumerated Kitchen and Ironing Tables, Meat 
Safes. Scouring Boards, Step Ladders, Clothes Horses, Towel Backs, 
Butlers' Trays, Plain Foot Stools, Towel Rollers, Potato Mashers, 
Rolling Pins, Cricket Bats, Close Tools, Toy Building Blocks, Ironing 
Boards, Tailors' Press Boards, Wash Boards, Bungs and Spigots, 
Embroidery Stands, &c., all of which, with numerous other like arti- 
cles of excellent quality, we have seen in the factories of two of our 
principal manufacturers, W. J. WALKER, and J. LEWIS & SON, in our 
tour of inquiry. Cherry Wash Boards, of a quality superior to any of 
the same kind from abroad, are made here, but only to a limited extent. 
Large quantities made of other material come here from other markets. 
There are no factories for making cheap Painted Buckets or Wooden 
Bowls, and some other articles of this class. The land of Notions 
and Wooden Nutmegs is still the wholesale producer of cheap articles 
in this branch, although each year is rendering us more independent. 
A larger amount of capital, we judge, might be profitably invested in 
this business ; -and we do not know why steam factories should not be 
sustained by our growing trade with all parts of the country. 

"/. O-.:;i 



COMBS. 407 

X. 

Combs. 

Combs are made in this city, of Gold and Silver, Horn, Buffalo 
Horn, and Shell ; but the recent introduction and popularity of India 
Rubber Combs have materially lessened the demand and trenched upon 
the profits of the business. 

Horn Combs constitute the leading and staple product. They are 
made of all descriptions and of very good quality, at more than a dozen 
different establishments, and by many others individually. Some of these 
produce Combs equal or superior to any made elsewhere, while those 
of all our manufacturers have the merit of opening in conformity witli 
the sample. The facilities for obtaining a cheap and abundant supply 
of material are exceedingly good, and Eastern manufacturers come 
here for their supply. One factory in this city, we are informed, con- 
sumes not less than four thousand horns weekly, at a cost of from four 
to twelve dollars per hundred. 

In Tortoise Shell and Buffalo Horn, usually quite distinct branches 
of business from the foregoing, we have three or four principal manu- 
facturers, whose work, for quality and quantity, has secured to Phila- 
delphia the pre-eminence in the Comb business of the United States. 
Large quantities of Shell, particularly, are worked up with great taste 
and skill ; and as much of the value of a Comb is derived from the 
labor put upon it, our manufacturers are only able to compete with the 
foreign article, by a more successful adaptation of the styles to the 
prevailing taste of the ladies, who do not generally fancy the French. 
In this our Comb-makers lead the fashion, and change their styles, par- 
ticularly in the finer carved varieties, every six months. 

A principal part of the Shell used here cornea from the West India 
Islands, and the best qualities from China. The cost of the former is 
$6 to $7 per lb., the latter somewhat more. Buffalo Horn is chiefly 
derived from South America ; a very small part from the Rocky 
Mountains. Several very ingenious machines have been adapted to 
various parts of the process by Mr. Redheffer, of this city, who has 
patents for these and other improvements in the different branches. 
Our manufacturers export their Combs to the West Indies, Mexico, 
California, and all parts of the Continent. The capital employed is 
between $40,000 and $50,000. The number of hands altogether em- 
ployed is little short of two hundred; their average wages $7 per 
week, and the annual product about $150,000. 



408 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

XI. 

Musical Instruments. 

The Musical Instruments that are made in Philadelphia comprisa 
Organs, Melodeons, Accordeons, Concertinos, Violins, Flutes, Gui- 
tars, Drums, and Piano-Fortes. Organs are made by four manufac- 
turers the two largest probably ever constructed in this city being 
that in Concert Hall, with 4 manuals and pedals, 60 registers, and 
3,050 pipes, and that in Calvary Presbyterian Church, with 3 manuals 
and pedals, 44 registers, and 1,865 pipes. In tone, workmanship, and 
action, the Philadelphia-made Organs possess as many excellencies as 
any that can be found either in this country or Europe. 

Melodeons are made to some extent by two houses ; and Accordeons 
are made largely by ANTHONY FAAS, whose instruments are claimed to 
be better in every respect than the French and German articles im- 
ported. Their range of notes doubles that of the foreign Accordeon ; 
their construction is stronger, and by an echo attachment similar to 
the pedal of a piano, the tone may be sweet and delicate as that of a 
flute, or changed to the deep and powerful volume of the organ. Six 
Silver Medals have been awarded this manufacturer, a favorable indi- 
cation of the growing appreciation of Philadelphia Instruments. These 
Accordeons are sold only by JOSEPH SERVOSS, 16 North Second street. 
Patent Concertinos, a modification of the Accordeon, are manufactured 
by Mr. C. M. ZIMMERMAN, who received a first premium at the World's 
Fair, in London. Over one hundred men and a capital of fifty thou- 
sand dollars are employed in this business. 

Philadelphia is the principal city in the Union for the manufacture 
of Violins. The principal makers are JOSEPH NEFF, JOSEPH WINNER, 
MATHIAS KELLER, C. M. ZIMMERMAN, JOHN PFAFF, and A. M. ALBERT, 
most of whom enjoy the highest reputation with Musicians and Music 
dealers. For brilliancy of tone their Violins are famous, and are ex- 
tensively used in Orchestras. Mr. Neff has received for his Violins 
five Silver Medals, and the Diploma of the New York Exhibition in 
1853. 

Flutes and Guitars, of the very best quality, are made by KLEMM & 
BROTHER, and by Mr. J. BERWIND. The latter also makes a kind of 
Eolian Harp, little known in this country, called the Cithern, with thirty- 
six strings. 

German Silver Band Instruments are made by Klemm & Brother, 
who largely import Brass Instruments. A manufactory of these is 
about being established. 

Drums make little noise, though their quality, it is said, cannot be 



PIANOS OIL CLOTHS. 409 

beaten by any in the world. There are two manufacturers of these ; 
one of whom has a patent contrivance for straining the head of the 
Drum to a uniform tightness. Mr. Zimmerman has large contracts 
with Government for his Military Drums. Tambourines and Banjos, as 
well as Musical Chairs, are made by him. 

The most important branch of the Musical Instrument manufacture, 
however, is that of Piano-Fortes. The business was established by Mr. 
Thomas Loud, in 1820 ; and there are now twenty manufacturers in 
the city, none of whom however prosecute it on a very extensive scale 
compared with the manufacturers in Albany, and other places. Of 
novelties, perhaps, the most remarkable and valuable is a small Piano, 
two thirds the ordinary size, which has been invented by Messrs. GOLD- 
SMITH & Co. They claim that in quality it is equal to the others, while 
costing one third less. It has a double sounding-board ; and in a pecu- 
liar manner the strings are brought across the main bridge and at- 
tached to another section of the bridge : a method claimed to give an 
increased volume of sound, and a delicate vibration. 

A. B. REICHENBACH, 1230 Chestnut street, claims to use an action 
distinct from all others ; having less friction, and being less liable to 
get out of order. The pedal and damper are peculiar in their construc- 
tion ; and not only in the tone and quality of the Piano, as a Musical 
Instrument, does he aim at perfection, but he also pays special atten- 
tion to making it beautiful as parlor furniture. The serpentine leg 
veneered with rosewood is one of the strongest and most beautiful in 
use, and is made, we believe, only by Mr. Reichenbach. The Pianos 
of the Philadelphia trade are justly celebrated for their handsome 
appearance, power, and exquisite tone. The capital invested in 
Piano-Fortes is $150,000; men employed, 250; product annually, 
$315,000. 

XII. 
Oil Cloths. 

The manufacture of Floor Oil Cloths is limited to two houses 
THOMAS POTTER, and JAMES CARMICHAEL. The aggregate capital is 
$170,000, the employees 150 ; and the materials consumed annually arc 
stated as follows: 67,000 gallons Linseed Oil, 17,500 gallons Spirits 
Turpentine, 329 tons of Whiting, 164 tons Yellow Ochre, 21,000 Ibs. 
Glue, 52,250 Ibs. of Lamp-black, 525,000 yards of Cotton Cloth, 50,000 
yards Cotton Drill, 49,000 yards of Cotton Duck, 202,000 yards Linen 
Canvas, 2,650 tons of Coal ; and the annual product is $289,000. 
The Philadelphia establishments in this branch are peculiar, inasmuch 
33* 



410 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

as they manufacture a variety of articles Table Oil Cloths, Stair 
Crash, and Enameled Oil Cloths iu imitation of Leather, used for cov- 
ering Carriages, and also for covering Desks, Tables, and Cushions, 
as well as Floor Oil Cloths. The establishments in other places limit 
their production to one class of goods, that is to Oil Cloths only, or to 
Enameled Cloths only. Stair Crash, it is said, was first made in this 
city, and nearly the entire production in this country is still confined 
to the Philadelphia establishments. 

XIII. 

Perfumery and Fancy Soaps. 

The manufacture and consumption of Perfumery and Soaps, are not 
necessarily evidences of a love for personal cleanliness. Cologne, the 
dirtiest city in the world, is providentially the great manufactory of 
Perfumery. The name of Jean Maria Farina is synonymous with 
Cologne bottle ; and in the London Exhibition there were four J. M. 
F.'s, each claiming to be the original. To such an extent is specula- 
tion in the name carried in that city of seventy-four distinct smells, 
that children entitled to the surname of Farina are bargained for as 
soon as born, and christened Jean Maria ; and at times this event is 
said to be anticipated. 

In Philadelphia the manufacture of Soaps and Perfumery is an 
important and extensive business. The materials employed are palm 
oil, tallow and lard, cocoa-nut oil, caustic alkali, sal soda, soda ash, 
and various essences, and essential oils of oranges, lemons, &c. In 
quality the manufacturers claim, and we think justly, that the Fancy 
Soaps made in this city are unrivaled. A New York critic remarked 
upon the Soaps exhibited at the Crystal Palace, in 1853 : 

"BAZIN of Philadelphia, the successor of the well-known Roussell, makes as 
fine Soaps as any in the world. Very little inferior to them, if at all, are the 
Soaps of JQLES HAUEL, of the same city. There is no doubt that these produc- 
tions must eventually succeed in driving the French Soaps out of the market. 
In the inferior and cheaper class of Soaps, the articles made by Colgate und 
Hull seem to be most generally in use. The Soaps and Perfumery manufactured 
by the Messrs. TAVLOR. of Philadelphia, are as fine as any that can be produced. 
We have already alluded to a Gothic window contributed by them, the panes of 
which are composed of transparent, or rather translucent Soap, in a great variety 
of tints. The effect is almost as perfect as that of stained glass." 

The manufacture of Perfumery is usually carried on conjointly with 
that of Fancy Soaps. Messrs. GLENN & Co., successors of L. W. 



ROOFING. 41 1 

Glenn, are, we believe, the oldest house in this business, having been es- 
blished upward of thirty years ago. APOLLOS W. HARRISON is a well- 
known exclusively wholesale manufacturer. The following statistics of 
some of his annual expenditures will illustrate how extensively the busi- 
ness is carried on by certain houses in this city, viz. : for paper boxes, 
$9,000 ; for wooden boxes, $3,000 ; for paper and printing, including 
lithography, $6,700 ; for glass, $19,000, &c. Mr. Harrison employs from 
sixty to eighty hands, has twenty-five traveling agents in various parts 
of the United States and the Canadas, and his sales of Perfumery 
and Soap, during the last year, amounted to $140,000. Messrs. R. & 
G. A. WRIGHT, another popular and well-known firm, have a factory 
one hundred feet square, and which is believed to be the largest of the 
kind in France, England, or America. Messrs. A. HAWLEY & Co. 
make, it is said, a greater variety of Fruit Essences for flavoring Min- 
eral Water Syrups, Confectionery, Jellies, &c., than any other house. 
Their various Extracts for the Handkerchief, Pomades, Toilet Pow- 
ders, Soaps, Shaving Creams, Tooth Pastes, &c., are very popular, 
and are noted not less for their durability of the odors than for the 
exquisiteness of the perfume. Their Pomades, it is claimed, will keep 
five years entirely unchanged. Mr. Hawley is a Chemist, and devotes 
great attention to the Chemical processes involved in the manufacture 
of Perfumery and Toilet Soaps. 

The value of these articles annually manufactured in this city, esti- 
mating for what is done by other than the regular houses, is about 
$850,000. 

XIV. 

Roofing. 

The importance of a good Roof cannot well be over-estimated ; and 
in a great city the selection of a material that is Fire Proof, as well as 
Water Proof, seems to be a duty which a builder owes to the public. 
Shingles, of course, from their combustible nature, if for no other 
reason, cannot be recommended. Of Metallic Roofs there are a great 
variety presenting claims to public attention and public confidence. 
Slate is used to some considerable extent, and Tin still more extensively, 
as a material for Roofing. Zinc has not been found well adapted to the 
climate ; but as a protective coating for Sheet Iron, it is, as we stated, 
extensively used. One manufactory in this city is occupied in coating 
Iron for Roofing with a preparation, of which the principal ingredient 
is said to be Indian Rubber. The manufacture of Corrugated Iron 
for Roofing we have already alluded to. Within a very few yeara 



412 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Composition Roofs have become very popular, and the manufacture of 
them constitutes an important business. These roofs combine rnauy 
advantages, and it is to be hoped that experience may ultimately justify 
the large expectations that have been formed of them. 

In 1852 a Composition Roofing, which had been in use for many 
years iu the West, was introduced to this city by Messrs. H. M. 
WARREN & Co., 228 Walnut street. It is known as Warren's Im- 
proved Fire and Water Proof Roofing. This article seems, in a 
remarkable degree, to have united the suffrages of builders and 
consumers of every class in its favor ; and if we may judge of its 
merits by the degree of popularity it has rapidly attained, it must com- 
bine many points of excellence. The buildings, whether private resi- 
dences, stores, warehouses, factories, depots, or public buildings, in- 
cluding a part of the United States Mint, which have been covered 
with it in this and neighboring cities, within a few years, are among 
the largest and best known ; and the names of many of the leading 
business men are appended to testimonials in its favor. It has been 
received with equal favor in other States, and in Canada. The mate- 
rials used in its construction are Felt, Composition, and Gravel. The 
two former are said to be made of such ingredients as possess elas- 
ticity and tenacity, and are combined with the latter so as to form a 
Roof not only durable, with no liability to crack or decay, but one 
which is impervious to both fire and water a combination never before 
obtained iu a Composition Roof. Its fire-proof qualities have been 
repeatedly subjected to severe tests, specially instituted for the purpose, 
and it seems to have passed the " ordeal by fire" with perfect impunity. 
The advantages upon which the manufacturers base its claims as an im- 
provement upon all others, are, that, in addition to being Fire and Water 
proof, it is also cheap and durable, and requires a less pitch, and conse- 
quently less area to be covered, and less masonry upon the walls, while 
furnishing more facilities for light and ventilation ; besides being more 
accessible on ordinary and extraordinary occasions than any other. 
They also claim that it will not expand and contract by heat like 
Metal Roofs, and will bear more than double as much heat without 
danger to the boarding beneath ; that it requires only an inclination 
of one inch to the foot, and may be walked upon or used for drying pur- 
poses without injury ; that it is a great advantage to firemen when adjoin- 
ing buildings are on fire ; that it is not injuriously affected by changes 
of temperature, or by the jarring of machinery ; that it is adapted to every 
climate, and is easily and quickly repaired ; that Gutters of the same 
material may be formed on the roof; and finally, the cost of it is only 
about one half that of tin, and less than that of any other Fire Proof 



STRAW AND MILLINERY GOODS. 413 

Roof now in use. If it possess these qualities, of which there seems 
to be no doubt, Messrs. Warren & Co. well deserve the success which 
has attended its introduction. 



XV. 

Straw and Millinery Goods. 

SIR : The manufacture of Straw Goods, in Philadelphia, was an important and 
an increasing one, prior to the late commercial revulsion. The product of the 
factories of WHITE, COSTER, WILCOCKS, ROGERS A FRALET, and other firms, had 
obtained a deserved celebrity in the South and West, and large orders were filled 
here from parties who had previously made their purchases further East. The 
business embraces not only Bonnets for ladies and Flats for girls, but Hats and 
Caps for men and boys ; and includes also the Stiffening, Pressing, and Shaping of 
Panama and other imported Hats. You inform me yon have already noticed the 
manufacture of STRAW HATS, which is the larger part of the business. 

The Straw Goods manufacture requires much room for Bleaching, and can be 
more advantageously carried on in a country village : consequently one of our 
well-known manufacturers removed to the village of Bridgeport, Montgomery 
County, where he erected the most commodious and complete factory; and when 
the business was prosperous employed about two hundred persons, mostly fe- 
males. The manufacturers in the city are also engaged in making Silk Bonnets, 
Bonnet Frames, Ac., and conduct a Jobbing or Retail business, or both. The 
Braid for Bonnets is chiefly imported, and known as English, Florence, Italian, 
Neapolitan, Ac. The Bonnets and Hats made here, especially those for children, 
exhibit excellent, in fact remarkable taste. Some establishments are devoted 
largely to Bleaching and Pressing Hats and Bonnets, and conforming them to the 
prevailing styles. The largest of these is, perhaps, that of JAMES TELFORD, who 
also makes Silk Bonnets and Bonnet Frames. The annual production of Straw 
Goods was over $600,000 being $350,000 for Hats, and $250,000 for Bonnets. 

MILLINERY GOODS. The manufacture of Ruchet alone employs two hundred 
hands, most of whom are females. JOEL THOMAS, who has been engaged for 
fifteen years in making Ruches, was the first to make it an exclusive business ; 
and for many years he chiefly supplied New York and Boston, as well as Phila- 
delphia. By introducing machinery, which is unequaled elsewhere, he has been 
enabled greatly to increase the production. So perfect is this machinery, that 
one man can goffer from six hundred to seven hundred dozen in a day; and the 
establishment can turn out one thousand dozen of finished Ruches per day, be- 
sides other Millinery goods. Favorable arrangements for the importation of the 
raw material enables him to compete successfully with rival makers in other 
cities. Footings and Edgings are also joined to a large extent, which are known 
to the trade as Joined Blonds. Ruches are also made by hand by a number of 
others ; and the total annual production exceeds $150,000. 

Or ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS, the manufacture has declined in importance within 
the last few years. The preference for French Flowers, in the importation of 
which a considerable business is done in Philadelphia, has retarded the native 



414 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

production and compelled a number of establishments to abandon the business. 
There are now not over seven houses in the city that can be called manufacturers 
of Artificial Flowers. There are others where something of the kind is done, 
but not to any extent. The largest establishment employs fifty girls, and another 
forty-five. The number of persons employed is about two hundred, and the an- 
nual product is about $85,000. 

Artificial Flowers, scarcely distinguishable from the natural flower, of variously 
tinted paper, for mantels and other ornamental purposes and festive occasions, 
and also Wax Flowers and Fruits, &c., are made by Mrs. A. M. HOLLINGSWORTU, 
who keeps a very great variety of Materials for Flowers of every kind paper 
muslin, silver and waxed leaves, stamens and pips for Flowers, cups for roses, 
tissue, carmine, blue, glazed, and mottled papers, cut Flowers, sheet wax for Wax 
Flowers, and materials for Fancy Leather Work and Potchiumania, Ac., &c. 

JJintnvt Wire, which is said to be superior to that imported, or made elsewhere 
in this country, is made by M. Bird ; also by Joseph Moore, and others. 

Bonnet Frames are made to an extent that causes us to wonder where the fair 
heads are which will wear them when covered and trimmed. One firm alone 
makes 16,000 dozen yearly; and the whole quantity made for sale out of the city 
is at least 100,000 dozen, requiring of course 1,200,000 female heads to fasten 
them to. Not only the West and South, but some parts of the East, are supplied 
with Frames made in Philadelphia. 

Silk Bonnets, and Bonnet Frames, are largely made by LINCOLN, WOOD & NICH- 
OLS, and I. S. CUSTER ; also by J. TELFORD, A. E. CARPENTER, and many others. 
The first-named firm not only supply the Western and Southern trade, but have 
very extensive orders from Boston and other parts of New England. This manu- 
facture is carried on in connection with the jobbing and retail trade, and by some 
in connection with the manufacture of Straw Goods. Besides the larger manufac- 
turers, our most celebrated Milliners make up Bonnets during the dull season*, 
which they supply both to the Philadelphia Jobbers and directly to Western and 
Southern merchants. The well-known taste and skill of Philadelphia Milliners 
have obtained for the Bonnets made here a high reputation. It is a fact, not 
generally known, that many families in the South and West have the Clothing 
and Boots for the gentlemen, and the Dresses, Bonnets, and Shoes for the ladies^ 
3ide in this city, which has a deserved reputation for superior articles. 
The annual production is as follows : 

Straw Goods, $600,000 deduct Straw Hats already enumerated, 

$350,000 Bonnets a-lone, ...... $250,000 

Ruches, and other Millinery Goods, ----- 150,000 

100,000 dozen Bonnet Frames, ..... 110,000 

Silk Bonnets, 100,000 

Artificial Flowers, 85,000 

Total, $695,000 

This is simply the product in the manufactories in this branch. The articles 
of Millinery made up in this city by individuals is, of course, very large. 



SURGICAL AND DENTAL INSTRUMENTS. 415 

XVI. 
Surgical and Dental Instruments And Appliances, etc. 

The manufacture of Surgical and Dental Instruments, Trusses, Splints, Ban- 
dage?, and the various Appliances which constitute the armamenta of the Sur- 
geon, demand on the part of the manufacturer who would rise to eminence, other 
elements of success than mere mechanical skill. The Surgeon has to deal with 
living tissues of great sensibility ; and whether he be called upon to remove dis- 
eased or injured parts, to restrain unhealthy or irregular development to aid the 
curative power of nature, or to compensate for lost members by artificial contri- 
vances the judgment, tact, inventive power, and manual dexterity of the In- 
strument maker, and even some knowledge of the anatomical relations and func- 
tions of the parts, are important aids to the Surgeon in carrying out his ideas. 
The perfection, finish, strength, and reliability of the workmanship, are of the 
highest importance both to Surgeon and patient, often involving the success of 
the one, and the comfort, if not the very life of the other. Hence he is com- 
pelled to be something more than a mere artisan, to keep pace with the ad- 
vance of surgical knowledge, ever aiming at the simplicity which characterizes 
the Surgery of the present day. At the same time, the delicacy of construction 
of many Instruments, upon which often depends the success of the operator, 
as in Ophthalmic Surgery for example, requires a nice mechanical hand, and the 
best of material. In view then of the qualifications required, it is no small com- 
pliment to say, as we can say with truth, that the best Cutlers are and always 
have been Philadelphia houses. 

Philadelphia has become noted for its manufacture of Surgical and Dental In- 
struments, partly by reason of the number of its eminent Colleges of Medicine, 
which have made it the chief seat of medical learning in this country, and partly 
by the superior skill of the Instrument maker ; most of 'the improvements in these 
Instruments, originating in this country, having been made in this city. Nearly 
the whole of the West and South is supplied by this city, on account of the cheap- 
ness and superiority of the manufactures ; and greater facilities for cheap and rapid 
communication with Southern ports, is alone needed to secure a still larger share 
of the Southern trade. It is everywhere the custom of Druggists to keep more 
or less of Surgical Instruments on hand, which they procure from the manufac- 
turer at a discount, and sell at his card prices. Some of the Philadelphia houses 
are thus engaged in supplying an extensive wholesale trade; while others confine 
themselves more to a retail business, or make to order. To the latter class also, 
more especially, it belongs in part to prepare for the many Professors, Hospital 
and practicing Surgeons of the city and vicinity, the various Splints, Bandages, 
Trusses and appliances for surgical injuries and deformities, with their required 
modifications for special cases. The manufacture of Trusses, Bandages, Spinal, 
and other apparatus, is conducted as a separate business by a number in 
this city. There are two who devote themselves exclusively to the manu- 
facture of Artificial Limbs. Mr. JOHN P. OnD has been long and favorably 
Known as a maker of these; while B. FRANK PALMEK'S Artificial Limbs have 
achieved a world-wide reputation. So successful is the imitation of the natura. 



416 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

motions of the joints, and so light and elegant the construction, that we have 
heard eminent Surgeons declare that they would prefer this excellent substitute 
to some natural legs they endeavor to save. About five hundred Limbs are 
fitted annually at the manufactory in this city, and at the two branch offices. 
This ingenious inventor informs us that he has originated a Steel-trap Leg, 
which a man may go on by day and catch rats with at night; and recommends, 
as a new branch of Productive Industry, the manufacture of Artificial Back- 
bones for the benefit of weak politicians and clergymen. 

The number of establishments engaged in the manufacture of Surgical and 
Dental Instruments is at present eight. Mr. HORATIO G. KERN is now, we believe, 
the most extensive maker of both these classes of instruments, not only in the 
city but in the United States. He has an Instrument for every tooth in the head, 
and can furnish Dental Cases at prices varying from $50 to $500. His house 
has been established for upward of twenty years. 

Mr. J. H. GEMRIG is also a celebrated maker of lustruments for Surgial and 
Dental Professors. The greater part of the Instruments used in the Jefferson 
College, the University of Pennsylvania, and the Pennsylvania Hospital, were 
made by him; and the esteem in which his workmanship is held by the Profes- 
sors in those institutions, and others of distinction, is evidenced by the frequent 
complimentary allusions to it by many of them in their lectures to their students. 
His Instruments for operations upon the eye, in particular, are preferred to any 
of European make, by one whose success in some branches of Ophthalmic 
practice, is equal to that of any living Surgeon. His Pocket Surgical Cases, 
are also specially characterized by neatness, compactness, and excellence of 
finish. All the new Instruments, as they are introduced from Europe, are re- 
produced by him for the use of our Surgeons, at much less cost than the im- 
ported. 

The other principal makers are GEORGE SNOWDEN, PUGH MADEIRA, M. KUE- 
MERLE, D. W. KOLBE, and Louis V. HELMOLD. Besides these, Mr. F. LEY- 
POLDT, 508 E. North street, makes the manufacture of Scarificators and Spring 
Lancets a specialty. Both of these Instruments he makes of a variety of patterns, 
sizes, and materials ; but his Patent Scarificator he believes combines several 
qualities which render it superior to all others. It is one third smaller, yet with 
the same number of ordinary-sized Lancets, which are also protected by a plate 
from the effects of verdigris. It is more readily kept clean, and is so simple and 
durable as to be taken apart and put together again with facility, and conse- 
quently is easily repaired. His prices are also very moderate. 

The amount of capital employed in the Surgical and Dental Instrument busi- 
ness is $200,000. The number of workmen engaged is two hundred, and the total 
annual production is set down at $350,000. 

A branch of this business, comparatively new but of growing importance, is 
the manufacture of Gold and Silver Instruments, most of which were until re- 
cently imported. There are now three persons, G. P. PILLING, J. S. WARNER, and 
JOSEPH A. FITZGERALD, who give their chief attention to this, and make such arti- 
cles of Silver as the Instrument makers in this and the other cities of the Union 
may require for their cases. One of these, George P. Pilling, employs seven 
hands principally on this work. 



TIN, ZINC, AND SHEET-IRON WARE. 417 

In addition to those already mentioned, there are seven or eight persons who 
more exclusively make Trusses, Surgical Bandages, Supporters, Splints, and other 
Instruments for surgical maladies, resulting from natural causes, disease or acci- 
dent, and requiring mechanical appliances for their relief or cure. 

Trustes, are articles especially in demand, and have undergone endless modifi- 
cation testing the ingenuity of many makers. Messrs. HORN A ELLIS are the 
largest wholesale manufacturers of these. Another branch of the business we 
refer to with pleasure, inasmuch as the articles, which were formerly wholly im- 
ported, are now made in this city of a quality even superior to the foreign. We 
allude to the Elastic Stockings, Belts. Knee-Caps, Anklets, Armlets, and Suspen- 
sory articles for the treatment of varicose enlargement of the veins, dropsical 
swellings, rheumatism, and the support of weak parts. These are made of Vul- 
canized Indian Rubber Thread, which first receives a covering of cotton or silk, 
and is then woven into a porous and elastic fabric, either with silk or cotton of the 
required size and shape; and when applied to the parts for the purpose named, 
or as a retaining apparatus over spirits, Ac., they exert, without lacing, a gentle 
and equable pressure, and form a neat and convenient application pervious to air 
and to the perspiration, and are very dnrable. 

Mr. B. C. EVERETT, of the Philadelphia Surgical Bandage Institute, 14 North 
Ninth street, has the sale of these for the manufacturer, and keeps a great va- 
riety always on hand, as well as of Trusses, Shoulder Braces, Deformity Instru- 
ments, and every thing in this line, in which he has had long experience. 

Dr. M. McCLENACHAN, 50 North Seventh, in addition to Trusses, and other arti- 
cles of this class, manufactures Improved Spinal Apparatus, and Abdominal Sup- 
porters, Ac. J. LEANDER BISHOP, M.D. 

XVII. 

Tin, Zinc, and Sheet-Iron Ware. 

The manufacture of articles from Tin, Zinc, and Sheet Iron, is suffi- 
ciently extensive in the aggregate to be called a leading branch, but 
the subject calls for no particular remark. The latest Business Direc- 
tory furnishes a list of about one hundred and fifty Tin-workers in 
Philadelphia ; but it is probable there are two hundred places in the 
city where Tin-ware is made. The oldest establishment in the business 
is that of ISAAC S. WILLIAMS, on Market street, founded by Samuel 
Williams and Thomas Passmore, in 1796. This house is exceed- 
ingly well provided with facilities for executing heavy orders expe- 
ditiously ; and has furnished with Culinary Utensils some of the first- 
class hotels in New York, and the largest steamboats on the Western 
waters. Mr. Williams is said to be the most extensive manufacturer 
in this city of Planished-ware, of a superior quality. This ware 
is made by repeated hammering of the ordinary tin-plate upon highly- 
polished steel anvils by hammers, also highly polished. This con- 
denses the fibre or grain of the tin, and renders it capable of a high 

34 



418 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

polish, and at the same time improves its quality. Planished-ware is 
also made by another process, more analogous to rolling or burnishing, 
which it is said, renders it nearly equal in appearance to the former, 
and somewhat cheaper. It is however scarcely so durable. 

Within a few years a great revolution has been effected in the manu- 
facture of Culinary and Miscellaneous Tin-ware, by the introduction 
of machinery. By the aid of Dies, Presses, Lathes, and other contri- 
vances, the separate parts, or the whole, according to the degree of 
complexity of an article, are at once struck up into the required shape, 
plain or with devices, as may be desired ; and the work of the tinman 
is reduced to the simple act of soldering or uniting the several parts. 

There are establishments in this city where the tin-worker may thus 
purchase, or order, in any desired quantity, in sets, the component 
parts of nearly every article in his line, ready shaped to his hand. 
While the use of machinery has thus taken away many of the former 
characteristics of the trade, it has increased its amount, and greatly ex- 
tended the uses to which Tin-ware is being adapted. Every day nearly 
introduces some new article into the market, or some novel form in which 
the article can be appropriated, through these new processes of manu- 
facture. Tin Toys, of great variety and neatness, are now largely 
manufactured here in this way. 

Tin is also employed as a material for Roofing, and when laid in 
Paint on both sides it is regarded by many as a superior article for the 
purpose. 

The consumption of Tin for Blacking-boxes is a considerable item. 
One manufacturer of Blacking consumes 1,170,000 sheets of Tin per 
year. The manufacture of Essence of Coffee, which is already a large 
and growing business here, calls for a large amount of small Cans for 
packing. Druggists, Grocers, Spice and Mustard Packers, also re- 
quire Tin Cans, Canisters, &c., to a considerable amount. " Self-seal- 
ing Cans and Jars" are made very extensively by the well-known firm 
of ARTHUR, BORNHAM & GILROY, who have introduced to the public a 
number of patented articles of great utility. The popularity of their 
" Old Dominion Coffee Pot," which is said to be superior to all others 
for making Coffee, adds to the importance of Tin-working as a pur- 
suit. But the various uses of Tin are too familiar to all to need enu- 
meration. (See APPENDIX.) 

Japanned Ware is made extensively at two Tinware establishments in 
the city ; and there are also a few persons who conduct this branch 
separately, some of whom are not excelled for the beauty and excel- 
lence of their work. 

Zinc is used principally for the lining of Refrigerators, Filters, Bath 



PLAYING CARDS VATS. 419 

Tubs, Cisterns, &c., and for Coating Iron by the Galvanic process to 
which we have referred. 

The working of Sheet Iron into Stoves, Stove Pipe, Coal Scuttles, 
&c., occupies many persons ; like Tin, this material is being con- 
stantly put to new uses, and many articles formerly made of Wrought 
Iron are now made of Sheet Iron. Hoes, and other Garden Tools, and 
Hinges of various kinds, are of this class. 

We have received statements from a number of persons in the busi- 
ness as to the aggregate product, and they rauge from one million to one 
million five hundred thousand dollars. We state it at $1,200,000. 

For the manufacture of Playing Cards, Messrs. SAMUEL HART & Co. 
have an extensive factory that consumes annually 200,000 Ibs. of print- 
ing paper, which, if extended in one continuous sheet, it is said would 
reach 1,060 miles ; 1,550 Ibs. of colors, 600 gallons of boiled linseed, 
and other oils ; 1,800 Ibs. glue ; 1,450 Ibs. soap ; and 200 bbls. of flour. 
Machinery is used, which performs the work of 300 persons ; con- 
sequently this firm is able to conduct their large business with but fifty 
hands, whose aggregate yearly wages are $10,500. They produce 
15,000 to 20,000 packs of finished Cards every week. 

Messrs. GEOEGE J. BURKHAKDT & Co. have an extensive factory at 
Broad and Buttonwood streets, for building Vats for Brewers, Distil- 
lers, Tanners, Sugar Refiners, &c. ; Tanks for Water Stations on Bail- 
roads ; and Reservoirs for supplying Bath-houses, &c., for Hotels and 
Public buildings ; in fact every description of similar vessels, whether 
the capacity required be 200 or 20,000 gallons. The manufactory is 
equipped with all the requisite machinery for turning out such work 
expeditiously, and steam is used in nearly every department. The mate- 
rial employed by Mr. Burkhardt is White Cedar, which he says " expe- 
rience has taught to be the most durable, and in comparison with any 
other material is as four to one ; or in other words, Cedar vessels will 
last from thirty to forty years, while Pine, Hemlock, Poplar, or Spruce 
will decay in fcom six to ten years." 

Manufacturers at a distance, who cannot otherwise conveniently 
procure White Cedar, can, by sending the size and number of vessels 
required, obtain from this firm the material dressed to shape, and ready 
for setting up. 

Besides the many factories already noticed, or alluded to in the va- 
rious branches of manufactures, there are many others which want of 
space compels us to pass by with scarcely an allusion the manufacto- 
ries of Hubs. Spokes and Felloes, Tatham & Brothers' great Lead Pipe 



420 



PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 



Factory, Spark's Shot Factory, the Starch Factories, Spain's Churn 
Factory, and the North American Paper Bag Company's Manufactory : 
Kochersperger's Steam Laundry, in which $5,000 were expended for 
Pipes alone to convey heat to the drying room ; Daguerreotype Case 
Manufactories ; the manufacturers of Mathematical and Optical In- 
struments, and numerous others, employed in making the various arti- 
cles enumerated in the INDEX. A volume would hardly contain all 
that might be written upon the Miscellaneous Manufactures of Phila- 
delphia. In by-ways and rooms concealed from the public gaze, there 
is at all times an army of industrious artisans busily engaged in trans- 
forming rude materials into objects of utility, or productions of taste 
and skill " Inventions for delight, and sight and sound" and aiming 
by superior dexterity in their handicraft operations to compensate for 
the lack of machinery and business facilities. 

We now proceed to recapitulate, with some detail, the results of 
our investigations, with respect to the value of the articles annually man- 
ufactured in Philadelphia. They are given as our own conclusions, after 
laborious and careful examination, based partly on information fur- 
nished by manufacturers as to their own business ; partly from a mean 
of estimates of those having some knowledge as to the business of in- 
dividual manufacturers in the several branches ; and partly upon calcu- 
lations founded upon a knowledge of the number of hands employed 
in an establishment, and the average production per hand. Errors 
doubtless there are, but the aggregate generally will be found approxi- 
mately accurate ; certainly far more correct than any Census that ever 
has been, or probably ever will be taken. 



Aggregate Value of Articles produced in Philadelphia, for the year 
ending June 30th, 1857. 



Agricultural Implements, Seeds, &c., 

(estimated) $500,000 

Alcohol, Burning Fluid, and Cam- 

phene 1,022,140 

Ale, Porter, and Brown Stout 1.020,000 

Artificial Flowers ...85,000 

Awnings, Bags, &c 91,750 

Assaying and Refining Precious Met- 
als, including actual expenses of 

U. S. Mint, $130,000 850,000 

Barrels, Casks, Shocks, and Vats 715,000 

Beer, Lager and Small 1,280,000 

Blacking, Ink, and Lampblack, (es- 
timated) 500,000 

Bolts, Nuts, Screws, &c 411,000 

Book and Periodical Publishing, ex- 
clusive of Paper, Printing, Bind- 
ing, &c 818,000 

Book Binding, Blank Books, and 

Marble Paper 1,230,000 

Boots and Shoes 4,141,000 

Boxes, Packing, (estimated) 500,000 

Brass Articles 830,000 



Bread, Bakers, (including Crackers,) 

Ship Bread, &c $5,600,000 

Bricks, Common and Pressed 8.12,000 

Britannia and Plated Wares 380,000 

Brooms, Corn and other 104,000 

Brushes 225,000 

Candles, Adamantine & Oleine Oils.. ..570,000 

Caps 400,000 

Cards, Playing 118,000 

Carpeting, Ingrain 2,592,000 

Carpeting,. Bag 604,000 

Carriages and Coaches 900,000 

Cars and Car Wheels 550,000 

Chemicals, Dye-Stuff's, Chrome Col- 
ors, and Extracts 3,335,000 

Clothing 9,640,000 

Coffins, Ready-made 219,000 

Combs 150,000 

Confectionery, &c 1,020,000 

Copper Work 400,000 

Cordials, Bay Water, &c 200,000 

Cotton and Woolen Goods, exclusive 
of Hosiery, Carpetings, &c 14,813,968 



RECAPITULATION. 



421 



Cordage, Twines, &c $810,000 ! Provisions Cured Meats, Packed 

Cutlery, Skates, &c 150,000 I Beef, &c $4,000,000 



Daguerreotypes, Cases, and Mate- 
rials, (estimated) 600,000 

Edge Tools, Hammers, &c 127,000 

Earthenware, Fire-Bricks, &c 617,000 

Engines, Locomotive, Stationary and 

Fire 3,428,000 

Engraving and Lithography 570,000 

Envelopes and Fancy Stationery 150,000 

Flooring and Planed Lumber 370,000 

Flour 3,200,000 

Fertilizers .503,000 

Fringes, Tassels, and Narrow Textile 

Fabrics 1,288,000 

Furniture, (estimated) 2,500,000 

Fnrs 350,000 

Gloves, Buckskin and Kid 150,000 

Glue, Curled Hair, &c 775,000 

Gold Leaf and Foil 325,000 

Glassware 1,600,000 

Hardware, and Iron Manufactures 

not otherwise enumerated 1,169,000 

Bats, Silk and Soft 800,000 

Hose, Belting, &c 175,000 

Hosiery 1,808,150 

Hollow-ware, exclus'e of Stoves, &e..l,250,000 

Iron, Bar, Sheet, and Forged 1,517,650 

Jewelry, and Manufactures of Gold..l,275,000 
Lamps, Chandeliers, and Gas Fix- 
tures 1,300,000 

Lasts and Boot Trees 36,000 

Lead Pipe, Sheet Lead, Shot, &c 235,000 

Leather, exclusive of Morocco 1,610,000 

Machinery 1,912,000 

Machine Tools 350,000 

Mahogany and Sawed Lumber. 580,000 

Maps and Charts _ 400,000 

Marble Work 860,000 

Mantillas and Corsets 330,000 

Matches, Friction 125,000 

Medicines, Patent and Prepared Re- 
medies 1,300,000 

Millinery Goods, Including Bonnet 
Frames, Wire, &c., but excluding 
Straw Goods k Artificial Flowers. ..360,000 

Mouldings, &c 300,000 

Morocco and Fancy Leather 1,156,250 

Musical Instruments 485,000 

Mineral Waters 350,000 

Newspapers, Daily and Weekly, (es- 
timated; 1,370,000 

Oil Cloths 289,000 

Oils, Linseed, Lard and Tallow, Bo- 
sin, and R. R. Greases 2,131,230 

Paints, Zinc, and Products of Paint 

Mills 770,000 

Paper 1,250,000 

Paper Hangings 800,000 

Paper Boxes 175,000 

Patterns, Stove and Machinery 115,000 

Perfumery and Fancy Soaps 850,000 

Picture and Lookiiig-Glass Frames, 

(estimated) 750,000 

Preserved Fruits, &c., (estimated) ,a50,000 

Printing, Book and Job 1,183,000 

Printing Inks 160,000 



Rifles and Pistols 120,00 

Saddles, Harness, Ac 1,500,000 

Safes 160,000 

Sails la^OOC 

Sash, Blinds, Doors, &c 250,000 

Saws 510,000 

Scales and Balances 145,000 

Shirts, Collars, Bosoms, and Gentle- 
men's Furnishing Goods 1,187,500 

Shovels, Spades, Hoes, &c 397,006 

Show Cases 55,000 

Sewing Silks 312.00C 

Silver-ware 450,000 

Soap and Candles, exclusive of Ada- 
mantine Candles 1,487,600 

Springs, Rail-road and Coach 238,000 

Spices, Condiments, Essence of Cof- 
fee, &c., &c 350,000 



Starch... 



155,000 



Steel, Spring and Cast 283,500 

Stoves and Grates 1,250,000 

Sand-stone, Granite, Slate, &c 300,000 

Straw Goods, including Hats 600,000 

Surgical and Dental Instruments, 

Trusses, and Artificial Limbs 350,000 

Sugar, Refined, and Molasses 6,500,000 

Teeth, Porcelain 500,000 

Tin, Zinc, and Sheet-Iron Ware 1,200,000 

Tobacco Manufactures, Cigars, Snuff, 

&c 3,256,500 

Trunks and Portmanteaus 313,000 

Turnings in Wood 550,000 

Type and Stereotype 650,000 

Umbrellas and Parasols, including 
Umbrella Furniture, Ivory & Bone 

Turning, Whalebone Cutting 1,750,000 

Upholstery, (estimated) 500,000 

Varnishes 230,000 

Vessels, Masts and Spars, Blocks and 

Pumps, &c 1,760,000 

Vinegar and Cider 300,000 

Wagons, Carte, and Drays 815,000 

Watch Cases 942,000 

Whips 175,000 

Whisky, Distilled 630,000 

" Rectified 2,524,500 

White Lead 960,000 

Willow-ware, Baskets, &c., (estm'd)..120,000 

Wire-work, (estimated,) 250,000 

Wooden and Cedar-ware 150,000 

Works in Wood not otherwise enu- 
merated 100,000 

Miscellaneous Articles, not other- 
wise enumerated. For particulars 
see IMDEX, (.estimated) 3,000,00.' 

Total Annual Product of Manu- 
facturing Industry in Phila- 
delphia 145,348,738 

Add for Leading Branches in the 
vicinity of Philadelphia, as 
before given 26,500,000 

Total for Philadelphia and vicin- 
ity 8171,848,738 



According to the Census of 1850, the average productive power of 
each person employed in Manufactures in Philadelphia, was about 
$1,100 per annum, a rate confirmed by our own investigations : and 
34* 



422 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

the capital invested was about one half the aggregate of production 
Assuming that these relative proportions were correct, though the 
aggregate amounts were manifestly erroneous, and assuming they are 
applicable now, the respective items would stand as follows : Capital 
invested in Manufactures in Philadelphia, $72,500,000; Hands em- 
ployed, 132,000 ; Product, $145,348,738. 

In view of this result a result as unexpected by the 
Author as it probably will be surprising to the reader 
a result perhaps understated but not overstated, and of 
which the constituents are given with sufficient particular- 
ity to enable any one of ordinary intelligence to test its ac- 
curacy by personal investigation, with the aid of a com- 
plete Business Directory : in view of this result then, we 
ask, do not the facts demonstrate the original proposition 
and assertion, that Philadelphia is already a great manu- 
facturing city most probably the greatest in the Union ? 
The value of the mechanical and manufacturing indus- 
try of the entire State of Massachusetts, in 1855, includ- 
ing Gas, an important item, but which we have not 
reckoned, was about two hundred and forty millions of 
dollars ; we therefore may confidently say, that no other 
single city not even Boston, including Lowell, and one 
half the State of Massachusetts, sums up so large a pro- 
duction of indispensable goods as are annually produced 
in the city of Philadelphia. We may say, moreover, that 
we are convinced, as the result of extended inquiry 
and many opportunities for comparative examination, that 
the goods made in Philadelphia are generally superior 
to the average quality of American fabrics. One reason 
for this superiority is, that the operations are mostly con- 
ducted in small factories, under the direct personal su- 
pervision of the owner, or in shops often illy provided 
with machinery for rapid production ; and consequently, 
the fabricator must give close attention to the selection of 
material and character of the workmanship, and master 
competition by the durability and intrinsic excellence of 



CONCLUSION. 428 

his fabrics. "We hold it to be eminently safe for any consu- 
mer or merchant to infer that Philadelphia-made goods, at 
the same price, are invariably the cheapest. Many other 
considerations are suggested by the facts which we have 
collected, and partially submitted, and to which we would 
gladly invite attention, did space and circumstances 
admit We would especially entreat the merchants of 
this city to co-operate with the manufacturers, as they 
have already commenced to do by the reorganization of 
the Board of Trade ; and by the aid of their patronage 
and influence, give hope, and sustenance, and vigor to the 
individual producers, who are doing so much to advance 
the industrial reputation and development of Philadel- 
phia, though with comparatively little profit to them- 
selves and who, if suitably encouraged, would render 
Philadelphia, industrially, the Paris of America. Sec- 
ondly, we would appeal to the common sense of Southern 
and Western merchants, whether the cheapest market is 
not necessarily that which possesses and combines exten- 
sive production of its own, widely-extended commercial re- 
lations with other manufacturing centres, and superior fa- 
cilities for cheap transportation. Also, we would be glad 
to assure the foreign artisan, trained to produce habitu- 
ally " Olympian-like miracles of Art," of a warm wel- 
come on the part of the intelligent citizens of this me- 
tropolis; and especially would we desire to invite the 
ingenious men of New England to turn their attention 
hitherward, where the raw materials are cheap and 
abundant, and where the opportunities for achieving 
grand results by the introduction of improved facilities, 
and superior, spirited, energetic, business tactics, are 
illimitable. Moreover, we would appeal to the Legisla- 
tors of Pennsylvania to regard the inhabitants of this 
metropolis no longer as drones, and ulcers upon the body 
politic; but as coworkers with the agriculturalists in 



424 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

subjugating material forces for useful purposes to 
look upon the city as an ornament to the State, and to 
remove all disabilities now in the way of any form of 
business organization which experience has demon- 
strated tends to encourage capital to co-operate with 
industry; and especially to consider the expediency of 
sanctioning and facilitating corporate investment in in- 
dustrial enterprises with limited individual liability. We 
would assure capitalists, that there are opportunities for 
the safe and profitable investment of many millions of 
dollars in productive industry; and that the erection of a 
few model mammoth manufactories, and a liberal expen- 
diture in order to invite the attention of the world to 
the manufacturing advantages of the city, would repay 
richly by accelerating the development of enterprise, and 
promoting trade and commerce. We would entreat 
manufacturers in all places throughout this country to 
banish jealousies, and co-operate with each other, remem- 
bering that the demand for manufactured commodities 
of an immense and daily increasing population, in the 
Western as well as the Atlantic States, and the opening 
markets in the Canadas, in the South American Repub- 
lics and elsewhere, cannot fail to be greater than the 
industry of all can supply. We would earnestly invoke 
the citizens of Pennsylvania, and of Philadelphia in par- 
ticular, to send Representatives to their State and Na- 
tional Legislatures who will truly represent their material 
interests and intellectual progress ; but all these consid- 
erations, invitations, supplications, and invocations, we 
must leave to the Press, the guardians of the city inter- 
ests, and others far abler than ourselves. We conclude by 
adopting the graphic language of the Secretary (now Presi- 
dent) of the Corn Association, whose prophetic vision saw 
what we hope we have demonstrated : " Our Stearn En- 
gines are plying their iron arms in every street In every 



CONCLUSION. 425 

by-way is heard the sound of the shuttle and the clink of 
the hammer, as the artisan contributes his mite to the vast 
sum of toil ; whilst many a stately edifice, with its hun- 
dreds of employees and clanging machinery, sends forth 
a stirring music to quicken the pulse of our city life. 
Why then shall we not spread beyond our borders the 
knowledge, that in this busy hive is being made almost 
every article that can contribute to the wants or luxury of 
man ? This is the great Mart of American Manufactures, 
unequaled on this Continent in the extent and variety of its 
products. As such, let it be proclaimed!" 



APPENDIX. 



REMARKABLE MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS IN 
PHILADELPHIA, 



I. 

Alfred Jenks & Son's Machine Works, Briclesburg-. 

THESE works, of which we have already given the incidents connected 
with their establishment and early history, as well as a cut of their ex- 
terior, are located at Bridesburg, a flourishing town now constituting 
a part of the city of Philadelphia. They are built in the form of a hol- 
low square, cover an area of 160,000 square feet, and consist of a Foun- 
dry 130 by 50 feet (for interior view see opposite page), in which about 
thirty men are constantly employed; a Blacksmith Shop, 120 by 50 feet, 
having eighteen forges and four trip-hammers, for making, in addition 
to other things, Bolts of which seven hundred are made and used in the 
machinery work daily ; a building, 190 by 32 feet, containing an apart- 
ment used as a Brass Foundry, and also for " cleaning" the castings after 
they have been subjected to the process of " pickling," and a well- 
adapted room for storing patterns when not in use. The Machine Shop 
is a building 225 by 38 feet, upon the first floor of which Cards are 
built, and Mill Gearing, Shafting, &c., constructed ; upon the second 
floor, Spinning and Drawing Frames, and Speeders are made ; and the 
third floor is devoted to making Looms. A capacious Elevator is em- 
ployed for raising and lowering castings and other objects between the 
different stories of the machine shop ; and a Railway connects this and 
the foundry. The Carpenter Shop is a building 168 by 30 feet, three 
stories high ; and each of the various rooms and departments is supplied 
with tools and machinery of the most perfect construction, peculiarly 
adapted to the purposes for which they are designed. In the Wood- 
working Room are two of Daniel's Planing Machines, one of Wood- 
worth's, and Moulding and Sawing Machines capable of facilitating and 
making more perfect the wood-work required for the Carding Engines, 
Looms, &c. All the wood used is kept for the space of two years before 
being shaped by the machinery, so as to properly season it ; and after 

(427) 



428 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

it has been thus seasoned and brought to the form desired, it is placed 
in a commodious Drying-house, which has been recently erected, entirely 
fire-proof, and always kept by the heat of steam at a temperature of 
seventy-five degrees, for the purpose of being still more thoroughly sea- 
soned. The Tools and Machinery for performing the work in the sev- 
eral shops are mostly made by their own workmen ; among which may 
be classed several Drills of new and improved construction, Boring Mills, 
and other self-acting machines, of the most beautiful design and per- 
fect workmanship. 

Since the decease of Mr. Alfred Jenks, and, in fact, for twelve years 
previous to his decease, the entire business has been conducted by Mr. 
BARTON H. JENKS, who was thoroughly educated and fitted by his father 
for the important and responsible trust he now fills, for which he has 
peculiar qualifications by his genius for invention, his skill in mechan- 
ism, and an administrative capacity evidenced in all departments of the 
establishment. The family has been distinguished in the fabrication 
of iron for nearly two centuries, Mr. Jenks being a lineal descendant 
of the Hon. Joseph Jenks, Governor of Rhode Island, who, a forgeman 
by profession, built, in the seventeenth century, a forge which was de- 
stroyed during King Philip's war. Since early boyhood, Mr. Barton 
II. Jenks has been engaged in experimenting, with a view to improve 
various portions of machinery employed in Woolen and Cotton manu- 
facture, on which the skill and genius of his father had been impressed ; 
and there is now scarcely a portion of machinery in the manifold variety 
of parts employed in the respective stages of Cotton and Woolen manu- 
facture, from the machines which first operate on the cotton and wool 
through the series which they have to successively pass in their progress 
to completion for the market, that has not been improved by the mem- 
bers of this firm, both in the superior finish and more substantial and 
convenient construction of the respective parts, and in the novel arrange- 
ment and combination of parts, or additions involving valuable inven- 
tions, which render the operations more perfect, and, in many cases, the 
production of heretofore unaccomplished, new, and beneficial results. The 
Drawing Frames and Ring Spinning Frames or Throstles of the Messrs. 
Jenks, for performing the respective operations in cotton manufacture 
which their names indicate, are peculiarly of the class spoken of; for, 
while the workmanship and mechanical skill are of the highest degree of 
excellence, they embrace important features of invention, which enable 
them to produce better work than those ordinarily used. The latter, 
particularly, which is known favorably among cotton manufacturers as 
Alfred Jenks' Ring Spindle or Ring Frame, has, in a great number of 
cases, taken the place of the live and dead spindles, on account of its 



JENKS' COTTON AND WOOLEN MACHINERY. 429 

superiority in the quality and quantity of yarn it produces. The spin- 
dle of this improved frame has no fly, and has a small steel ring, called 
a traveler, about a quarter of an inch in diameter, with a slit for the 
insertion of the thread, which is wound by the ring traveling around the 
bobbin, being held in its horizontal plane, during its circuit, by an iron 
ring loosely embraced by its lower end and fastened upon the traversing 
rail ; being sufficiently large to allow the head of the bobbin, as well as 
the traveler, to pass through without touching. This plan of spindle 
may be driven 8,000 revolutions per minute with perfect security when 
spinning coarse yarn ; and when producing the finer numbers, 10,000 
revolutions per minute is not an extraordinary speed for it to attain ; 
the yarn produced in either case being superior in strength and char- 
acter to the yarn produced by the other throstles at a greatly reduced 
speed. In the construction and arrangement of the several parts of the 
power-loom, whether in the simplest form for weaving plain goods, or 
the enlarged and complex state produced by this firm, for weaving the 
most beautiful and elaborate patterns of fancy cassimeres, the charac- 
teristics above mentioned are manifest in a remarkable degree ; and 
hence the vast number of the Messrs. Jenks' Looms in operation, and 
the continued demand for them over all parts of the country, where the 
benefits derived from such advantages as the improved shuttle-box move- 
ment for changing the picks of weft, shuttle-stopper, parallel pick-mo- 
tion, and a vast number of improved attachments embodied in the 
Looms of their make, are experienced and appreciated by manufactu- 
rers. In the Keystone Loom, made by this firm, by using a different 
shuttle from the ordinary one, silk goods may be woven with as much 
facility as cotton or wool ; and a Jacquard motion, if desired, may be 
easily attached. It is forty inches wide, and has four shuttle-drop boxes 
at one end of the lay, and an improved pattern-wheel for controling the 
boxes, which will run 1,200 picks before it ends, and can be extended 
to a greater capacity. Within the last few years, Mr. Jenks has brought 
out a number of very important machines, to two or three of which 
we invite particular attention. 

1. THE SELF-STRIPPING COTTON CARD. 

This is an important addition to the usual cotton-carding machines. 
It is applied just below the " licker-in," in contact with the main cylin- 
der, and driven by a stripper-head, at the end of the cards, at a variable 
sneod, so as to take both the dirt and the uncarded cotton off the cylin- 
der, and then to deliver the cotton back again to the cylinder, whilst the 
dirt falls into a box which is placed back of the " licker-in" and feed- 
rollers for the purpose ; consequently, it keeps both the cylinder and the 
35 



430 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

cotton perfectly clean, (which are certainly two very desirable results) 
and but seldom requires hand-stripping. An arrangement of rollers 
is placed at the doffer to deliver the cotton, instead of the old mode of 
a comb, thereby gaining a greater speed in the card, and not injuring 
the carding as the comb does. This Card will produce 150 pounds per 
day. 

2. THE IMPROVED COTTON GIN; 




This ingeniously improved and valuable machine for ginning cotton 
is what is called a "Cylinder Gin." The cylinder is constructed in a 
very peculiar manner, and operates in combination with a stationary 
straight-edge and a spirally-grooved roller called "the agitator." The 
straight edge is fixed in a position parallel with, and tangential to the 
cylinder, with its thinner edge almost in contact with the upper side of 
the same, and the agitator so as to rotate rapidly at a short distance 
above and parallel with the straight-edge. The periphery of the cylin- 
der consists of numerous steel-wire teeth imbedded in Babbitt metal, in 
positions inclined in the direction of the cylinder's motion, so that after 
the cylinder is " ground " or finished, each tooth presents a separate, 
sharp, and smooth point, tangential to the cylinder surface. When in 
operation, the cotton and seeds are together carried by the cylinder 
against the straight-edge, where they are rolled over and over by the agi- 
tator, until the teeth of the cylinder have stripped off the fibre, when 
the seeds immediately drop down, through a grating, into a receiving 



JENKS' COTTON AND WOOLEN MACHINERY. 431 

box. The fibre is at the same time being continually removed from the 
cylinder in the usual manner, by a rotating brush behind the straight- 
edge. The teeth of the cylinder are made of i\\Q finest steel needle wire, 
rolled into a double razor-edge section, and secured obliquely around 
the cylinder, with their sharper edges in directions transverse to the 
axis of the same; consequently, after the cylinder is "ground off" in 
finishing, it presents a serrulated surface, or a surface studded over 
with innumerable sharp and smooth tangential teeth, admirably adapted 
both for entering and leaving the fibres. 

It will gin any cotton, however trashy it may be, and take nothing 
through but the lint ; it neither cuts nor naps the fibres in the least, 
leaving them nearly as long as when separated by hand ; whilst it will 
clean as great a quantity in the same time as any other gin occupying 
the same extent of space, and run as easy. It will also last as long, if 
not longer, than the saw-gin, and cost no more for repairs. 

3. JENKS' COTTON SPREADER. 

This machine, a cut of which is given on the opposite page, is well 
worthy of attentive examination by those who are interested in its mer- 
its, for it undoubtedly possesses superior excellence. It is made entirely 
of metal, thus insuring greater steadiness and durability. The beater, 
shafts, blades, and feed-rollers, are made of cast-steel ; the shafts which 
drive the feed are braced together in such a manner that the teeth 
in the diagonal shaft cannot break ; and, by an ingenious application 
of the elastic principle of air, the machine is constructed to make the 
lap of uniform thickness, and of such compactness that any portion of 
it will sustain its own weight ; and, moreover, the whole machine works 
without producing any dust in the room. (SEE CUT.) 



To describe all the novel and important machines that have been 
constructed at these Works would require a volume ; and even a recital 
of the improvements made by this firm in Cotton and Woolen Machinery 
and patented in this and other countries, would transcend our limits. 
Such a recital would include machines for making spools, for rifling 
musket barrels, for cleansing, laying, and preparing wool, and for an 
infinite variety of purposes. No pains or expense is spared by Mr. 
Jenks to bring to perfection, and develope into practical use, whatever 
is likely to be useful and beneficial to his patrons ; and we have been 
repeatedly assured, by manufacturers of cotton and woolen goods, that 
no firm in the entire Union is more zealous in regarding the interests 
of their customers, more liberal in making experiments, or more entitled 
to general confidence and patronage. 



432 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

Messrs. Alfred Jenks & Son employ in their works, at Bridesburg, 
when in full operation, about four hundred men, many of whom have 
been with them over thirty years a fact which speaks volumes for both 
employer and employee. They have prepared a Catalogue of their ma- 
chinery ; and also separate drawings, of a size convenient for enclosing 
in letters, which they forward to persons desirous of dealing with them. 
Each machine is numbered, and accompanied by a full description a 
convenience of much advantage to manufacturers, and duly appreciated 
by them. 

II. 
The Port Richmond Iron Works. I. P. Morris & Co., Proprietors. 

In the article on " Iron and its Manufactures," we demonstrated the 
ability of Philadelphia to do the heaviest Engineering work, by refer- 
ence to some of the extraordinary machines which, from time to time, 
have been constructed at the various leading establishments in the city ; 
among others, at the Port Richmond Iron Works. These Works, which 
rank among the largest and best equipped of the kind in the entire 
Union, were founded in 1828, by Levi Morris & Co., at the corner of 
Market and Schuylkill Seventh streets. The first engine constructed was 
a Vertical Lever-beam Engine, 10 inch cylinder, 2 feet stroke, built for 
John Barclay, Vine-street Wharf, Delaware, for a flour mill, and is 
still in existence at Wainwright's saw-mill, Kensington. At that 
time, there was not in the Works a single slide-lathe or power drill- 
press, and planing-machines were not known ; the only representative 
of this tool, it is believed, was to be found at the Allaire Works in 
New York, built for fluting rollers. The original of the present plan- 
ing-machine was imported from England, and purchased by the West 
Point Foundry Association, for their Works in West street, New York. 
Patterns for a similar machine were made after this model, and several 
sets of eastings made. One of these, purchased for the Richmond 
Works, was fitted up here, and started about 1836. In the Foundry 
department the operations were also conducted with very imperfect and 
inefficient machinery compared with that now in use. Anthracite coal, 
which was introduced here about 1820, was by no means exclusively 
used for melting Iron. The Blowing Machinery was of a very primi- 
tive character ; with unwieldy wooden bellows and open tuyeres. The 
best product was not more than 2,000 to 3,000 pounds of Iron in an 
hour, and in the course of the heat an average much below this. With 
the present improved Blowing Machinery, and improved furnaces, eight 
tons have been melted in forty-six minutes, with a consumption of coal 
of one pound to eight pounds of Iron melted. 



I. P. MORRIS A CO.'S WORKS. 433 

The present location of these works, to which they were removed in 
1846, is on the Delaware River, adjoining the Reading Rail-road Coal 
Wharves on the south. The buildings, which are of brick, occupy a lot 
having a front on the Delaware River of 145 feet, a front on Richmond 
street or Point Road, of 260 feet, and an entire depth or length, from the 
Richmond side to the end of wharf, of 1,050 feet. The remarkable fea- 
ture in this establishment is the extraordinary size of the tools in use, 
and the perfection of the machines employed in the various shops. In 
the Foundry there are three Cupola Furnaces, the largest of which will 
melt twelve tons of Iron per hour ; and a large-size Air Furnace of the 
best description. In the Machine Shop there is a Planing Machine ca- 
pable of planing castings 8 feet wide, 6 feet high, and 32 feet long ; a 
Lathe that will swing 6 feet clear, and turn a length of 34 feet ; and a 
Boring Mill, possessing also the qualities of a horizontal lathe, which 
will bore out a cylinder 16 feet in diameter and 18 feet long. This ia 
believed to be the largest in America or Europe. In their Boiler Shop 
they have one large Riveting Machine, and facilities for making boilers 
or plate-iron work, of every description that may be desired. But a fevr 
years ago, Steam Boilers, made of plate-iron, were riveted exclusively 
with hand-hammers ; and when the City Water-works were located at 
Centre Square, the steam boilers were built of wood with cast-iron fur- 
naces. At the present time, in this, as in the best shops, circular 
boilers are riveted in a machine, by pressure produced by a cam ope- 
rating upon a sliding mandril. In their Smithery, they have a Nasmyth 
Steam Hammer, for heavy forgings ; a Tilt Hammer, for light work ; 
and throughout the establishment, the minor tools, consisting of 
Lathes, Boring Mills, Slotting and Shaping Machines, Planing Machines, 
Horizontal and Vertical Drills, &c., &c., are all of the best description, 
and combine the latest improvements. 

Besides the superiority of its machinery, this establishment has been 
peculiarly fortunate in its mechanical engineers. This position is now 
filled by one of the partners, Mr. Lewis Taws, who has been connected 
with the establishment since 1834, and whose apprenticeship was passed 
with Rush & Muhlenburg, the two sons-in-law and successors of Oliver 
Evans, in his establishment, then located at the corner of Vine and 
Ninth streets. After his apprenticeship, he obtained employment at 
the West Point Foundry Association, in New York, where he added to 
his stock of information from the practice at those works, which at that 
time were under the able management of Adam Hall, a Scotch engineer 
of much eminence. By the proprietors he was sent to the West Indies, 
to erect sugar-mills, and remained during the grinding season ; thus 
obtaining a practical knowledge of this branch of the business. Subse- 

35* 



434 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

quently, lie was selected by the same Association to erect, in North 
Carolina, the celebrated Gang Saw-mills, consisting of twelve to twenty- 
tour saws, driven by direct connection with a steam-engine, running at 
a speed of 120 to 140 strokes per minute. Since that time, the firm 
with which he is now connected have built a great number of similar 
machines, with such improvements as have been suggested by many 
years experience. Flooring boards of yellow pine may almost be 
deemed an indigenous production of North Carolina ; and these mills, 
which are but little known except at the South, where such timber 
grows, are peculiarly adapted for their production. A log of yellow 
pine by this arrangement can be converted into flooring boards by once 
passing through the mill. With the practical experience obtained by 
first constructing and then working the machines, Mr. Taws was emi- 
nently fitted to enter upon the more enlarged field that opened to him 
in taking the management, as chief mechanical director, of an estab- 
lishment for the construction of machinery of every description, and 
for every known purpose ; and with what success he has filled the posi- 
tion, the large amount of steam-engines and machinery of every descrip- 
tion, constructed under his supervision, and scattered broadcast through- 
out this country, Cuba, and Porto Rico, and rating wherever placed as 
second to none, is direct, ample, and satisfactory evidence. 

The firm of I. P. Morris & Co. is now composed of Isaac P. Morris, 
John J. Thompson, and Lewis Taws. Their list of manufactures em- 
braces Land and Marine Steam Engines, of all sizes and descriptions ; 
Blowing Machinery, Hoisting and Pumping Engines, Rolling Mill Work, 
Sugar Mills and Sugar Apparatus ; in fact, all kinds of heavy machi- 
nery except Locomotives. For an enumeration of some of the machines 
constructed by them, see pages 289 and 326. 

III. 

The Soutnwark Foundry. Merrick & Sons, Proprietors. 

The Southwark Foundry, of which Merrick & Sons are proprietors, is 
another of the remarkable Iron establishments of Philadelphia, located 
in the Second Ward, and occupies the entire square bounded by Wash- 
ington and Federal streets, and Fourth and Fifth streets. 

It was started in 1836, as a Foundry (for castings) only, but was soon 
enlarged ; and now, by various accessions and improvements, in build- 
ings and tools, has become 'a first-class establishment for the manufac- 
ture of all kinds of heavy machinery. 



THE SOUTHWARK FOUNDRY. 435 

Its buildings and yards occupy the following space : 

Iron Foundry, 115 by 107 feet, j are& rf grQund &QQT} ^^ ^ ft 
"5 5o J 



Brass " 45 " 25 " 


1,125 


Smith Shop, 165 " 40 " " ' ll '*J; " 


6,600 


Machine " 162 "40 "2 stories, l ,< 


6,480 


Pattern " " " " " 1 story, j 




Boiler 150" 64 ' | area of ground floor> 
Gasom'r " 50 " 64 " J 


12,800 


Erecting " 90 25 " 1 
60 " 55 " J 


5,550 


Carpen'r " 45 " 35 " 1 
" " 40 " 32 " ) 


2,855 


Sheds, for Storage, &c., Ac., 


10,700 


Total area occupied by buildings, - 


63,650 


" " of yard room, 


80,550 



Entire space occupied by the establishment, - 144,200 " 

In addition, it has a tract of land on the Delaware River, about 400 
feet front and 1,100 feet deep, affording ample space for extensive iron 
boat yards ; and on this tract there is a fine pier, 60 feet wide and 250 feet 
long, with a very powerful shears at the end, capable of lifting fifty tons. 

A brief description of some of the objects of interest in this estab- 
lishment will show that the arrangements, tools, and appliances in use, 
are on a scale proportionate to the capaciousness of the buildings. 

The foundry has two Cranes, capable of lifting fifty tons each, and 
three others of thirty tons lifting power, by which any object may be 
transferred from one extremity to the other, or to any point on the floor. 
Two 50-inch Cupolas are used for melting the Iron, and are supplied 
by a pair of Blast Cylinders, 40 inches in diameter, and 3-feet stroke. 
Twenty-five tons of metal can be melted in three hours. The Ovens for 
drying the Cores are of immense size and capacity. 

In the Smith Shop the blast is obtained by an Alden Fan. There are 
two Nasmyth Steam Hammers, one of 10 cwt., and one of 5 cwt. weight 
of ram. There are also in this shop, Bolt and Rivet Machines, for the 
manufacture of these articles, large numbers of which are annually used. 
The Brass Foundry has a Cupola and four Crucible Furnaces. 

The lower Machine Shop has a Boring Mill which will bore a cylinder 
11 feet in diameter, and 14 feet high ; a Planing Machine, believed to 
be the largest in the world, capable of planing 8 feet wide, 15 feet 
deep, and 30 feet long besides other Lathes and Planers, of various 



486 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

dimensions and power ; two Blotters, Drill Presses, &c., &c. The upper 
Machine Shop is well stocked with smaller Lathes, Planers, Shaping 
and Drilling Machines, Vices, &c. The Boiler Shop is provided with 
a Riveting Machine capable of riveting a boiler 40 feet long, and of any 
diameter ; with a Treble Punching Machine of immense strength ; with 
heavy and light Shears and Punches ; an Air Furnace, for heating large 
plates; Rolls, for bending; Cranes, &c. The largest Erecting Shed, 
used for putting up sugar apparatus, has a traveling crane extending 
its whole length. The business of making Sugar Apparatus forms a 
large item in the productions of this establishment ; and for a list of 
some of the extraordinary machines that have been constructed here, 
see page 327. Ordinarily, from 350 to 500 hands receive constant em- 
ployment at these works. 

IV. 

Sharps' Rifle Factory. 

About six years ago, the attention of sporting and military men was 
invited to a new Breech-loading and Self-priming Rifle, which had been 
patented by a Mr. C. SHARPS ; and, after the most careful examination 
of its construction, in comparison with others, it was found to stand the 
tests of a first-class weapon ; being safe and certain in firing, easily and 
rapidly loaded, simple in its construction, and constantly kept clean by 
its own operation. For sporting purposes, this Rifle soon became a 
favorite weapon ; in Kansas its report was heard ; the Ordnance Depart- 
ment at Washington expressed their admiration of the improvement ; 
and subsequently the British Government ordered six thousand of these 
Rifles, for the use of their army in India. More recently, Mr. Sharps 
applied the principle which distinguishes his Rifles to the construction 
of a new Pistol or Carbine, especially designed for the use of Mounted 
Dragoons. The advantages claimed by the patentee for the new Pistol 
are numerous ; among others, that it is more compact, lighter, has a 
more extensive range, and fires with greater accuracy than any Pistol 
now in use. It is single-barreled, but owing to the ease with which it 
can be loaded, it is capable of being fired twice as often as any revolver 
in a given period of time. The Pistol weighs about two and a half 
pounds; the barrels are six and eight inches long, and throw a half 
ounce ball effectively one-fourth of a mile. It primes itself for twenty 
rounds. There are about 1,500 Pistols now being constructed in the 
factory. It was recently tested, in competition with various other 
fire-arms, at West Point, by a board of officers appointed by the United 
States Ordnance Bureau, and struck a target six feet square, at a dis- 
tance of six hundred yards, twenty out of thirty shots. The same Pis- 



ARCHER, WARNER, MISKEY A CO. 487 

tol was fired seventy times in seven minutes, priming it three times, 
every ball striking a target three feet square, at a distance of forty-five 
feet, with a force sufficient to penetrate eight inches of pine board. 
Certificates from officers in the army testify to the high estimation in 
which it is held by the troops that have tried it. 

During the last year, Mr. Sharps, in association with Nathan H. 
Bolles and Ira B. Eddy, under the firm-style of C. SHARPS & Co., erected 
(for the manufacture of his tire-arms) a very extensive establishment 
at the West end of the Wire Bridge, near Fairmount. The building 
is of brick, 140 feet long by 40 feet broad, and is surmounted by a cu- 
pola, from which an admirable view of the city and surrounding coun- 
try can be obtained. The machinery is of the most beautiful and accu- 
rate description ; the entire cost for the buildings and machinery being 
about $130,000. The basement is used for the forging of the iron ma- 
terial of the Rifles. In the rear of the first story is placed a high-pres- 
sure stationary engine of seventy-five horse power, which forms the 
motive power of the establishment. The second story is used for the 
boring of rifle barrels, which are drilled from solid cylinders of cast-steel. 
The third story is the tool manufactory, where the cutting, milling, and 
finishing apparatus is constructed. The fourth story is the finishing 
shop, where the rude materials are adjusted, and from which the article 
issues complete. The firm are engaged at present principally in 
the construction of Breech-loading and Self-priming Pistols, though 
a large number of Rifles are rapidly approaching completion. 

All the materials used in the manufacture of these arms are made in 
the building ; even down to the screws which fasten the completed ar- 
ticle together. The firm possess the facilities for turning out 1,000 
Rifles per month. This is a most interesting and valuable addition to 
the manufacturing establishments of Philadelphia. 

V. 

Archer, Warner, Miskey & Co.'s Manufactory of Gas Fixtures. 

It will be remembered by the attentive reader that the author of the 
Report on the Industry of the United States, whose remarks respecting 
the manufacture of Lamps, Chandeliers, and Gas Fixtures in Philadel- 
phia we quoted at length, stated that the establishment mentioned in 
the caption of this article, was in all respects, except in extent, similar 
to that of Cornelius & Baker, which has been described. It is not 
necessary, therefore, to repeat the illustrations given in that quotation 
tending to show the superiority of Philadelphia manufactures in thii 



438 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

branch. Our remarks shall be limited to a brief notice of the founding 
of the establishment, and of the mode of manufacturing Gas Fixtures, 
as conducted in it. 

In 1842, Mr. Ellis S. Archer, the present senior partner in the firm 
of Archer, Warner, Miskey & Co., invented and patented a Lard Lamp ; 
but could not induce any one to manufacture and introduce to the 
public an article, for which it was supposed there would be no demand. 
Undaunted by these repulses, he obtained a cellar, in one corner of 
which be employed a few men in making his Lamp. The value of 
the new invention was recognized, and the public adopted it, and 
those manufacturers who could see no merit in the adaptation of Lard 
as an illuminating material, turned their attention to it. The estab- 
lishment was speedily enlarged : other branches of the business were 
added, and in 1848 Mr. Archer became associated in partnership with 
Mr. Redwood F. Warner. Determining to place their house on a 
level at least with the best in the United States, they saw that this 
could be effected by merit alone ; hence, their first effort was to present 
in their department of Art, novelty of design combined with superiority 
of finish and excellence of materials. Sensibly foreseeing that tho 
growing taste in this country required to be fed, they obtained designers 
and modelers of the highest talents, to whom they paid liberal salaries, 
and encouraged them in every way to produce graceful and effective 
designs, for Lamps, Chandeliers, and Gas-fittings. No amount of money 
was considered by them extravagant, if it secured a valuable result. 
The consequence of this judiciously liberal expenditure soon became 
manifest. From an ordinary firm, with a limited capital, doing a 
moderate business, they sprang to a strong position among the first 
houses, in their trade, in the United States. Their work is admitted 
by all to be equal to that of any competitor, and their manufactory, 
situated in Race above Fourth street, takes rank among the important 
ones of this city. 

A systematic description, if we were to attempt one, of the mode of 
producing those various artistic articles for which this house is cele- 
brated, would lead us first to the Modeling Department. In this 
room every idea of form and construction originates. Artists of 
approved merit are employed in modeling designs in wax. The form 
is at first rudely shaped by the hands, and then elaborated by instru- 
ments of hard wood. In the modeling room, perfect accuracy is re- 
quired in the imitation of all natural forms ; and for this purpose an 
animal menagerie is frequently assembled. A live deer, from Logan 
Square ; an eagle, several pigeons, snakes, children, <fcc., were all in 



ARCHER, WARNER, MISKEY A CO. 439 

use as studies in modeling the Stair Bailing for the private stair-cases 
of the Senate Chamber and House of Representatives at Washington.* 

The model having been formed, is sent to the caster, who makes a 
mould of it in brass. And here may be seen the most curious method 
of casting yet discovered. It is, we believe, peculiar to this establish- 
ment, and the results are as beautiful as the method is singular and 
difficult. The whole operation of casting the wax model in brass is 
delicate, and requires a firm hand, and an artistic comprehension. 

The model in brass is now taken to the chaser, and upon his skill 
much depends. The general forms are to be elaborated by his chisels; the 
indications of character, of fur, or fibres, or feathers, are to be expressed 
and defined by him. As the beauty of a portrait depends upon those 
delicate distinctions, analyzed only by the artist, though recognized by 
all, so the beauty of these ornamental castings depends upon their 
delicacy and correctness of detail. In chasing metal, more tools are 
used than in steel engraving ; the tools are driven by sharp blows, with 
a light hammer. One of the workmen in this department, showing a 
hammer, informed us he had used it thirty-two years ; upon a fair cal- 
culation of the daily work it performs, the number of strokes made in 
a day, and the length of each stroke, we believe this hammer to have 
traveled 36,000 miles in thirty-two years, or one-half more than the 
circumference of the earth. After this operation of chasing is com- 

* A correspondent of the New York Timet remarked not long since : " I mean 
the manufacture of Bronzes, which I find has assumed, in Philadelphia, more im- 
posing proportions, and a higher artistic character, than it possesses anywhere 
else in the country. Everybody who has been compelled, for his sins, to furnish 
a house, knows, of course, that the chandeliers, argands, and general gas-fittings 
of CORNELIUS A BAKER and ARCHER & WARNER are the only American articles 
of the kind which can sustain a comparison with the goods imported from Paris. 
But in the latter of these establishments I have just seen the moulds, and the 
models, and some of the completed portions of a magnificent bronze balustrading 
designed for one of the grand stairways of the new_Capitol Building at Washing- 
ton, which is not merely a wonderful piece of work in itself, but is, altogether, 
more elaborately elegant than any thing of the kind which is to be seen in 
Europe. This balustrading, which is cast, not in basso relievo, but in full relief 
of arabesques and figures, is about three feet in height, and is to be carried to the 
length of 160 feet up the noble flight of steps leading from the new Hall of the 
Representatives to the corridor of the Committee Rooms. The designs, furnished 
by BRCMIDI, of Washington, are singularly bold and graceful. They represent 
alternate groups of infants, eagles and serpents, pursuing and pursued through 
wreaths of foliage and flowers, and they consequently comprise almost all those 
curvilinear forms and intricate traceries which lay the heaviest tax upon the skill 
of the draughtsman and the founder." 



440 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

pleted, the model becomes a standard, from which the caster may 
multiply copies to the extent of the demand. Yet new patterns are 
continually being made ; and unsatisfied with past successes, the artist 
is continually aiming to produce something more beautiful in the 
future. So far the operations of modeling, casting, and chasing, form- 
ing the preparation of the pattern, have been conducted without ma- 
chinery. But when the manufacture commences, machinery is found 
indispensable, and we were struck with the number of labor-saving 
machines used by this firm, enabling them to construct the difficult 
parts with that degree of accuracy so essential, when numerous pieces 
are to be placed together to form a finished whole. Indeed, the work 
eo finished far excels that made by the more expensive old-fashioned 
operations by hand. 

In this description merely the general outline is described of this 
manufacture ; even the various processes are not named ; the methods 
of making Gas Burners, Keys, Vases, the methods of Enameling, Stamp- 
ing, Screw Cutting, Japanning, &c., are very curious, and employ a large 
number of men. 

In the manufactory of Messrs. Archer, Warner, Miskey & Co., every 
department is entrusted to the best workmen of their class ; wherever 
we looked, we saw order, neatness, and industry. In every one of the 
numerous rooms, six fire buckets, constantly filled with water, are kept; 
and the penalty of using the water for any improper purposes of wash- 
ing, &c., is instant dismissal from the establishment. By means of 
these precautions and regulations, the establishment has more than 
once been saved from destruction. Upon principles like these the 
business is conducted ; and the result is, an establishment unsurpassed 
in the world. Every branch of the business is carried on by this firm, 
from connecting a service pipe with the main in the street to con- 
structing, and suspending in its place, the most costly and magnificent 
Chandelier. 

VI. 

Remarkable Paper Mills. 

THE WISSAHICKON PAPER MILLS. CHARLES MAGARGE, 
PROPRIETOR. 

Twenty-eight years ago a small store for the sale of paper was opened 
in Minor street by two brothers, Charles & W. H. Magarge. At that 
time Fourdrinier machines had not been made in the United States, 
steam had not been used as an agent for making paper, and the mills 
were scattered along the water courses remote from the great centres 



CHARLES MAGARGE'S PAPER-MILL. 441 

of distribution. The house established as above-noted, formed connec- 
tions with the manufacturers on one side and the consumers of paper 
on the other, and, by a course of dealing meriting the confidence of both 
parties, their store became a depot to which both resorted to effect their 
exchanges. At the present time the house of CHARLES MAGARGE & Co. 
is one of the most extensive and best known Paper Commission houses 
in the United States ; and their immense warehouse on Sixth and Car- 
penter streets is constantly filled with paper of every variety, kind, 
quality and size. 

In 1845, the senior partner of this firm, Mr. Charles Magarge, in 
order to supply a want in the business of the house, viz. : the ability to 
fill orders for paper of unusual sizes at short notice, purchased a plain, 
substantial stone building, 175 by 50 feet, situated on the Wissahickon 
Creek, just below the Indian Rocks, and converted it into a Paper Mill. 
This mill in his hands has become the famous Wissahickon Paper Mill. 
A gentleman, who recently visited it, describes the modern process of 
paper making, by detailing the operations which are carried on at this 
mill: 

The visitor goes up to the second story into a room some 60 by 80 feet, in which 
ten girls are engaged assorting the rags. Here are numerous bales of white rags, 
foreign and domestic. The imported are linen; the other, cotton. In the same 
room these rags are cut by a machine, driven by power, which fits them for 
the subsequent processes. They are next sent into a rotary boiler, of two tons 
capacity, into which steam is admitted, and the rags boiled. Next they are cast 
down on a floor in the first story, where they are put into cars, on which they 
are conveyed to the washing engines. Two engines are employed in washing, 
called Rag Engines. These engines play in tubs of an oval form, of large ca- 
pacity, each containing 200 Ibs. of rag?. The impelling power, partly steam, 
partly water, causes the revolution of a roller, set with knives or bars of cast steel 
inserted into it longitudinally. This roller is suspended on what is called 
a lighter, by which it may be raised or lowered at pleasure upon a plate, con- 
sisting of bars of steel, set up edgewise. Passing now between this roller and 
plate, the rags are reduced to fibre. A stream of pure water is then conveyed 
into the Rag Engine, and, by means of a cylinder covered with gauze wire, the 
dirty water is passed off. This cylinder, called a Patent Washer, is octagonal in 
shape, some thirty inches in length, revolving in the engine, and having buckets 
within it corresponding with the sides of the washer. By this process, the rags 
are washed perfectly clean in from three to six hours. The next is the bleaching 
process, performed by the insertion into this engine of a strong solution of 
me chlorid of lime and some acid, to cause a reaction. The pulp is then 
emptied into large cisterns, covered with the bleach liquor it contains, where it 
is allowed to remain from twelve to twenty-four hours to bleach. It is then 
drained, put into the Beating Engine, and reduced to a pulp, the consistency of 
milk, which it much re'smbles. This pulp is emptied into a large cistern, in a 

36 



442 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

vault beneath, and kept in motion by means of an agitator revolving in it. It ii 
then raised, by a Lifting Pump, into a small cistern, from which it is drawn off by 
a cock, which is opened, more or less, according to the thickness of the paper in- 
tended to be made, on to a strainer, which removes the knots, sand, or hard sub- 
stances that may damage the paper, and then flows upon a leathern apron, which 
conducts it to an endless wire-cloth, over which the web of paper is formed. This 
wire-cloth is kept constantly vibrating, which both facilitates the escape of water 
and the felting together of the fibres of the pulp. The wire-cloth, with the pulp 
upon it the edges being protected by decklo straps passes on until it comes to 
n couple of wet-prett cylinders, as they are called, the lower of which is of metal, 
but covered with a jacket of felting or flannel ; the upper one is of wood, made 
hollow, and covered first with mahogany and then with flannel. These cylinders 
give the gauze with the pulp upon it a slight pressure, which is repeated upon a 
second pair of wet press-rolls similar to the first. The paper pulp is then led on 
upon an endless felt or blanket, which travels at exactly the same rate as the wire 
cloth, while the latter passes under the cylinders and proceeds to take up a new 
supply of pulp. The endless felt conveys the paper, still in a very wet state, 
between cast-iron cylinders, where it undergoes a severe pressure, which rids it 
of much of the remaining water, aud then between a second pair of press-rollers, 
which remove the mark of the felt from the under surface; and, finally, it is 
passed over the surface of cylinders heated by steam, and when it has passed over 
about thirty lineal feet of heated surface, it is wound upon a reel ready for cut- 
ting. All this is done in the short space of two minutes. 

To manufacture paper uniformly of superior quality, four things may 
be said to be essential clear pure water, superior machinery, good 
stock, and the requisite skill. All these are combined in the Wissa- 
hickon Paper Mill ; hence the reputation of its products. As a sample 
of the quality of the medium-priced paper from this mill, we refer to 
the sheets constituting this volume on " Philadelphia and its Manu- 
factures." 

At the present time Mr. Magarge is about completing another mill 
contiguous to the one so well known, the construction of which is 
creditable alike to the enterprise of the owner and the skill of the 
architect and builder. Its productive capacity will be over three tons 
of paper per day. 

2. THE RIVER, SIDE PAPER MILL. EDWIN R. COPE, PROPRIETOR. 

This is a new mill, situated on the Norristown branch of the 
Philadelphia, Germantown and Norristown Kailroad, on the banks 
of the Schuylkill, about two miles above Manayunk, and adjacent 
to the well-known Soap Stone Quarry. The mill is a substantial 
stone edifice, three stories in height, and consists of a main building, 
50 by 80 feet ; a machine house, 50 by 100 feet; an engine house, 20 by 
40 feet ; two boiler houses, one 24 by 42 feet; another, 27 by 32 fent 



COPE'S PAPER-MILL. 443 

The paper machinery was supplied from the well-known establishment 
of Nelson Gavit, and is supposed to be one of his master pieces. It is 
impelled by a vertical beam condensing and non-condensing steam 
engine, 150 horse power, with George W. Corlis's cut-off and regulator, 
attached. This engine was manufactured by the Camden Iron Manu- 
facturing Company, and is regarded as a very superior machine. The 
boilers attached to this engine are classed as dropped flue boilers of 
improved construction, planned by Mr. Dialogue, Superintendant of the 
Camden Company. Water is supplied to the mill from a reservoir, 
containing ten days, or two weeks' supply, "coming in with a head of 
upward of forty feet." The arrangements for keeping it clear, under 
all circumstances, are perfect. The entire cost of the mill and ma- 
chinery was $70,000. It now employs thirty hands, of whom one-half 
are females. The consumption of rags is 4,000 Ibs. per day ; and the 
leading production is a quality of book paper, which, in all the essen- 
tials of good paper, firmness of the sheet, purity of the pulp, color, and 
hardness of the sizing, can fairly compete with any of the best papers 
made in this country or in Europe. 

The proprietor of this mill, Mr. E. R. Cope, has long been identified 
with the manufacture of paper in this city; and, situated as his mill is, 
with every facility for obtaining raw materials and coal, both by rail- 
road and canal, with the best of water and very superior machinery, its 
products will take rank among the choicest and most highly appre- 
ciated. 

TO. 
Rogers' Carriage Manufactory. 

With the exception of two or three noted establishments, our atten- 
tion in our tour of observation around the city was invited to none other 
more frequently than to that which forms the caption of this article. 
Even in a brass-founder's shop we were reminded " not to forget the 
superiority of the light carriages constructed in Philadelphia that 
Rogers builds as good vehicles as are built in the world ;" and that he 
deserves special credit, for by the excellence of his manufactures he 
reflects credit upon the city. Attending Herkness' Auction Sale of Car- 
riages, we noticed that whenever a second-hand " Rogers' Wagon" was 
offered, the attention of the bystanders was awakened bidding became 
lively, and the price obtained was evidently satisfactory to the seller. 
We then recollected of having read that a light carriage, constructed 
by Mr. Rogers to order, for a gentleman in Switzerland, was regarded, 
from its extraordinary lightness and strength, as so great a curiosity 



444 



PHILADELPHIA AND ITS iMANUFACTURES. 



that, the owner having left it for a day at a hotel a few miles from 
Zurich, the hostler exhibited it during his absence, at a stipulated charge 
for "a sight," and thus made more money in one day than his wages 
amounted to in six months. All these circumstances combined the com- 
plimentary allusions to his work by competent judges, and similar allu- 
sions to his standing as a gentleman by his fellow-mechanics, excited 
a strong desire to know something of his manufacturing facilities, and 
the following is the report of a gentleman who was specially employed 
to describe them. 




REPORT. 

The entire establishment includes two buildings, a Factory and a 
Repository, and the combination constitutes, probably, the largest one 
of the kind in the country ; having an actual working space of nearly 
40,000 superficial feet. The factory is situated in the northern part of 
the city, at the intersection of three streets, Sixth, Marshall, and 
Master, occupying the entire square ; the lot is 137 feet on Sixth street, 
137 on Marshall, and 172 on Master street. The factory itself is a 
handsome building, of forty feet front, and the full depth of the lot. It 
is four stories high, well lighted, furnished with all conveniences, and 
with the jobbing-shops, silver-plating, and wheel-shops, and lumber 
sheds, forms a hollow square. Within these boundaries every part of 
the business is pursued ; and in the factory nine distinct occupations 



ROGERS' CARRIAGE FACTORY. 445 

necessary to the manufacture of a carriage are carried on. One hun- 
dred and twenty-five men are employed in these departments, includ- 
ing smiths, designers, body-makers, wheelwrights, carvers, painters, 
platers, trimmers, upholsterers, and others of occupations less dis- 
tinctive. These departments we shall examine upon the plan em- 
ployed in the construction of a carriage. 

Entering the front door, we find ourselves in a large and handsome 
room, filled with Barouches, Buggies, Germantown Wagons, and light 
carriages of every description, completed, and ready to be sent to the 
Repository. Interested, at present, more in the method than the result, 
we are shown by the politeness of Mr. Gorgas, the intelligent foreman 
of the establishment, into the Body Department, in which the carriage 
we intend to build is commenced. 

The first step in construction is the execution of a design on paper ; 
and here the idea of a Buggy, or Barouche, is first realized upon a scale 
of three quarters of an inch to the foot. This done, the purchaser is at 
liberty to suggest any alteration in his plan ; and the second step is the 
execution of a geometrical plan of the body upon the black board. The 
third step is cutting the patterns in thin wood. The skeleton in wood 
is now completed, and the shape and proportion are determined. In 
this process not merely mechanical ability of execution, but mathemati- 
cal exactness of design is essential. In this room fifteen men are busily 
employed in wheel work, and making body patterns. "Wood, how- 
ever, is insufficient ; its strength barely supports its own weight, and 
could not possibly support the strain of unequal movement, with the 
burden of a single person. The skeleton must be strengthened ; and 
for this purpose it is removed from the second story to the Smith Shop, 
upon the ground floor. In this department the body is bound, and 
riveted in Iron. This shop is probably one of the finest of the kind in 
the country. All the iron-work of a carriage is executed here ; and the 
bolts, iron axles, locks, hinges, tires, and springs, are made and fastened 
to the wood. Twelve large forges are in constant use, and thirty-five 
men are employed. The springs used are all of one kind, and found 
practically superior to any that are patented. The principle in all 
springs is identical, and the important difference is in the quality of 
manufacture more than the mere form. 

The process ensuring stability being completed, the skeleton is again 
removed to the Body Department, where the paneling follows ; the 
floors are laid ; the sides are built upon the proper curves ; the seats and 
doors are introduced, and the body is ready for the painting room. 

In this room, in the third story, eighteen or twenty coats of paint are 
given to the carriage ; each being dried before the following coat is 

36* 



446 PHILADELPHIA AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 

applied, and the whole surface repeatedly polished with pumice stone, 
These early coats are merely intended as the ground for future color, 
and are technically termed the " priming." White lead and litharge 
are used at first, and succeeded by coats of white lead and yellow 
ochre, upon which the selected colors of green, brown, black, &c., are 
properly applied. 

The body is now removed to the Trimming Room, where considerable 
taste is employed in selecting the material, and adapting the color of 
the trimmings. Fine cloths, silks, carpetings, lace, oilskin, embossed 
leather, hair cushions, &c., are here employed in furnishing the coach. 
The coach now presents a very handsome appearance, but so far, 
instead of carrying others, it has been carried about itself. Leaving it 
upon the trestles, we return to the lower story. 

The carriage manufacture is divided into two branches, those of body 
making and of carriage making ; for though we have used the term 
"carriage" indiscriminately, in technical phraseology it applies only 
to axles and wheels, or the locomotive section of the vehicle. Wheel- 
making is usually a separate business ; but Mr. Rogers prefers that 
all parts of his carriages should be of his own manufacture. Wheels 
are made in large quantities, and a stock is kept on hand. An exact 
proportion exists of the wheels to the body, and the average difference 
of diameter, between the fore and hind wheels, is two inches. In the 
lumber yard is an immense stock of hickory, of which the wheels and 
shafts are made; a material securing unusual lightness and strength. 
Ash is generally used for the body ; oak, poplar, &c., are employed for 
various parts ; and most of this wood is kept on hand two years 
before it is used. 

The " carriage," like the body, passes through several successive 
stages, and after it is completed with axles, perches, shafts, &c., the body 
is hung upon the springs, and the coach is conveyed to the Finishing 
Room. Here it is polished, varnished, enameled, ornamented, finished : 
and only requires a pair of horses, a driver, a young lady, and a plank 
road, to display its comfort, durability, and speed. 

In passing through this establishment, we were pleased with the ar- 
rangement of rooms, the facilities of transferring work from the ground 
floor to the fourth story ; and, most of all, with the systematic manage- 
ment, evident in every department, as well as in the entire establish- 
ment. We saw much beautiful and elaborate work in process of manu- 
facture, chiefly of light carriages ; the building of heavy coaches com- 
mencing in July, for the fall trade. In the body room we saw a mag- 
nificent Brett, intended for St. Louis, in which by the use of curved 
iron work, bracing the wood, the ordinary perch is dispensed with, and 



WILSON, CHILDS & CO.'S WAGON MANUFACTORY. 447 

the body is supported by its own firmness. Twelve shifting top wagona 
for the same city, of polished hickory, are not surpassed in our re- 
membrance for excellence and beauty ; and a Box Buggy for this city, 
ornamented with exquisite paintings, the order having been given to 
disregard expense, will be one of the handsomest light carriages ever 
built in Philadelphia or elsewhere. 

Mr. Rogers is also building several light Buggies to order for gentle- 
men in Austria; and no doubt but many of these will be driven on the 
Prator at Vienna, ere this year closes. 

The Repository, an exterior and interior view of which is given on 
the opposite page, is situated on Chestnut street above Tenth. This edi- 
fice is 46 feet front, and 178 feet deep, and three stories high, and is an 
ornament to the neighborhood. Here carriages of all kinds are kept 
for sale ; and here all ordered work is deposited for delivery, after 
having received a careful test examination at the factory. Some of the 
handsomest carriages ever made in America are exhibited here ; and 
persons more fond of examining beautiful results than inquiring into 
curious and complicated methods, are invited to pay a visit to the 
Repository. 

VIII. 

Remarkable Wagon-making Establishments. 

In order to compensate in part for the compulsory brevity with which 
we were compelled to treat the important manufacture of "Wagons, 
Carts, &c., we insert Mr. Young's description of two of these mammoth 
establishments. 

WILSON, CHILDS A CO.'S WAGON MANUPACTOBY. 

The largest Wagon-making establishment in Philadelphia, and perhaps in the 
country, is that of D. G. WILSON, J. CHILDS A Co., whose office is at the corner of 
St. John and Buttonwood streets. Messrs. Wilson A Childs formed a copartner- 
ship in 1829, and commenced business on the premises now occupied by them, 
which fronts on three streets Third, Buttonwood, and St. John extending 230 
feet on Buttonwood, and 113 on St. John. A four-story brick building, 86 by 45 
feet, has recently been erected on the St. John street front. Their increased busi- 
ness requiring more room, they purchased, in 1850, a manufactory erected by Mr. 
Simons, also the adjoining property comprising in all a square on Second street, 
and Lehigh Avenue ; the whole containing 260,50